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Why is Adam's Apple more prominent in males? Is it due to bigger voice box pushing the cartilage more, or is the cartilage indeed bigger than that in females? I am assuming bigger voice box as males have a "deeper" sound. Is it correct to do so?
Yes, you nailed it!
Adam's apple (aka. laryngeal prominence) exist in both men and women. It is a piece of bony cartilage called thyroid cartilage that wraps around the larynx (aka. voice box).
The Adam's apple is more prominent in males because males have have a bigger larynx (giving males a deeper voice). In males, the prominent Adam's apple typically appears during adolescence, when the larynx increases in size and the voice becomes deeper.
What to know about the Adam's apple
The Adam’s apple is a lump of cartilage that sticks out from the throat. It is more prominent in males, and it serves no specific function. A person can remove or change the size of their Adam’s apple with surgery.
Adam’s apples develop during puberty and are not present in prepubescent children.
They are often more prominent in males, who tend to develop larger larynxes than females. As the larynx grows behind the Adam’s apple, it pushes the lump of cartilage outward.
The size of the Adam’s apple varies. Here, we describe what an Adam’s apple is, why it develops, and options for removal or reduction.
Share on Pinterest The Adam’s apple is cartilage in the throat.
The Adam’s apple, also known as the laryngeal prominence, is made of cartilage. This is a connective tissue present throughout the body.
Cartilage is strong, but softer and more flexible than bone, and it makes up several other areas of the neck.
The Adam’s apple develops during puberty. It grows around the front of the larynx, just above the thyroid. It is usually more prominent in males.
During puberty, the larynx grows and pushes the developing Adam’s apple outward.
The larynx, or voice box, is the area at the front of the neck that contains the vocal cords. These are folds of tissue that vibrate to produce sounds.
Along with other body parts, such as the mouth and nasal passages, the larynx produces the voice. It also protects the airways during swallowing.
The larynx grows extensively during puberty. A larger larynx produces deeper sounds, as there is more room for the vibrations to resonate.
The cartilage around the larynx forms a shield to protect it from injury. The Adam’s apple protrudes as the larynx grows, but it serves no individual function.
Michael Robinson’s tranny conversion into Michelle Obama
Michael Obama is said to have undergone surgery in his late 20s, just before he met Barack Hussein, who knew from the beginning about the real Michelle. Michael was not going to begin that relationship based on a lie, so he told Barack, but he already knew. Their kids are all from Barack’s sperm but they’re surrogates. Michael is “mom” and that’s that.
“When it comes to me, they get really, really ignorant. They believe that just because I have an Adam’s Apple that I’m not a real woman.”
The dead giveaway, when you’re trying to tell someone’s biological gender (that’s called science, by the way), is by taking a look at their laryngeal prominence or “neck triangle.” Commonly known as the Adam’s apple, that’s the protrusion or “lump” formed by a certain angle of thyroid cartilage that surrounds and protects the larynx. For adult males this secondary sexual characteristic is clearly visible and also palpable. This is related to the deepening of the voice, as it becomes accentuated during puberty.
There is cosmetic surgery, called chondrolaryngoplasy, that can be done to reshape the Adam’s apple by reducing some of the thyroid cartilage. But then there’s those big manly shoulders to contend with, when we’re speaking of Michael Obama.
Maybe everyone will think she works out really hard, and so the simplest solution to that cover-up problem is just don’t cover them up, ever. Attention women seeking arms and shoulders like “Michelle” Obama, if you weren’t also born a man, it may be difficult to just work out and develop shoulders like an NFL linebacker.
Reaching the Age of Adolescence (Biology) Class 8 - NCERT Questions
What is the term used for secretions of endocrine glands responsible for changes taking place in the body?
The period of life, when the body undergoes changes, leading to reproductive maturity is called adolescence.
What is menstruation? Explain.
When egg produced by ovary does not get fertilized, it along with the thickened lining of the uterus and blood vessels get out of the body every 28 days as bleeding in woman. This is called menstruation.
List the changes in the body that take place at puberty.
Certain changes take place in the bodies of boys and girls at the age of puberty. These include:
(i) Growth of hair in private body parts.
(ii) Sudden increase in height.
(iii) Growth of moustache and beard in boys.
(iv) Voice of boys get deep and that of girls become shrill.
(v) Development of breasts in girls and hips get heavy.
(vi) Development of sex organs.
Prepare a table having two columns depicting names of endocrine glands and hormones secreted by them.
What are sex hormones? Why are they named so? State their function.
Sex hormones are the hormones secreted by testes (testosterone) and ovaries (estrogen). They are called sex hormones because it distinguish different sex i.e., a boy is distinguished from a girl due to these hormones. Their function is to develop the secondary sexual characters in boys and girls.
Choose the correct option.
(A) Adolescents should be careful about what they eat, because
(i) proper diet develops their brains.
(ii) proper diet is needed for the rapid growth taking place in their body.
(iii) adolescents feel hungry all the time.
(iv) taste buds are well developed in teenagers.
(B) Reproductive age in woman starts when their
(i) menstruation starts.
(ii) breasts start developing.
(iii) body weight increases.
(iv) height increases.
(C) The right meal for adolescents consists of
(i) chips, noodle, coke.
(ii) chapati, dal, vegetables.
(iii) rice, noodles and burger.
(iv) vegetable cutlets, chips and lemon drink.
Write notes on :
(A) Adam’s apple
(B) Secondary sexual characters
(C) Sex determination in the unborn baby.
(A) At puberty, the voice box or the larynx begins to grow. Boys develop larger voice boxes. The growing voice box in boys can be seen as a protruding part of the throat called Adam’s apple.
(B) Secondary sexual characters are the traits that distinguish the two sexes of an individual. In human beings, secondary sexual characters in males include gain in height, a prominent Adam’s apple, deep voice, growth of beard, moustaches and pubic hair, hair on the chest, thighs and armpits.
In females, the secondary sexual characters are seen as height gain, but with shorter stature than boys, less facial hair, growth of pubic hair, hair in armpits, high-pitched voice, and development of breasts. Other features include broadening of pelvis and deposition of fat around hips and smoother skin texture.
(C) The sex of the unborn baby is determined by the sex chromosome of the father. An unfertilized egg always has X chromosome. If a sperm contributes X chromosome then the baby will be a female and if the sperm contributes Y chromosome, the baby will be a male. So it is the father, who is responsible for the sex of the unborn baby.
Word game: Use the clues to work out the words.
3. Protruding voice box in boys
4. Glands without ducts
7. Endocrine gland attached to brain
8. Secretion of endocrine glands
9. Pancreatic hormone
10. Female hormone
1. Male hormone
2. Secretes thyroxine
3. Another term for teenage
5. Hormone reaches here through bloodstream
6. Voice box
7. Term for changes at adolescence
The table below shows the data on likely heights of boys and girls as they grow in age. Draw graphs showing height and age for both boys and girls on the same graph paper. What conclusions can be drawn from these graphs?
At birth, both girls and boys are of the same height. In further years, girls become shorter than the boys. As soon as both girls and boys reach the age of 12 years (puberty age of girls), girls become taller than the boys till the age of 15 years. At 16 years of age, both become of the same height. At the age of 20 years, again girls become shorter than the boys.
Adam's Apple and Voice box - Biology
Today I found out why the Adam’s Apple is called the Adam’s Apple.
The origins of this term go all the way back to the Biblical event where Eve gave Adam a forbidden fruit, which is commonly misrepresented as an apple. The term then basically comes from the legend that when he ate of the “apple”, the piece got stuck in his throat and made a lump.
Now, of course, according to the Bible story, it wasn’t an apple Adam and Eve ate of, it was a fruit from the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil, of which there was apparently only one. Besides the obvious fact that I don’t know anyone who’s felt particularly more knowledgeable in the ways of good and evil when they ate an apple, an apple tree is not self pollinating so you’d need more than one to have it produce more of itself, which pretty firmly kills the whole “apple tree” theory.
To make the origins of the term even more ridiculous, even if it was an apple and it got stuck in his throat, his children wouldn’t somehow miraculously also have apples stuck in their throats. This is about as absurd as the age old “Well if Adam had a rib taken out to make Eve, why aren’t men missing a rib?” Or the equally ludicrous corresponding claim by many that men are somehow missing a rib. Both sides of the argument seem to have suspended all logic while arguing over this triviality. The real irony here is the “rib” translation was actually a mistranslation. For more on that, see the Bonus Factoids.
So this all begs the question, why do most people think the Bible says Adam and Eve ate an apple to get them tossed out of the Garden of Eden? Why not an orange or a peach or why not just call it like it is stated in the Bible story? Well, Aquila Ponticus, who was a second century translator translating the Old Testament from Hebrew to Greek, took the liberty of translating it as an apple tree, even though the original text doesn’t say that. It’s likely that he chose this due to the fact that he was translating it into Greek for Greeks and that in Greek mythology apples were seen as symbols of desire and destruction.
Globus Pharyngeus, A Lump Above (or Below) the Adam's Apple
"Help! I've got a lump in my throat!" is something ENTs (ear nose throat doctors) hear frequently. Known as a globus pharyngeus (literally, lump in the throat) or globus hystericus (when it is precipitated by strong emotion or stress), a painful lump that feels like it could be something between the size of pea to the size of a golf ball. This condition is about the sensationof a lump in the throat, not necessarily a palpable physical lump (although sometimes there is an objectively verifiable lump that causes the pain). The feeling of pressure, pain, and obstruction may occur just above or just below the Adam's apple, which is the forward projection of cartilage that surrounds the thyroid gland. This unpleasant sensation usually just doesn't go away. It's not unusual for a lump in the throat to persists for weeks.
On the other hand, there are certain problems that don't usually occur with lumps in the throat. Usually there is no odynophagia, pain during swallowing, and no dysphagia, inability to swallow. The problem is not likely to be achalasia, or spasms of the esophagus. Nor is there likely to be a problem with laryngopharyngeal reflux, flow of stomach acid up into the throat.
Even though the medical literature still refers to "globus hystericus," the emotional state doesn't have a lot to do with origin of the problem. More often lump in the throat is due to:
- Iron deficiency anemia (which isn't something you should diagnose for yourself, always get iron deficiency confirmed by a blood test).
- Lingual tonsillar hypertrophy, also known as swollen tonsils.
- Hypertensive upper esophageal sphincter, or an esophagus that closes too tight.
- Temporomandibular joint disorder, also known as TMJ, well known for jaw pain and clicking noises.
- Cervical osteophytes, or bone-making cells from the spine of the neck creating a
- Scleroderma of the esophagus, a kind of hardening of the lining of the esophagus that it caused by an autoimmune disease.
- Occasionally the problem follows thyroid disease, and it's not unusual after surgery to remove the thyroid. However, when lump in the throat is a problem before removal of the thyroid gland, the thyroidectomy procedure usually improves it.
Lump in the throat is hardly a rare condition. About half of the general population experiences it at one time or another. It's more common in women than in men, and it's more common in people over the age of 60 than it is in people under the age of 60.
What can be done about lump in the throat?
A remedy that has been around in Traditional Chinese Medicine for nearly 2,000 years is warm apricot juice. Try it. It actually works.
It can also help for the doctor to reduce the dosage of drugs for depression, Parkinson's disease, bipolar disorder, or ADHD. Sometimes these drugs cause the central nervous system (even outside the brain) to retain too much serotonin, norepinephrine, or dopamine, and there can be effects on the mucles in the throat. Usually when this happens, there are also gastrointestinal problems, especially "nervous stomach" and diarrhea.
It can also help to avoid bananas, black walnuts, and tomatoes. These plant foods contain actual serotonin, the same molecule made in the human brain, just made in the fruit of the plant (presumably with the advantage to the plant of making animals happy to spread their seeds).
Just don't expect your doctor to find a physical lump in your throat. Usually lump in the throat is caused by tension on the muscle wall, not something sinister like cancer. However, if you can feel a lump in your throat when you examine it with your fingers, and a friend can, too, see your doctor right away. You may have an entirely different condition that needs urgent treatment.
The region of the throat between the pharynx (tip of the epiglottis) and trachea (cricoid cartilage) which contains the vocal cords and is involved in breathing, swallowing, and speech.
• Superolateral boundary&mdashTip of the epiglottis and aryepiglottic folds.
• Inferior limit&mdashInferior rim of the cricoid cartilage.
• Posterior limit&mdashPosterior mucosa covering cricoid cartilage, arytenoid region, and interarytenoid space.
• Anterior limit&mdashLingual surface of epiglottis, thyrohyoid membrane, anterior commissure, thyroid cartilage, cricothyroid membrane, and anterior arch of the cricoid cartilage.
Supraglottis, glottis, subglottis.
16.3 Breathing Mechanism
Inspiration = inhalation | Expiration = exhalation
1. The diaphragm moves downward and the atmospheric pressure in the alveoli falls, which forces air into the airways
2. External intercostals muscles contract, raising ribs and sternum and enlarges the cavity even more
3. Pleural membranes held tightly together, move with the contractions of muscles
4. Surface tension in the alveoli (caused by water) makes it difficult to inflate them. Surfactant reduces tendency of alveoli to collapse. (Lack or surfactant in preemies can cause respiratory distress)
5. A deeper breath can be achieved through other muscles – pectoralis minor and sternocleidomastoid
6. The first breath of a newborn is the hardest because all of the alveoli are only partially inflated.
*Since our breathing is based on atmospheric pressure (and the difference in the pressure in the lungs), if there is a hole in the pleural cavity, the lung collapses (deflates). This can happen if a person is stabbed or a broken rib pierces the lung.
1. As diaphragm and other muscles relax, elastic recoil from surface tension forces air out
2. If a person needs to exhale more air, internal (expiratory) intercostals muscles contract. Abdominal wall muscles (internal and external obliques, rectus abdominus and transverses abdominus) can help squeeze out more air.
3. These contractions increase the air pressure within the pleural cavity, forcing air out
NON-RESPIRATORY MOVEMENTS - Used to clear air passageways (coughing, sneezing) or express emotion (laughter, crying) – result from reflexes -- A hiccup is a sudden inspiration due to a spasm of the diaphragm, air striking vocal folds makes the sound ---A yawn may be caused by not enough blood becoming oxygenated, a yawn forces a deep breath
RESPIRATORY AIR VOLUMES AND CAPACITIES
Spirometry – measures volumes of air moving in and out of the lungs. 4 distinct respiratory volumes
Respiratory cycle – 1 inspiration + the following expiration
1. Resting Tidal volume – amount of air that enters the lungs during 1 cycle
2. Inspiratory and 3. Expiratory reserve volume – after forced inhalation or exhalation
4. Residual Volume – air remaining in the lungs even after forceful exhalation
*** Combining two or more of the respiratory volumes = respiratory capacities.
Inspiratory Reserve Volume + Expiratory Reserve Volume + Tidal Volume = Vital Capacity (maximum amount of air a person can exhale)
Tidal Volume + Inspiratory Reserve Volume = Inspiratory Capacity (max amount that can be inhaled)
Expiratory Reserve Volume + Residual Volume = Functional Residual Capacity (volume that remains in the lungs, resting)
Vital Capacity + Residual Volume = Total Lung Capacity (varies by sex, age, body size)
Relapsing polychondritis is an uncommon, chronic disorder of the cartilage that is characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammation of the cartilage of various tissues of the body. Tissues containing cartilage that can become inflamed include the ears, nose, joints, spine, and windpipe (trachea). Tissues that have a biochemical makeup similar to that of cartilage such as the eyes, heart, and blood vessels, can also be affected. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) is used as treatment for mild cases of the disease. Steroid-related medications also are usually required.
Your Child's Changing Voice
Yesterday, your son sounded like he's always sounded &mdash like a boy. But today, you heard that first crack in his voice. He's started puberty and several things about him are changing. Along with obvious changes in physical appearance, his voice will start sounding a whole lot different. For a while, he might have difficulty controlling it and he'll make all sorts of odd noises when speaking.
The Changing Larynx
It's the larynx (or voice box) that's causing all that noise. As the body goes through puberty, the larynx grows larger and thicker. It happens in both boys and girls, but the change is more evident in boys. Girls' voices only deepen by a couple of tones and the change is barely noticeable. Boys' voices, however, start to get significantly deeper.
The Science Behind the Squeaking
The larynx, which is located in the throat, plays the major role in creating the sound of the voice. Two muscles, or vocal cords, are stretched across the larynx and they're kind of like rubber bands.
When a person speaks, air rushes from the lungs and makes the vocal cords vibrate, which in turn produces the sound of the voice. The pitch of the sound produced is controlled by how tightly the vocal cord muscles contract as the air from the lungs hits them. If you've ever plucked a small, thin rubber band, you've heard the high-pitched twang it makes when it's stretched. A thicker rubber band makes a deeper, lower-pitched twang. It's the same process with vocal cords.
Before a boy reaches puberty, his larynx is pretty small and his vocal cords are kind of small and thin. That's why his voice is higher than an adult's. But as he goes through puberty, the larynx gets bigger and the vocal cords lengthen and thicken, so his voice gets deeper. Along with the larynx, the vocal cords grow significantly longer and become thicker. In addition, the facial bones begin to grow. Cavities in the sinuses, the nose, and the back of the throat grow bigger, creating more space in the face &mdash which gives the voice more room to resonate.
As a boy's body adjusts to this changing equipment, his voice may "crack" or "break." This process lasts only a few months. Once the larynx is finished growing, your son's voice won't make those unpredictable sounds.
A Normal Stage of Growth
Those croaks and squeaks in a boy's voice are just a part of this normal and natural stage of growth. As a boy gets used to these big changes, his voice can be difficult to handle and it may take a lot of effort to keep it under control. Just as he's getting used to the big changes in his body, he has to adapt to the sound of what he's saying.
As puberty continues, his body adjusts to the new size of the larynx, and the croaks and squeaks begin to taper off. After that, the new, deeper voice becomes much more stable and easier to control.
Along with other obvious changes in the way your son looks, there's a significant change in the throat area. When his larynx grows bigger, it tilts to a different angle inside the neck and part of it sticks out at the front of the throat. This is the "Adam's apple." In girls, the larynx also grows bigger but not as much as a boy's does, which is why girls don't have prominent Adam's apples.
Everyone's timetable is different, so some boys' voices might start to change earlier and some might start a little later. A boy's voice typically begins to change between ages 11 and 14½, usually just after the major growth spurt. Some boys' voices might change gradually, whereas others' might change quickly.
If your son is concerned, stressed, or embarrassed about the sound of his voice, let him know that it's only temporary and that everyone goes through it to some extent. After a few months, he'll likely have a resonant, deep, and full voice just like an adult!