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Why are we using upper teeth and lower lip on labiodental sounds?

Why are we using upper teeth and lower lip on labiodental sounds?


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I came to wonder this when studying language (as well as other same theme question posted just few ago). For example the word "fantastic" we use upper teeth and lower lip to produce F sound, instead of using lower teeth and upper lip, which would work as well with a small practice.


The alternative articulation, called dentolabial, is more difficult to articulate, so it is very rarely used in human language. However, it apparently is common enough in disordered speech to be allocated an ExtIPA diacritic.

The reason labiodentals are easier: Humans normally have a slight overbite.

When the jaw and lips are in a "neutral" position, the lower lip is close to or touching the upper teeth, so with a small vertical movement of the jaw (together with tensing the lip) one can articulate a labiodental. Articulating a dentolabial requires moving the jaw a fair distance forward, to go around the upper teeth before reaching the upper lip. As Ben pointed out in the comments, front-back jaw movement is unusual, a less "common movement in terms of other vocalisations and eating".

Furthermore, since labial articulations are directly visible to observers, learners are especially likely to imitate others' exact articulation. Thus even though labiodentals and dentolabials sound similar, everyone in the population of speakers uses the same articulation (rather than having both articulations in free variation).

Perhaps dentolabials would instead be more common if most people were like this:


Food innovations changed our mouths, which in turn changed our languages

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Something deep in the history of the German language pulled speech sounds toward hisses rather than pops. Words like that and ship end with a small popping sound in English, Dutch, and other Germanic languages—but in German, they end in softer s and f sounds—dass, Schiff. Centuries ago, before German was even German, this change was already underway, an example of one of the many small shifts that ends up separating a language from its close cousins and sending it off as its own distinct tongue.

How does change like this happen? One of the major reasons is speech efficiency. Speakers are constantly walking a tightrope between being understood and making speech as easy as possible—over time, this tension pulls languages in new directions. But if efficiency pushed German speakers in this direction, why not Dutch speakers, too? That is, if two languages share a given feature, why does that feature sometimes change in one language but not the other?

A paper published in Science today lays out an intriguing answer: technology might accidentally trigger a change. Changes like agriculture and food-preparation technology changed the arrangement of our teeth—and in turn, the authors suggest, this made certain speech sounds more likely. It's a daring suggestion, flying in the face of well-established linguistic thought. But the authors draw on multiple strands of evidence to support their proposal, which is part of a growing raft of ideas about how culture and environment could play a role in shaping language.


This is the reason why we can now pronounce 'F' and 'V' sounds

Changes to the human diet prompted by Neolithic advances in agriculture played a role in human jaw evolution that allowed people to pronounce the consonants F and V, researchers say.

Their work -- which combines linguistics, speech science and paleoanthropology and appears in the Thursday edition of the U.S. journal Science -- indicates that language is not merely a random product of history but was also linked to biological changes at the time.

The Neolithic era -- spanning from 6,000 to 2,100 BC -- was when wheat and barley-based farming took root and animals such as goats, sheep and cows, were domesticated.

"Language is not usually studied as a biological phenomenon and it does not normally figure in, say, the curriculum of biology," said Balthasar Bickel, a researcher at the University of Zurich.

"If you think about it, however, this is a bit strange actually, because like the communication system of other animals, language is simply part of our nature," he stressed.

Man, before the Neolithic era, used his teeth quickly to chew the products of his hunting and gathering.

While the upper incisors covered the lower ones in children, wear and tear led to an "edge-to-edge bite" in adults, prehistoric skulls show -- positioning that made it difficult to make certain sounds.

If you pull in your lower jaw until your upper and lower teeth touch each other, and then try to pronounce "f" and "v", it's very difficult.

The sounds are called labiodental consonants, which require the combined action of the lower lip and the upper teeth.

Starting in the Neolithic era, hunter-gatherers learned techniques to process food -- for example, by milling it and cooking it.

"There were chiefly types of gruel or porridge, stews and soups, but also daily products like milk, cheese and yogurt that came about through food processing technologies that led to the softer diets," said Bickel's colleague Steven Moran.

"And an important thing here was the spread of pottery for preserving food, something that became very important with the introduction of agriculture."

Dental wear-and-tear was curtailed thanks to the softer diet, and the upper incisors maintained their adolescent position: over the lower teeth, as in today's humans.

Researchers say they spent five years on the study.

In the final phase, they studied the history of Indo-European languages and concluded that it was "very likely the labiodentals emerged not much before the Bronze Age, in parallel to development of food processing techniques," explained another co-author, Damian Blasi.

The Bronze Age followed the Neolithic.

"Our findings suggest that language is shaped not only by the contingencies of its history, but also by culturally induced changes in human biology," the researchers wrote.

"We can no longer take for granted that the diversity of speech has remained stable since the emergence of Homo sapiens."

Blasi said he hoped the study would spark a "wider discussion" on how some aspects of language and speech "need to be treated as we treat other complex human behaviors lying between biology and culture."


How Diet Changed Language

(Inside Science) -- What you eat may influence what sounds your language regularly uses, a new study finds. In a sense, eating soft foods like fava beans helped humans say words like "fava beans," researchers said.

More than 2,000 different sounds exist across the roughly 7,000 to 8,000 languages that humans speak today, from ubiquitous cardinal vowels such as "a" and "i" to the rare click consonants found in southern Africa. Scientists had long thought this range of sounds was fixed in human biology since at least the emergence of our species about 300,000 years ago.

However, in 1985, linguist Charles Hockett noted that labiodentals -- sounds produced by positioning the lower lip against the upper teeth, including "f" and "v" -- are overwhelmingly absent in languages whose speakers are hunter-gatherers. He suggested tough foods associated with such diets favored bites where teeth met edge on edge, and that people with such teeth would find it difficult to pronounce labiodentals, which are nowadays found in nearly half the world's languages.

As is true for most children today, our ancestors generally grew up with upper teeth jutting over and protruding in front of lower teeth -- overbite and overjet, respectively. Paleoanthropological evidence suggested that in the past, the wear and tear from tough foods could lead overbites and overjets to fade after adolescence, resulting in edge-on-edge bites. However, overbites and overjets now often last long into adulthood because the rise of practices such as cooking and milling led to softer diets.

To explore Hockett's idea further, researchers developed computer models of the human skull, teeth and jaw in overbite, overjet and edge-on-edge bite configurations. They next analyzed the amount of effort these configurations needed to pronounce certain labiodental sounds. They thought Hockett's suggestion "was bizarre, unlikely but ultimately fascinating, so we set out to test whether we could find such a link," said study co-lead author Damian Blasi at the University of Zurich in Switzerland.

The scientists found that overbites and overjets required 29 percent less muscular effort to produce labiodental sounds than edge-on-edge bites. In addition, overbites and overjets made it easier to accidentally mispronounce bilabial sounds such as "m," "w" or "p," which are made by placing the lips together, as labiodental ones.

"This shows how the shift in one cultural behavior, such as how food is produced, can have dramatic and far reaching consequences on our biology and our linguistic behavior," said evolutionary morphologist Noreen von Cramon-Taubadel at the University at Buffalo in New York, who did not take part in this research.

In addition, the researchers discovered hunter-gatherer societies only have about 27 percent the number of labiodentals found in agricultural societies. Moreover, when they focused on the Indo-European language family -- which stretches from Iceland to the eastern Indian state of Assam and has records stretching back more than 2,500 years on how sounds in some of its languages were pronounced -- they found the use of labiodentals increased steadily following the development of agriculture. All in all, they estimated that labiodentals only had a 3 percent chance of existing in the Indo-European proto-language that emerged about 6,000 to 8,000 years ago but are now found in 76 percent of the family's languages.

"It is often assumed that the structure and the processes we see in languages today were the same as 10,000 years ago," Blasi said. "Now we have a very strong case to think that there are some global and very frequent linguistic phenomena that are surprisingly recent in times of human history."

Although the researchers suggest that overbite and overjet make it easier to produce labiodentals, "that doesn’t mean that labiodentals will emerge within all languages," said study co-lead author Steven Moran at the University of Zurich. "It does mean that the probability of producing labiodentals increases slightly over time and that means that some languages are likely to acquire them, but not all languages will."

In the future, "we are interested in applying our novel methods to other speech sounds beyond just labiodentals," Moran said. "Nearly half of all known speech sounds are unique to particular languages."

The scientists detailed their findings in the March 15 issue of the journal Science.


1 Answer 1

Such contrasts are not attested in any known language. In the case of the two kinds of labiodentals, the distinction would be auditorily unlearnable since the acoustic consequences are negligible. However, dental versus interdental non-sibilant fricatives have been observed, but never found to contrast. Ladefoged & Maddieson The sounds of the world's languages mention Spanish vs. Tamil as examples of interdental vs. dental fricatives, and California English vs. UK English as illustrating the same difference.

There will not be a distinction in symbols until the difference is shown to be phonemic in some languages until then, you can use diacritics (and even then, it has to be officially proposed and voted on).


Why are we using upper teeth and lower lip on labiodental sounds? - Biology

What makes one consonant different from another?

Producing a consonant involves making the vocal tract narrower at some location than it usually is. We call this narrowing a constriction. Which consonant you're pronouncing depends on where in the vocal tract the constriction is and how narrow it is. It also depends on a few other things, such as whether the vocal folds are vibrating and whether air is flowing through the nose.

The place of articulation dimension specifies where in the vocal tract the constriction is. The voicing parameter specifies whether the vocal folds are vibrating. The manner of articulation dimesion is essentially everything else: how narrow the constriction is, whether air is flowing through the nose, and whether the tongue is dropped down on one side.

  • Place of articulation = alveolar. (The narrowing of the vocal tract involves the tongue tip and the alveolar ridge.)
  • Manner of articulation = oral stop. (The narrowing is complete -- the tongue is completely blocking off airflow through the mouth. There is also no airflow through the nose.)
  • Voicing = voiced. (The vocal folds are vibrating.)

Voicing

The vocal folds may be held against each other at just the right tension so that the air flowing past them from the lungs will cause them to vibrate against each other. We call this process voicing. Sounds which are made with vocal fold vibration are said to be voiced. Sounds made without vocal fold vibration are said to be voiceless.

There are several pairs of sounds in English which differ only in voicing -- that is, the two sounds have identical places and manners of articulation, but one has vocal fold vibration and the other doesn't. The [&theta] of thigh and the [ð] of thy are one such pair. The others are:

voiceless voiced
[p] [b]
[t] [d]
[k] [ɡ]
[f] [v]
[&theta] [ð]
[s] [z]
[ʃ] [ʒ]
[tʃ] [dʒ]

The other sounds of English do not come in voiced/voiceless pairs. [h] is voicess, and has no voiced counterpart. The other English consonants are all voiced: [ɹ] , [l] , [w] , [j] , [m] , [n] , and [ŋ] . This does not mean that it is physically impossible to say a sound that is exactly like, for example, an [n] except without vocal fold vibration. It is simply that English has chosen not to use such sounds in its set of distinctive sounds. (It is possible even in English for one of these sounds to become voiceless under the influence of its neighbours, but this will never change the meaning of the word.)

Manners of articulation

Stops

  • nasal stops, like [n] , which involve airflow through the nose, and
  • oral stops, like [t] and [d] , which do not.

Fricatives

In the stop [t] , the tongue tip touches the alveolar ridge and cuts off the airflow. In [s] , the tongue tip approaches the alveolar ridge but doesn't quite touch it. There is still enough of an opening for airflow to continue, but the opening is narrow enough that it causes the escaping air to become turbulent (hence the hissing sound of the [s] ). In a fricative consonant, the articulators involved in the constriction approach get close enough to each other to create a turbluent airstream. The fricatives of English are [f] , [v] , [&theta] , [ð] , [s] , [z] , [ʃ] , and [ʒ] .

Approximants

In an approximant, the articulators involved in the constriction are further apart still than they are for a fricative. The articulators are still closer to each other than when the vocal tract is in its neutral position, but they are not even close enough to cause the air passing between them to become turbulent. The approximants of English are [w] , [j] , [ɹ] , and [l] .

Affricates

An affricate is a single sound composed of a stop portion and a fricative portion. In English [tʃ] , the airflow is first interuppted by a stop which is very similar to [t] (though made a bit further back). But instead of finishing the articulation quickly and moving directly into the next sound, the tongue pulls away from the stop slowly, so that there is a period of time immediately after the stop where the constriction is narrow enough to cause a turbulent airstream. In [tʃ] , the period of turbulent airstream following the stop portion is the same as the fricative [ʃ] . English [dʒ] is an affricate like [tʃ] , but voiced.

Laterals

Pay attention to what you are doing with your tongue when you say the first consonant of [lif] leaf . Your tongue tip is touching your alveolar ridge (or perhaps your upper teeth), but this doesn't make [l] a stop. Air is still flowing during an [l] because the side of your tongue has dropped down and left an opening. (Some people drop down the right side of their tongue during an [l] others drop down the left a few drop down both sides.) Sounds which involve airflow around the side of the tongue are called laterals. Sounds which are not lateral are called central.

[l] is the only lateral in English. The other sounds of Englihs, like most of the sounds of the world's languages, are central.

More specifically, [l] is a lateral approximant . The opening left at the side of the tongue is wide enough that the air flowing through does not become turbulent.

Places of articulation

The place of articulation (or POA) of a consonant specifies where in the vocal tract the narrowing occurs. From front to back, the POAs that English uses are:

Bilabial

In a bilabial consonant, the lower and upper lips approach or touch each other. English [p] , [b] , and [m] are bilabial stops.

The diagram to the right shows the state of the vocal tract during a typical [p] or [b] . (An [m] would look the same, but with the velum lowered to let out through the nasal passages.)

The sound [w] involves two constrictions of the vocal tract made simultaneously. One of them is lip rounding, which you can think of as a bilabial approximant.

Labiodental

In a labiodental consonant, the lower lip approaches or touches the upper teeth. English [f] and [v] are bilabial fricatives.

The diagram to the right shows the state of the vocal tract during a typical [f] or [v] .

Dental

  • The tongue tip can approach the back of the upper teeth, but not press against them so hard that the airflow is completely blocked.
  • The blade of the tongue can touch the bottom of the upper teeth, with the tongue tip protruding between the teeth -- still leaving enough space for a turbulent airstream to escape. This kind of [&theta] and [ð] is often called interdental.

Alveolar

In an alveolar consonant, the tongue tip (or less often the tongue blade) approaches or touches the alveolar ridge, the ridge immediately behind the upper teeth. The English stops [t] , [d] , and [n] are formed by completely blocking the airflow at this place of articulation. The fricatives [s] and [z] are also at this place of articulation, as is the lateral approximant [l] .

The diagram to the right shows the state of the vocal tract during plosive [t] or [d] .

Postalveolar

In a postalveolar consonant, the constriction is made immediately behind the alveolar ridge. The constriction can be made with either the tip or the blade of the tongue. The English fricatives [ʃ] and [ʒ] are made at this POA, as are the corresponding affricates [tʃ] and [dʒ] .

The diagram to the right shows the state of the vocal tract during the first half (the stop half) of an affricate [tʃ] or [dʒ] .

Retroflex

In a retroflex consonant, the tongue tip is curled backward in the mouth. English [ɹ] is a retroflex approximant -- the tongue tip is curled up toward the postalveolar region (the area immediately behind the alveolar ridge).

The diagram to the right shows a typical English retroflex [ɹ] .

Both the sounds we've called "postalveolar" and the sounds we've called "retroflex" involve the region behind the alveolar ridge. In fact, at least for English, you can think of retroflexes as being a sub-type of postalveolars, specifically, the type of postalveolars that you make by curling your tongue tip backward.

(In fact, the retroflexes and other postalveolars sound so similar that you can usually use either one in English without any noticeable effect on your accent. A substantial minority North American English speakers don't use a retroflex [ɹ] , but rather a "bunched" R -- sort of like a tongue-blade [ʒ] with an even wider opening. Similarly, a few people use a curled-up tongue tip rather than their tongue blades in making [ʃ] and [ʒ] .)

Palatal

In a palatal consonant, the body of the tongue approaches or touches the hard palate. English [j] is a palatal approximant -- the tongue body approaches the hard palate, but closely enough to create turbulence in the airstream.

Velar

In a velar consonant, the body of the tongue approaches or touches the soft palate, or velum. English [k] , [ɡ] , and [ŋ] are stops made at this POA. The [x] sound made at the end of the German name Bach or the Scottish word loch is the voiceless fricative made at the velar POA.

The diagram to the right shows a typical [k] or [ɡ] -- though where exactly on the velum the tongue body hits will vary a lot depending on the surrounding vowels.

As we have seen, one of the two constrictions that form a [w] is a bilabial approximant. The other is a velar approximant: the tongue body approaches the soft palate, but does not get even as close as it does in an [x] .

Glottal

The glottis is the opening between the vocal folds. In an [h] , this opening is narrow enough to create some turbulence in the airstream flowing past the vocal folds. For this reason, [h] is often classified as a glottal fricative.


How Diet Changed Language

(Inside Science) -- What you eat may influence what sounds your language regularly uses, a new study finds. In a sense, eating soft foods like fava beans helped humans say words like "fava beans," researchers said.

More than 2,000 different sounds exist across the roughly 7,000 to 8,000 languages that humans speak today, from ubiquitous cardinal vowels such as "a" and "i" to the rare click consonants found in southern Africa. Scientists had long thought this range of sounds was fixed in human biology since at least the emergence of our species about 300,000 years ago.

However, in 1985, linguist Charles Hockett noted that labiodentals -- sounds produced by positioning the lower lip against the upper teeth, including "f" and "v" -- are overwhelmingly absent in languages whose speakers are hunter-gatherers. He suggested tough foods associated with such diets favored bites where teeth met edge on edge, and that people with such teeth would find it difficult to pronounce labiodentals, which are nowadays found in nearly half the world's languages.

As is true for most children today, our ancestors generally grew up with upper teeth jutting over and protruding in front of lower teeth -- overbite and overjet, respectively. Paleoanthropological evidence suggested that in the past, the wear and tear from tough foods could lead overbites and overjets to fade after adolescence, resulting in edge-on-edge bites. However, overbites and overjets now often last long into adulthood because the rise of practices such as cooking and milling led to softer diets.

To explore Hockett's idea further, researchers developed computer models of the human skull, teeth and jaw in overbite, overjet and edge-on-edge bite configurations. They next analyzed the amount of effort these configurations needed to pronounce certain labiodental sounds. They thought Hockett's suggestion "was bizarre, unlikely but ultimately fascinating, so we set out to test whether we could find such a link," said study co-lead author Damian Blasi at the University of Zurich in Switzerland.

The scientists found that overbites and overjets required 29 percent less muscular effort to produce labiodental sounds than edge-on-edge bites. In addition, overbites and overjets made it easier to accidentally mispronounce bilabial sounds such as "m," "w" or "p," which are made by placing the lips together, as labiodental ones.

"This shows how the shift in one cultural behavior, such as how food is produced, can have dramatic and far reaching consequences on our biology and our linguistic behavior," said evolutionary morphologist Noreen von Cramon-Taubadel at the University at Buffalo in New York, who did not take part in this research.

In addition, the researchers discovered hunter-gatherer societies only have about 27 percent the number of labiodentals found in agricultural societies. Moreover, when they focused on the Indo-European language family -- which stretches from Iceland to the eastern Indian state of Assam and has records stretching back more than 2,500 years on how sounds in some of its languages were pronounced -- they found the use of labiodentals increased steadily following the development of agriculture. All in all, they estimated that labiodentals only had a 3 percent chance of existing in the Indo-European proto-language that emerged about 6,000 to 8,000 years ago but are now found in 76 percent of the family's languages.

"It is often assumed that the structure and the processes we see in languages today were the same as 10,000 years ago," Blasi said. "Now we have a very strong case to think that there are some global and very frequent linguistic phenomena that are surprisingly recent in times of human history."

Although the researchers suggest that overbite and overjet make it easier to produce labiodentals, "that doesn’t mean that labiodentals will emerge within all languages," said study co-lead author Steven Moran at the University of Zurich. "It does mean that the probability of producing labiodentals increases slightly over time and that means that some languages are likely to acquire them, but not all languages will."

In the future, "we are interested in applying our novel methods to other speech sounds beyond just labiodentals," Moran said. "Nearly half of all known speech sounds are unique to particular languages."

The scientists detailed their findings in the March 15 issue of the journal Science.


Human speech sounds evolved because of our diet, study says

HALLE, GERMANY: TO GO WITH AFP STORY (FILES) File picture taken 28 July 2004 shows a photographer taking pictures of the Neanderthal man ancestor’s reconstruction, displayed in a show of the Prehistoric Museum in Halle, eastern Germany. Germany celebrates 2006 the 150 anniversary of the Neanderthal man’s first discovery by quarry workers in the Neander valley, near Dusseldorf in August 1856. AFP PHOTO DDP/MICHAEL LATZ GERMANY OUT (Photo credit should read SEBASTIAN WILLNOW/AFP/Getty Images)

Although languages around the world vary greatly, some share similar speech sounds. A new study suggests that labiodental sounds like “f” and “v” are included in about half of the world’s languages due to a change in our diet that relies on softer foods.

This contradicts the theory that the range of human sounds has remained unchanged since Homo sapiens emerged 300,000 years ago. The study was inspired by the hypothesis of linguist Charles Hockett, a leading figure in the field to help define linguistics as a science between the 1930s and the 1960s.

In 1985, Hockett proposed that hunter-gatherers would have had a hard time making “f” and “v” sounds because of their edge-to-edge bite, in which the teeth come together at the front of the mouth and meet evenly. Although they were born with an overbite, it evolved to an edge-to-edge bite due to the harder and tougher diet they consumed. So Hockett suggested that those labiodental consonants must have been a recent addition to human speech, appearing in conjunction with access to softer foods as people had the ability to mill grain.

An international group of scientists decided to test this hypothesis but include a broader approach by combining phonetics historical linguistics with biological anthropology. Their study was published in the journal Scienceon Thursday.

“There are dozens of superficial correlations involving language which are spurious, and linguistic behavior, such as pronunciation, doesn’t fossilize,” said Damián Blasi, study author and postdoctoral researcher in the University of Zurich’s Comparative Linguistics Department, in a statement.

The researchers noticed that softer foods allowed modern humans to retain the juvenile overbite that once disappeared in adulthood, putting the upper teeth slightly in front of the lower teeth and allowing for labiodental sounds when the upper teeth touched the lower lip.

You can test this out for yourself by aligning your teeth edge to edge and trying to make an “f” sound, the researchers said. It’s much more difficult.

“In Europe, our data suggests that the use of labiodentals has increased dramatically only in the last couple of millennia, correlated with the rise of food processing technology such as industrial milling,” Steven Moran, study author and researcher in the Comparative Linguistics Department, said in a statement. “The influence of biological conditions on the development of sounds has so far been underestimated.”

The researchers used biomechanical models replicating human speech and determined that labiodentals require about 30% less muscular effort in the overbite model compared with the edge to edge bite. They also found that labiodental sounds occurred accidentally when trying to make other speech sounds in the overbite model.

The study was focused only on labiodental sounds within the well-documented Indo-European language family that stretches from Iceland to the Indian state of Assam. This doesn’t account for the wide range of “a” or “m” sounds, or even the clicking associated with some South African languages.

The researchers were also able to compare this to when food processing spread across the Indo-European area. The spread of pottery for preserving food, especially as agriculture was introduced, is also a key part of the softer foods diet.

And with the increase in diets rich in soft foods, labiodental sounds may spread even further, the researchers said.

“Our results shed light on complex causal links between cultural practices, human biology and language,” Balthasar Bickel, project leader and University of Zurich professor of linguistics, said in a statement. “They also challenge the common assumption that, when it comes to language, the past sounds just like the present.”


Approximant

Approximants are when two articulators come close together but not quite close enough to create air turbulence.

The resulting sound is more like a fast vowel than anything else. For example, the /w/ approximant is like a fast /u/ sound (say /u/ + /aɪ/ really fast and you get the word “why”). Notice how your tongue never actually comes in contact with the top of your mouth.

There are three English approximants:

  • /w/ – “wet” and “howard” – back of tongue raises to velum (but not too close!) and lips are rounded (velar)
  • /j/ – “yes” and “bayou” – tongue raises to hard palate (but not too close!) (palatal)
  • /ɹ/ – “ r ight” and “roar” – tongue raises to hard palate (but not too close) (alveolar/post-alveolar)

A bite of a difference

The authors of the paper set out to test Hockett's theory and did a large scale analysis of the hundreds of languages spoken by present-day hunter-gatherer groups.

They found that "f" and "v" sounds are much less frequent in hunter-gatherer languages compared to agriculturalist languages.

Some hunter-gatherer groups in Greenland, Australia and South Africa don't even have "f" and "v" sounds in their languages, Dediu pointed out. And if they do, they have been acquired them through contacts with Europeans.

"The findings suggest that our biology actually matters for language," he explained.

"We think language is not linked to biology sometimes, but you actually have to consider the speakers of the language and our individual variations because it matters."


Watch the video: Τι είναι και πόσο κοστίζουν τα οδοντικά εμφυτεύματα; Ποια είναι η διαδικασία για την θεραπεία; (October 2022).