9.6: Case Study Bronchitis Conclusion and Chapter Summary - Biology

9.6: Case Study Bronchitis Conclusion and Chapter Summary - Biology

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Case Study Conclusion: Cough That Won't Quit

The little child shown in Figure (PageIndex{1}) seems to be enjoying the air coming out of a humidifier. Inhaling the moist air from a humidifier or steamy shower can feel particularly good if you have a respiratory system infection, such as bronchitis. The moist air helps to loosen and thin mucus in the respiratory system, allowing you to breathe easier.

At the beginning of this chapter, you learned about Sacheen, who developed acute bronchitis after getting a cold. She had a worsening cough, sore throat due to coughing, and chest congestion. She was also coughing up thick mucus.

Acute bronchitis usually occurs after a cold or flu, usually due to the same viruses that cause cold or flu. Because bronchitis is not usually caused by bacteria (although it can be), antibiotics are not an effective treatment in most cases.

Bronchitis affects the bronchial tubes, which, as you have learned, are air passages in the lower respiratory tract. The main bronchi branch off of the trachea and then branch into smaller bronchi and then bronchioles. In bronchitis, the walls of the bronchi become inflamed, which makes them narrower. Also, there is excessive production of mucus in the bronchi, which further narrows the pathway through which can flow. Figure (PageIndex{2}) shows how bronchitis affects the bronchial tubes.

The function of mucus is to trap pathogens and other potentially dangerous particles that enter the respiratory system from the air. However, when too much mucus is produced in response to an infection (as in the case of bronchitis), it can interfere with normal airflow. The body responds by coughing as it tries to rid itself of the pathogen-laden mucus.

The treatment for most cases of bronchitis involves thinning and loosening the mucus so that it can be effectively coughed out of the airways. This can be done by drinking plenty of fluids, using humidifiers or steam, and in some cases, using over-the-counter medications such as expectorants that are found in some cough medicines. This is why Dr. Tsosie recommended some of these treatments to Sacheen and also warned against using cough suppressants. Cough suppressants work on the nervous system to suppress the cough reflex. When a patient has a “productive” cough—i.e. they are coughing up mucus—doctors generally advise them to not take cough suppressants so that they can cough the mucus out of their bodies.

When Dr. Tsosie was examining Sacheen, she used a pulse oximeter to measure the oxygen level in her blood. Why did she do this? As you have learned, the bronchial tubes branch into bronchioles, which ultimately branch into the alveoli of the lungs. The alveoli are where gas exchange occurs between the air and the blood to take in oxygen and remove carbon dioxide and other wastes. By checking Sacheen’s blood oxygen level, Dr. Tsosie was making sure that her clogged airways were not impacting her level of much-needed oxygen.

Sacheen has acute bronchitis, but you may recall that chronic bronchitis was discussed earlier in this chapter as a term that describes the symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is often due to tobacco smoking and causes damage to the walls of the alveoli, whereas acute bronchitis typically occurs after a cold or flu and involves inflammation and mucus build-up in the bronchial tubes. As implied by the difference in their names, chronic bronchitis is an ongoing, long-term condition, while acute bronchitis is likely to resolve relatively quickly with proper rest and treatment.

However, Sacheen smokes cigarettes, so she is more likely to develop chronic respiratory conditions such as COPD. As you have learned, smoking damages the respiratory system as well as many other systems of the body. Smoking increases the risk of respiratory infections, including bronchitis and flu, due to its damaging effects on the respiratory and immune systems. Dr. Tsosie strongly encouraged Sacheen to quit smoking, not only so that her acute bronchitis resolves, but so that she can avoid future infections and other negative health outcomes associated with smoking, including COPD and lung cancer.

As you have learned in this chapter, the respiratory system is critical to carry out the gas exchange necessary for life’s functions and to protect the body from pathogens and other potentially harmful substances in the air. But this ability to interface with the outside air has a cost. The respiratory system is prone to infections, as well as damage and other negative effects from allergens, mold, air pollution, and cigarette smoke. Although exposure to most of these things cannot be avoided, not smoking is an important step you can take to protect this organ system—as well as many other systems of your body.

Chapter Summary

In this chapter, you learned about the respiratory system. Specifically, you learned that:

  • Respiration is the process in which oxygen moves from the outside air into the body and carbon dioxide and other waste gases move from inside the body into the outside air. It involves two subsidiary processes: ventilation and gas exchange.
  • The organs of the respiratory system form a continuous system of passages called the respiratory tract. It has two major divisions: the upper respiratory tract and the lower respiratory tract.
    • The upper respiratory tract includes the nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx. All of these organs are involved in conduction or the movement of air into and out of the body. Incoming air is also cleaned, humidified, and warmed as it passes through the upper respiratory tract. The larynx is also called the voice box because it contains the vocal cords, which are needed to produce vocal sounds.
    • The lower respiratory tract includes the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles, and the lungs. The trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles are involved in conduction. Gas exchange takes place only in the lungs, which are the largest organs of the respiratory tract. Lung tissue consists mainly of tiny air sacs called alveoli, which is where gas exchange takes place between the air in the alveoli and the blood in capillaries surrounding them.
  • The respiratory system protects itself from potentially harmful substances in the air by the mucociliary escalator. This includes mucus-producing cells, which trap particles and pathogens in the incoming air. It also includes tiny hair-like cilia that continually move to sweep the mucus and trapped debris away from the lungs and toward the outside of the body.
  • The level of carbon dioxide in the blood is monitored by cells in the brain. If the level becomes too high, it triggers a faster rate of breathing, which lowers the level to the normal range. The opposite occurs if the level becomes too low. The respiratory system exchanges gases with the outside air, but it needs the cardiovascular system to carry the gases to and from cells throughout the body.
  • Breathing, or ventilation, is the two-step process of drawing air into the lungs (inhaling) and letting the air out of the lungs (exhaling). Inhaling is an active process that results mainly from the contraction of a muscle called the diaphragm. Exhaling is typically a passive process that occurs mainly due to the elasticity of the lungs when the diaphragm relaxes.
    • Breathing is one of the few vital bodily functions that can be controlled consciously as well as unconsciously. Conscious control of breathing is common in many activities, including swimming and singing. However, there are limits on the conscious control of breathing. If you try to hold your breath, for example, you will soon have an irrepressible urge to breathe.
    • Unconscious breathing is controlled by respiratory centers in the medulla and pons of the brainstem. They respond to variations in blood pH by either increasing or decreasing the rate of breathing as needed to return the pH level to the normal range.
    • Nasal breathing is generally considered to be superior to mouth breathing because it does a better job of filtering, warming, and moistening incoming air. It also results in slower emptying of the lungs, which allows more oxygen to be extracted from the air.
  • Gas exchange is the biological process through which gases are transferred across cell membranes to either enter or leave the blood. Gas exchange takes place continuously between the blood and cells throughout the body and also between the blood and the air inside the lungs.
    • Gas exchange in the lungs takes place in alveoli. The pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs, where it travels through pulmonary capillaries, picking up oxygen, and releasing carbon dioxide. The oxygenated blood then leaves the lungs through pulmonary veins.
    • Gas exchange occurs by diffusion across cell membranes. Gas molecules naturally move down a concentration gradient from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. This is a passive process that requires no energy.
    • Gas exchange by diffusion depends on the large surface area provided by the hundreds of millions of alveoli in the lungs. It also depends on a steep concentration gradient for oxygen and carbon dioxide. This gradient is maintained by continuous blood flow and constant breathing.
  • Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways in the lungs, in which the airways periodically become inflamed. This causes swelling and narrowing of the airways, often with excessive mucus production, leading to difficulty breathing and other symptoms. Asthma is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Asthma attacks are triggered by allergens, air pollution, or other factors.
  • Pneumonia is a common inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract in which inflammation affects primarily the alveoli, which become filled with fluid that inhibits gas exchange. Most cases of pneumonia are caused by viral or bacterial infections. Vaccines are available to prevent pneumonia; treatment often includes prescription antibiotics.
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease characterized by chronic poor airflow, which causes shortness of breath and a productive cough. It is caused most often by tobacco smoking, which leads to the breakdown of connective tissues in the lungs. Alveoli are reduced in number and elasticity, making it impossible to fully exhale air from the lungs. There is no cure for COPD, but stopping smoking may reduce the rate at which COPD worsens.
  • Lung cancer is a malignant tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. It results from accumulated DNA damage, most often caused by tobacco smoking. Lung cancer is typically diagnosed late, so most cases cannot be cured. It may be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.
  • Smoking is the single greatest cause of preventable death worldwide. It has adverse effects on just about every body system and organ. Tobacco smoke affects not only smokers but also non-smokers who are exposed to secondhand smoke. The nicotine in tobacco is highly addictive, making it very difficult to quit smoking.
    • The major health risk of smoking is cancer of the lungs. Smoking also increases the risk of many other types of cancer. Tobacco smoke contains dozens of chemicals that are known carcinogens.
    • Smoking is the primary cause of COPD. Chemicals such as carbon monoxide and cyanide in tobacco smoke reduce the elasticity of alveoli so the lungs can no longer fully exhale air.
    • Smoking damages the cardiovascular system and increases the risk of high blood pressure, blood clots, heart attack, and stroke. Smoking also has a negative impact on levels of blood lipids.
    • A wide diversity of additional adverse health effects are attributable to smoking, such as erectile dysfunction, female infertility, and slow wound healing.

Chapter Summary Review

  1. Describe the relationship between the bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, and bronchioles.
  2. What is the uppermost structure in the lower respiratory tract?
    1. Bronchus
    2. Lung
    3. Alveolus
    4. Trachea
  3. Deoxygenated and oxygenated blood both travel to the lungs. Describe what happens to each there.
  4. True or False. There are radioactive isotopes in cigarette smoke.
  5. True or False. The right and left lungs are identical in structure.
  6. Explain the difference between ventilation and gas exchange.
  7. Which way do oxygen and carbon dioxide flow during a gas exchange in the lungs?
    1. Why does this happen?
    2. Which way do oxygen and carbon dioxide flow during the gas exchange between the blood and the body’s cells?
    3. Why does this happen?
  8. Why does the body require oxygen and give off carbon dioxide as a waste product?
  9. True or False. Conduction refers to the movement of gases across cell membranes.
  10. True or False. Gas exchange does not require energy.
  11. What do coughing and sneezing have in common?
  12. What is the name of the escalator that protects the respiratory system?
    1. phlegmociliary
    2. mucociliary
    3. mucoflagellar
    4. surfactociliary
  13. COPD can lead to too much carbon dioxide in the blood. Answer the following questions about this.
    1. Why can COPD cause there to be too much carbon dioxide in the blood?
    2. What does this do to the blood pH?
    3. How does the body respond to this change in blood pH?
  14. From the following list of diseases, choose which one best fits each description. Each disease is used only once. Diseases: asthma, pneumonia, COPD, lung cancer
    1. Alveoli become inflamed and fill with fluid
    2. Can be caused by exposure to inhaled carcinogens
    3. There is a reduction in the number of alveoli
    4. Airways periodically narrow and fill with mucus
  15. True or False. Pneumonia can be caused by fungi.
  16. True or False. The diaphragm contracts during exhalation.
  17. What are three different types of things that can enter the respiratory system and cause illness or injury? Describe the negative health effects of each in your answer.
  18. Where are the respiratory centers of the brain located? What is the main function of the respiratory centers of the brain?
  19. Smoking increases the risk of getting influenza, commonly known as the flu. Explain why this could lead to a greater risk of getting pneumonia.
  20. If people had a gene that caused them to get asthma, could changes to their environment (such as more frequent cleaning) help their asthma? Why or why not?
  21. What does the term bronchodilator refer to?
    1. The largest bronchial tube
    2. An area of the brain that increases breathing rate
    3. A medication that opens constricted airways
    4. A medication that clears the nasal cavity
  22. Explain why nasal breathing generally stops particles from entering the body at an earlier stage than mouth breathing.


|Tues 9/6 |Skim Chapter 1 (1-23) | |Wed 9/7 |Chapter 2 (26-40) | |Thurs 9/8 |Chapter 3 (41-51) | |Fri 9/9 | | |Mon 9/12 |Chapter 4 (52-61) | |Tues 9/13 |Chapter 5 (62-71) | |Wed 9/14 |Chapter 5 (71-84) | |Thurs. 9/15 |Chapter 6 (87-96) | |Fri 9/16 |Chapter 6 (96-105) | |Mon 9/19 | | |Tues 9/20 | | |Wed 9/21 |Review for Test | |Thurs 9/22 |Test chapter 1-6 | |Fri 9/23 |Chapter 7 (108-118) | |Mon 9/26 |Chapter 7 (118-123) | |Tues 9/27 |Chapter 7 (123-132) | |Wed 9/28 |Chapter 7 (132-137) | |Thurs 9/29 | | |Fri 9/30 | | |Mon 10/3 | | |Tues 10/4 |Chapter 8 (138-144) | |Wed 10/5 |Chapter 8 (144-154) | |Thurs 10/6 | | |Fri 10/7 |Review for Test | |Mon 10/10 |Test chapter 7-8 | |Tues 10/11.

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Chapter 3 Summary

By now, you should have a good understanding of the basics of the chemistry of life. Specifically, you have learned:

  • All matter consists of chemical substances. A chemical substance has a definite and consistent composition and may be either an element or a compound .
  • An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into other types of substances.
    • An atom is the smallest particle of an element that still has the properties of that element. Atoms, in turn, are composed of subatomic particles, including negative electrons , positive protons , and neutral neutronsno post. The number of protons in an atom determines the element it represents.
    • Atoms have equal numbers of electrons and protons, so they have no charge. Ions are atoms that have lost or gained electrons, so they have either a positive or negative charge. Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.
    • There are almost 120 known elements. The majority of elements are metals. A smaller number are nonmetals, including carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
    • Biochemical compounds are carbon-based compounds found in living things. They make up cells and other structures of organisms and carry out life processes. Most biochemical compounds are large molecules called polymers that consist of many repeating units of smaller molecules called monomers .
    • There are millions of different biochemical compounds, but all of them fall into four major classes: carbohydrates , lipids , proteins , and nucleic acids .
    • Sugars are short-chain carbohydrates that supply us with energy. Simple sugars, such as glucose, consist of just one monosaccharide. Some sugars, such as sucrose (or table sugar) consist of two monosaccharides and are called disaccharides.
    • Complex carbohydrates, or polysaccharides, consist of hundreds or even thousands of monosaccharides. They include starch, glycogen, cellulose, and chitin.
      • Starch is made by plants to store energy and is readily broken down into its component sugars during digestion.
      • Glycogen is made by animals and fungi to store energy and plays a critical part in the homeostasis of blood glucose levels in humans.
      • Cellulose is the most common biochemical compound in living things. It forms the cell walls of plants and certain algae. Humans cannot digest cellulose, but it makes up most of the crucial dietary fibre in the human diet.
      • Chitin makes up organic structures, such as the cell walls of fungi and the exoskeletons of insects and other arthropods.
      • Lipid molecules consist mainly of repeating units called fatty acids . Fatty acids may be saturated or unsaturated , depending on the proportion of hydrogen atoms they contain. Animals store fat as saturated fatty acids, while plants store fat as unsaturated fatty acids.
      • Types of lipids include triglycerides, phospholipids, and steroids.
        • Triglycerides contain glycerol (an alcohol) in addition to fatty acids. Humans and other animals store fat as triglycerides in fat cells.
        • Phospholipids contain phosphate and glycerol in addition to fatty acids. They are the main component of cell membranes in all living things.
        • Steroids are lipids with a four-ring structure. Some steroids, such as cholesterol, are important components of cell membranes. Many other steroids are hormones.
        • Proteins are made up of small monomer molecules called amino acids .
        • Long chains of amino acids form polypeptides. The sequence of amino acids in polypeptides makes up the primary structure of proteins. Secondary structure refers to configurations such as helices and sheets within polypeptide chains. Tertiary structure is a protein’s overall three-dimensional shape, which controls the molecule’s basic function. A quaternary structure forms if multiple protein molecules join together and function as a complex.
        • The chief characteristic that allows proteins’ diverse functions is their ability to bind specifically and tightly with other molecules.
        • Nucleic acids are built of monomers called nucleotides , which bind together in long chains to form polynucleotides. DNA consists of two polynucleotides, and RNA consists of one polynucleotide.
        • Each nucleotide consists of a sugar molecule, phosphate group, and nitrogen base. Sugars and phosphate groups of adjacent nucleotides bind together to form the “backbone” of the polynucleotide. Bonds between complementary bases hold together the two polynucleotide chains of DNA and cause it to take on its characteristic double helix shape.
        • DNA makes up genes, and the sequence of nitrogen bases in DNA makes up the genetic code for the synthesis of proteins. RNA helps synthesize proteins in cells. The genetic code in DNA is also passed from parents to offspring during reproduction, explaining how inherited characteristics are passed from one generation to the next.

        Now you understand the chemistry of the molecules that make up living things. In the next chapter, you will learn how these molecules make up the basic unit of structure and function in living organisms — cells — and you will be able to understand some of the crucial chemical reactions that occur within cells.

        Chapter 18 Summary

        In this chapter, you learned about the male and female reproductive systems. Specifically, you learned that:

        • The reproductive system is the human organ system responsible for the production and fertilization of gametes and, in females, the carrying of a fetus .
        • Both male and female reproductive systems have organs called gonads ( testes in males, ovaries in females) that produce gametes ( sperm or ova ) and sex hormones (such as testosterone in males and estrogen in females). Sex hormones are endocrine hormones that control prenatal development of sex organs, sexual maturation at puberty , and reproduction after puberty.
        • The reproductive system is the only organ system that is significantly different between males and females. A Y-chromosome gene called SRY is responsible for undifferentiated embryonic tissues developing into a male reproductive system. Without a Y chromosome, the undifferentiated embryonic tissues develop into a female reproductive system.
        • Male and female reproductive systems are different at birth, but immature and nonfunctioning. Maturation of the reproductive system occurs during puberty when hormones from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland stimulate the gonads to produce sex hormones again. The sex hormones, in turn, cause the physical changes experienced during puberty.
        • Male reproductive system organs include the testes, epididymis , penis , vas deferens , prostate gland , and seminal vesicles .
          • The two testes are sperm- and testosterone-producing male gonads. They are contained within the scrotum , a pouch that hangs down behind the penis. The testes are filled with hundreds of tiny, tightly coiled seminiferous tubules, where sperm are produced. The tubules contain sperm in different stages of development, as well as Sertoli cells, which secrete substances needed for sperm production. Between the tubules are Leydig cells , which secrete testosterone.
          • The two epididymides are contained within the scrotum. Each epididymis is a tightly coiled tubule where sperm mature and are stored until they leave the body during an ejaculation .
          • The two vas deferens are long, thin tubes that run from the scrotum up into the pelvic cavity . During ejaculation, each vas deferens carries sperm from one of the epididymides to one of the pair of ejaculatory ducts.
          • The two seminal vesicles are glands within the pelvis that secrete fluid through ducts into the junction of each vas deferens and ejaculatory duct. This alkaline fluid makes up about 70% of semen, the sperm-containing fluid that leaves the penis during ejaculation. Semen contains substances and nutrients that sperm need to survive and “swim” in the female reproductive tract.
          • The prostate gland is located just below the seminal vesicles and surrounds the urethra and its junction with the ejaculatory ducts. The prostate secretes an alkaline fluid that makes up close to 30% of semen. Prostate fluid contains a high concentration of zinc, which sperm need to be healthy and motile.
          • The ejaculatory ducts form where the vas deferens joins with the ducts of the seminal vesicles in the prostate gland. They connect the vas deferens with the urethra. The ejaculatory ducts carry sperm from the vas deferens, and secretions from the seminal vesicles and prostate gland that together form semen.
          • The paired bulbourethral glands are located just below the prostate gland. They secrete a tiny amount of fluid into semen. The secretions help lubricate the urethra and neutralize any acidic urine it may contain.
          • The penis is the external male organ that has the reproductive function of intromission , which is delivering sperm to the female reproductive tract. The penis also serves as the organ that excretes urine. The urethra passes through the penis and carries urine or semen out of the body. Internally, the penis consists largely of columns of spongy tissue that can fill with blood and make the penis stiff and erect. This is necessary for sexual intercourse so intromission can occur.
            • Spermatogenesis occurs in the seminiferous tubules in the testes, and requires high concentrations of testosterone. Sertoli cells in the testes play many roles in spermatogenesis, including concentrating testosterone under the influence of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary gland.
            • Spermatogenesis begins with a diploid stem cell called a spermatogonium , which undergoes mitosis to produce a primary spermatocyte. The primary spermatocyte undergoes meiosis I to produce haploid secondary spermatocytes, and these cells in turn, undergo meiosis II to produce spermatids. After the spermatids grow a tail and undergo other changes, they become sperm.
            • Before sperm are able to “swim,” they must mature in the epididymis. The mature sperm are then stored in the epididymis until ejaculation occurs.
              • ED is a disorder characterized by the regular and repeated inability of a sexually mature male to obtain and maintain an erection. ED is a common disorder that occurs when normal blood flow to the penis is disturbed or there are problems with the nervous control of penile engorgement or arousal.
                  • Possible physiological causes of ED include aging, illness, drug use, tobacco smoking, and obesity, among others. Possible psychological causes of ED include stress, performance anxiety, and mental disorders.
                  • Treatments for ED may include lifestyle changes, such as stopping smoking and adopting a healthier diet and regular exercise. However, the first-line treatment is prescription drugs such as Viagra® or Cialis® that increase blood flow to the penis. Vacuum pumps or penile implants may be used to treat ED if other types of treatment fail.
                      • Prostate cancer may be detected by a physical exam or a high level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the blood, but a biopsy is required for a definitive diagnosis. Prostate cancer is typically diagnosed relatively late in life, and is usually slow growing, so no treatment may be necessary. In younger patients or those with faster-growing tumors, treatment is likely to include surgery to remove the prostate, followed by chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.
                          • Testicular cancer can be diagnosed by a physical exam and diagnostic tests, such as ultrasound or blood tests. Testicular cancer has one of the highest cure rates of all cancers. It is typically treated with surgery to remove the affected testis, and this may be followed by radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy. Normal male reproductive functions are still possible after one testis is removed, if the remaining testis is healthy.
                            • The vagina is an elastic, muscular canal that can accommodate the penis. It is where sperm are usually ejaculated during sexual intercourse. The vagina is also the birth canal, and it channels the flow of menstrual blood from the uterus. A healthy vagina has a balance of symbiotic bacteria and an acidic pH .
                            • The uterus is a muscular organ above the vagina where a fetus develops. Its muscular walls contract to push out the fetus during childbirth. The cervix is the neck of the uterus that extends down into the vagina. It contains a canal connecting the vagina and uterus for sperm or an infant to pass through. The innermost layer of the uterus, the endometrium , thickens each month in preparation for an embryo but is shed in the following menstrual period if fertilization does not occur.
                            • The oviducts extend from the uterus to the ovaries. Waving fimbriae at the ovary ends of the oviducts guide ovulated ova into the tubes where fertilization may occur as the ova travel to the uterus. Cilia and peristalsis help eggs move through the tubes. Tubular fluid helps nourish sperm as they swim up the tubes toward eggs.
                            • The ovaries are gonads that produce eggs and secrete sex hormones including estrogen. Nests of cells called follicles in the ovarian cortex are the functional units of ovaries. Each follicle surrounds an immature ovum. At birth, a baby girl’s ovaries contain at least a million eggs, and they will not produce any more during her lifetime. One egg matures and is typically ovulated each month during a woman’s reproductive years.
                            • The vulva is a general term for external female reproductive organs. The vulva includes the clitoris , two pairs of labia , and openings for the urethra and vagina. Secretions from Bartholin’s glands near the vaginal opening lubricate the vulva.
                            • The breasts are technically not reproductive organs, but their mammary glands produce milk to feed an infant after birth. Milk drains through ducts and sacs and out through the nipple when a baby sucks.
                              • The average duration of pregnancy is 40 weeks (from the first day of the last menstrual period) and is divided into three trimesters of about three months each. Each trimester is associated with certain events and conditions that a pregnant woman may expect, such as morning sickness during the first trimester, feeling fetal movements for the first time during the second trimester, and rapid weight gain in both fetus and mother during the third trimester.
                              • Labour , which is the general term for the birth process, usually begins around the time the amniotic sac breaks and its fluid leaks out. Labour occurs in three stages: dilation of the cervix, birth of the baby, and delivery of the placenta (afterbirth).
                                • The female reproductive period is delineated by menarche , or the first menstrual period, which usually occurs around age 12 or 13 and by menopause , or the cessation of menstrual periods, which typically occurs around age 52. A typical menstrual cycle averages 28 days in length but may vary normally from 21 to 45 days. The average menstrual period is five days long, but may vary normally from two to seven days. These variations in the menstrual cycle may occur both between women and within individual women from month to month.
                                • The events of the menstrual cycle that take place in the ovaries make up the ovarian cycle . It includes the follicular phase , when a follicle and its ovum mature due to rising levels of FSH ovulation, when the ovum is released from the ovary due to a rise in estrogen and a surge in LH and the luteal phase , when the follicle is transformed into a structure called a corpus luteum that secretes progesterone. In a 28-day menstrual cycle, the follicular and luteal phases typically average about two weeks in length, with ovulation generally occurring around day 14 of the cycle.
                                • The events of the menstrual cycle that take place in the uterus make up the uterine cycle . It includes menstruation , which generally occurs on days 1 to 5 of the cycle and involves shedding of endometrial tissue that built up during the preceding cycle the proliferative phase , during which the endometrium builds up again until ovulation occurs and the secretory phase , which follows ovulation and during which the endometrium secretes substances and undergoes other changes that prepare it to receive an embryo .
                                  • Cervical cancer occurs when cells of the cervix grow abnormally and develop the ability to invade nearby tissues, or spread to other parts of the body. Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second-most common type of cancer in females and the fourth-most common cause of cancer death in females. Early on, cervical cancer often has no symptoms later, symptoms such as abnormal vaginal bleeding and pain are likely.
                                      • Most cases of cervical cancer occur because of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) , so the HPV vaccine is expected to greatly reduce the incidence of the disease. Other risk factors include smoking and a weakened immune system. A Pap smear can diagnose cervical cancer at an early stage. Where Pap smears are done routinely, cervical cancer death rates have fallen dramatically. Treatment of cervical cancer generally includes surgery, which may be followed by radiation therapy or chemotherapy.
                                          • Diagnosis of vaginitis may be based on characteristics of the discharge, which can be examined microscopically or cultured. Treatment of vaginitis depends on the cause, and is usually an oral or topical anti-fungal or antibiotic medication.
                                              • Endometriosis is thought to have multiple causes, including genetic mutations. Retrograde menstruation may be the immediate cause of endometrial tissue escaping the uterus and entering the pelvic cavity. Endometriosis is usually treated with surgery to remove the abnormal tissue and medication for pain. If surgery is more conservative than hysterectomy, endometriosis may recur.
                                                • Treatments for infertility depend on the cause. For example, if a medical problem is interfering with sperm production, medication may resolve the underlying problem so sperm production is restored. Blockages in either the male or the female reproductive tract can often be treated surgically. If there are problems with ovulation, hormonal treatments may stimulate ovulation.
                                                • Some cases of infertility are treated with assisted reproductive technology (ART) . This is a collection of medical procedures in which eggs and sperm are taken from the couple and manipulated in a lab to increase the chances of fertilization occurring and an embryo forming. Other approaches for certain causes of infertility include the use of a surrogate mother, gestational carrier, or sperm donation.
                                                  • Barrier methods are devices that block sperm from entering the uterus. They include condoms and diaphragms. Of all birth control methods, only condoms can also prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections.
                                                  • Hormonal methods involve the administration of hormones to prevent ovulation. Hormones can be administered in various ways, such as in an injection, through a skin patch, or, most commonly, in birth control pills. There are two types of birth control pills: those that contain estrogen and progesterone, and those that contain only progesterone. Both types are equally effective, but they have different potential side effects.
                                                  • An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small T-shaped plastic structure containing copper or a hormone that is inserted into the uterus by a physician and left in place for months or even years. It is highly effective even with typical use, but it does have some risks, such as increased menstrual bleeding and, rarely, perforation of the uterus.
                                                  • Behavioural methods involve regulating the timing or method of intercourse to prevent introduction of sperm into the female reproductive tract, either altogether or when an egg may be present. In fertility awareness methods, unprotected intercourse is avoided during the most fertile days of the cycle as estimated by basal body temperature or the characteristics of cervical mucus. In withdrawal, the penis is withdrawn from the vagina before ejaculation occurs. Behavioural methods are the least effective methods of contraception.
                                                  • Sterilization is the most effective contraceptive method, but it requires a surgical procedure and may be irreversible. Male sterility is usually achieved with a vasectomy, in which the vas deferens are clamped or cut to prevent sperm from being ejaculated in semen. Female sterility is usually achieved with a tubal ligation, in which the oviducts are clamped or cut to prevent sperm from reaching and fertilizing eggs.
                                                  • Emergency contraception is any form of contraception that is used after unprotected vaginal intercourse. One method is the “morning after” pill, which is a high-dose birth control pill that can be taken up to five days after unprotected sex. Another method is an IUD, which can be inserted up to five days after unprotected sex.

                                                  In this chapter, you learned how the male and female reproductive systems work together to produce a zygote. In the next chapter, you will learn about how the human organism grows and develops throughout life — from a zygote all the way through old age.

                                                  Chapter 9: Conclusion

                                                  From the case studies of renewable energy initiatives analysed above, from both least developed countries with poor economies and the richest emerging countries, it can be seen that renewable energy can be of great help in: strengthening their economies creating local jobs training workers, contractors, financial institutions and government officials in renewable energy technology economics and skills relieving dependence on imports of expensive, unreliable, highly polluting fuels that often create great risks for human health and safety improving energy security reducing emissions of greenhouse gasses and improving the welfare of women and children now dependent on gathering wood and burning it for heating and cooking at great risk and depriving them of educational opportunities. The case study analyses also demonstrate that initiating renewable energy projects is a very complicated task which if done wrong can: be uneconomic promote unsustainable exploitation of local resources for the prime benefit of project developers cause great environmental damage including increasing greenhouse gas emissions displace food crops pollute air, land and water supplies exploit and displace local labor with unlivable wages, dismal living conditions and risks to their health and safety deprive local citizens of participation in the design and implementation of projects affecting their lives, including the rights to their property enable conflicts between government agencies designated to implement environmental laws and promote corruption that undermines the implementation of environmental laws.

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                                                  Chapter One

                                                  1-1 The “crisis of credibility” largely arose from the number of companies that restated their previously issued financial statements as a result of accounting irregularities and fraud. Especially responsible were the very visible Enron and WorldCom fraud cases. Both companies filed for bankruptcy and constituted the largest companies in American history to do so. The extent of the accounting irregularities and fraud being investigated and disclosed brought into question the effectiveness of financial statement audits. In addition, the criminal conviction of Arthur Andersen, LLP, one of the then Big 5 accounting firms, on charges of destroying documents related to the Enron case brought into question the ethical standards of the profession.

                                                  1-2 Assurance services are professional services that enhance the quality of information, or its context, for decision-making. The two types are: (a) those that increase the reliability of information and (b) those that involve putting information in a form or context that facilitates decision-making.

                                                  1-3 A financial statement audit is, by far, the most common type of attest engagement. The overall assertion, made by management, most frequently is that the financial statements follow generally accepted accounting principles.

                                                  1-4 A large corporation with securities listed on a stock exchange is required by the rules of the stock exchange and by the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission to provide an audit report with the annual financial statements furnished to its stockholders. It also is required to engage the auditors to provide an opinion on its internal control. Apart from legal requirements, however, a large listed corporation recognizes that it must maintain investor confidence in the reliability of its financial statements and internal control over financial reporting if it is to continue to be able to secure capital from the public. The report by a firm of certified public accountants adds credibility to the financial statements prepared by the corporation. When a small family-owned enterprise elects to have an audit, the purpose usually is to use the auditors' report to support an application for a bank loan.

                                                  1-5 A report by an independent public accountant concerning the fairness of a company's financial statements is commonly required in the following situations:

                                                  (1) Application for a bank loan.
                                                  (2) Establishing credit for purchase of merchandise, equipment, or other assets. (3) Reporting operating results, financial position, and cash flows to absentee owners (stockholders or partners). (4) Issuance of securities by a corporation.

                                                  (5) Annual financial statements by a corporation with securities listed on a stock exchange or traded over the counter. (6) Sale of an ongoing business.
                                                  (7) Termination of a partnership.

                                                  1-6 To add credibility to financial statements is to increase the likelihood that they have been prepared following the appropriate criteria, usually generally accepted accounting principles. As such, an increase in credibility results in financial statements that can be believed and relied upon by third parties.

                                                  1-7 Business risk is the risk that the investment will be impaired because a company invested in is unable to meet its financial obligations due to economic conditions or poor management decisions. Information risk is the risk that the information used to assess business risk is not accurate. Auditors can directly reduce information risk, but have only limited effect on business risk.

                                                  1-8 At the beginning of the century, the principal objective of auditing was the prevention and detection of fraud. Audit work centered on the balance sheet, because the income statement was regarded as highly confidential and not for public disclosure. Today, the principal objective of auditing is to form an opinion on the.

                                                  About the Author

                                                  David Roesti, PhD, works at Novartis Pharma AG in Stein, Switzerland, and is responsible for defining the microbial control strategy at the site and is a global subject matter expert in microbiology for the Novartis group. He is also is an elected member of the General Chapters Microbiology Expert Committee of the Unites States Pharmacopoeia 2015� revision cycle.

                                                  Marcel Goverde, PhD, runs MGP Consulting GmbH for consulting, training and project management in GMP-relevant areas with a focus on microbiology, hygiene and deviation management. He is the Swiss expert in the EDQM group for Modern Microbiological Methods since 2003, which was then integrated into Group 1 (Microbiological Methods and Statistical Analysis) in 2015.

                                                  1 Getting Started 1

                                                  1.1 Using Thermodynamics 2

                                                  1.2.3 Selecting the System Boundary 5

                                                  1.3 Describing Systems and Their Behavior 6

                                                  1.3.1 Macroscopic and Microscopic Views of Thermodynamics 6

                                                  1.3.2 Property, State, and Process 7

                                                  1.3.3 Extensive and Intensive Properties 7

                                                  1.4 Measuring Mass, Length, Time, and Force 8

                                                  1.4.2 English Engineering Units 10

                                                  1.6.1 Pressure Measurement 12

                                                  1.7.2 Kelvin and Rankine Temperature Scales 17

                                                  1.7.3 Celsius and Fahrenheit Scales 17

                                                  1.8 Engineering Design and Analysis 19

                                                  1.9 Methodology for Solving Thermodynamics Problems 20

                                                  Chapter Summary and Study Guide 22

                                                  2 Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics 23

                                                  2.1 Reviewing Mechanical Concepts of Energy 24

                                                  2.1.1 Work and Kinetic Energy 24

                                                  2.1.4 Conservation of Energy in Mechanics 27

                                                  2.2 Broadening Our Understanding of Work 27

                                                  2.2.1 Sign Convention and Notation 28

                                                  2.2.3 Modeling Expansion or Compression Work 30

                                                  2.2.4 Expansion or Compression Work in Actual Processes 31

                                                  2.2.5 Expansion or Compression Work in Quasiequilibrium Processes 31

                                                  2.2.6 Further Examples of Work 34

                                                  2.2.7 Further Examples of Work in Quasiequilibrium Processes 35

                                                  2.2.8 Generalized Forces and Displacements 36

                                                  2.3 Broadening Our Understanding of Energy 36

                                                  2.4 Energy Transfer by Heat 37

                                                  2.4.1 Sign Convention, Notation, and Heat Transfer Rate 38

                                                  2.4.2 Heat Transfer Modes 39

                                                  2.5 Energy Accounting: Energy Balance for Closed Systems 41

                                                  2.5.1 Important Aspects of the Energy Balance 43

                                                  2.5.2 Using the Energy Balance: Processes of Closed Systems 44

                                                  2.5.3 Using the Energy Rate Balance: Steady-State Operation 47

                                                  2.5.4 Using the Energy Rate Balance: Transient Operation 49

                                                  2.6 Energy Analysis of Cycles 50

                                                  2.6.1 Cycle Energy Balance 51

                                                  2.6.3 Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles 52

                                                  2.7.2 Storage Technologies 54

                                                  Chapter Summary and Study Guide 55

                                                  3 Evaluating Properties 57

                                                  3.1.1 Phase and Pure Substance 58

                                                  3.2.2 Projections of the p&ndash&upsilon&ndashT Surface 61

                                                  3.3 Studying Phase Change 63

                                                  3.4 Retrieving Thermodynamic Properties 65

                                                  3.5 Evaluating Pressure, Specific Volume, and Temperature 66

                                                  3.5.1 Vapor and Liquid Tables 66

                                                  3.6 Evaluating Specific Internal Energy and Enthalpy 72

                                                  3.6.1 Introducing Enthalpy 72

                                                  3.6.2 Retrieving u and h Data 72

                                                  3.6.3 Reference States and Reference Values 74

                                                  3.7 Evaluating Properties Using Computer Software 74

                                                  3.8 Applying the Energy Balance Using Property Tables and Software 76

                                                  3.8.1 Using Property Tables 77

                                                  3.9 Introducing Specific Heats c&upsilon and cp80

                                                  3.10 Evaluating Properties of Liquids and Solids 82

                                                  3.10.1 Approximations for Liquids Using Saturated Liquid Data 82

                                                  3.10.2 Incompressible Substance Model 83

                                                  3.11 Generalized Compressibility Chart 85

                                                  3.11.1 Universal Gas Constant, R&ndash 85

                                                  3.11.2 Compressibility Factor, Z 85

                                                  3.11.3 Generalized Compressibility Data, Z Chart 86

                                                  3.11.4 Equations of State 89

                                                  3.12 Introducing the Ideal Gas Model 90

                                                  3.12.1 Ideal Gas Equation of State 90

                                                  3.12.3 Microscopic Interpretation 92

                                                  3.13 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of Ideal Gases 92

                                                  3.13.1 &Deltau, &Deltah, c&upsilon , and cpRelations 92

                                                  3.13.2 Using Specific Heat Functions 93

                                                  3.14 Applying the Energy Balance Using Ideal Gas Tables, Constant Specific Heats, and Software 95

                                                  3.14.1 Using Ideal Gas Tables 95

                                                  3.14.2 Using Constant Specific Heats 97

                                                  3.14.3 Using Computer Software 98

                                                  3.15 Polytropic Process Relations 100

                                                  Chapter Summary and Study Guide 102

                                                  4 Control Volume Analysis Using Energy 105

                                                  4.1 Conservation of Mass for a Control Volume 106

                                                  4.1.1 Developing the Mass Rate Balance 106

                                                  4.1.2 Evaluating the Mass Flow Rate 107

                                                  4.2 Forms of the Mass Rate Balance 107

                                                  4.2.1 One-Dimensional Flow Form of the Mass Rate Balance 108

                                                  4.2.2 Steady-State Form of the Mass Rate Balance 109

                                                  4.2.3 Integral Form of the Mass Rate Balance 109

                                                  4.3 Applications of the Mass Rate Balance 109

                                                  4.3.1 Steady-State Application 109

                                                  4.3.2 Time-Dependent (Transient) Application 110

                                                  4.4 Conservation of Energy for a Control Volume 112

                                                  4.4.1 Developing the Energy Rate Balance for a Control Volume 112

                                                  4.4.2 Evaluating Work for a Control Volume 113

                                                  4.4.3 One-Dimensional Flow Form of the Control Volume Energy Rate Balance 114

                                                  4.4.4 Integral Form of the Control Volume Energy Rate Balance 114

                                                  4.5 Analyzing Control Volumes at Steady State 115

                                                  4.5.1 Steady-State Forms of the Mass and Energy Rate Balances 115

                                                  4.5.2 Modeling Considerations for Control Volumes at Steady State 116

                                                  4.6 Nozzles and Diffusers 117

                                                  4.6.1 Nozzle and Diffuser Modeling Considerations 118

                                                  4.6.2 Application to a Steam Nozzle 118

                                                  4.7.1 Steam and Gas Turbine Modeling Considerations 120

                                                  4.7.2 Application to a Steam Turbine 121

                                                  4.8 Compressors and Pumps 122

                                                  4.8.1 Compressor and Pump Modeling Considerations 122

                                                  4.8.2 Applications to an Air Compressor and a Pump System 122

                                                  4.8.3 Pumped-Hydro and Compressed-Air Energy Storage 125

                                                  4.9.1 Heat Exchanger Modeling Considerations 127

                                                  4.9.2 Applications to a Power Plant Condenser and Computer Cooling 128

                                                  4.10 Throttling Devices 130

                                                  4.10.1 Throttling Device Modeling Considerations 130

                                                  4.10.2 Using a Throttling Calorimeter to Determine Quality 131

                                                  4.11 System Integration 132

                                                  4.12 Transient Analysis 135

                                                  4.12.1 The Mass Balance in Transient Analysis 135

                                                  4.12.2 The Energy Balance in Transient Analysis 135

                                                  4.12.3 Transient Analysis Applications 136

                                                  Chapter Summary and Study Guide 142

                                                  5 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 145

                                                  5.1 Introducing the Second Law 146

                                                  5.1.1 Motivating the Second Law 146

                                                  5.1.2 Opportunities for Developing Work 147

                                                  5.1.3 Aspects of the Second Law 148

                                                  5.2 Statements of the Second Law 149

                                                  5.2.1 Clausius Statement of the Second Law 149

                                                  5.2.2 Kelvin&ndashPlanck Statement of the Second Law 149

                                                  5.2.3 Entropy Statement of the Second Law 151

                                                  5.2.4 Second Law Summary 151

                                                  5.3 Irreversible and Reversible Processes 151

                                                  5.3.1 Irreversible Processes 152

                                                  5.3.2 Demonstrating Irreversibility 153

                                                  5.3.3 Reversible Processes 155

                                                  5.3.4 Internally Reversible Processes 156

                                                  5.4 Interpreting the Kelvin&ndashPlanck Statement 157

                                                  5.5 Applying the Second Law to Thermodynamic Cycles 158

                                                  5.6 Second Law Aspects of Power Cycles Interacting with Two Reservoirs 159

                                                  5.6.1 Limit on Thermal Efficiency 159

                                                  5.6.2 Corollaries of the Second Law for Power Cycles 160

                                                  5.7 Second Law Aspects of Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles Interacting with Two Reservoirs 161

                                                  5.7.1 Limits on Coefficients of Performance 161

                                                  5.7.2 Corollaries of the Second Law for Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles 162

                                                  5.8 The Kelvin and International Temperature Scales 163

                                                  5.8.2 The Gas Thermometer 164

                                                  5.8.3 International Temperature Scale 165

                                                  5.9 Maximum Performance Measures for Cycles Operating Between Two Reservoirs 166

                                                  5.9.2 Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles 168

                                                  5.10.1 Carnot Power Cycle 171

                                                  5.10.2 Carnot Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles 172

                                                  5.10.3 Carnot Cycle Summary 173

                                                  5.11 Clausius Inequality 173

                                                  Chapter Summary and Study Guide 175

                                                  6 Using Entropy 177

                                                  6.1 Entropy&ndashA System Property 178

                                                  6.1.1 Defining Entropy Change 178

                                                  6.1.2 Evaluating Entropy 179

                                                  6.1.3 Entropy and Probability 179

                                                  6.2 Retrieving Entropy Data 179

                                                  6.2.4 Computer Retrieval 181

                                                  6.2.5 Using Graphical Entropy Data 181

                                                  6.3 Introducing the T dS Equations 182

                                                  6.4 Entropy Change of an Incompressible Substance 184

                                                  6.5 Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas 184

                                                  6.5.1 Using Ideal Gas Tables 185

                                                  6.5.2 Assuming Constant Specific Heats 186

                                                  6.5.3 Computer Retrieval 187

                                                  6.6 Entropy Change in Internally Reversible Processes of Closed Systems 187

                                                  6.6.1 Area Representation of Heat Transfer 188

                                                  6.6.2 Carnot Cycle Application 188

                                                  6.6.3 Work and Heat Transfer in an Internally Reversible Process of Water 189

                                                  6.7 Entropy Balance for Closed Systems 190

                                                  6.7.1 Interpreting the Closed System Entropy Balance 191

                                                  6.7.2 Evaluating Entropy Production and Transfer 192

                                                  6.7.3 Applications of the Closed System Entropy Balance 192

                                                  6.7.4 Closed System Entropy Rate Balance 195

                                                  6.8 Directionality of Processes 196

                                                  6.8.1 Increase of Entropy Principle 196

                                                  6.8.2 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy 198

                                                  6.9 Entropy Rate Balance for Control Volumes 200

                                                  6.10 Rate Balances for Control Volumes at Steady State 201

                                                  6.10.1 One-Inlet, One-Exit Control Volumes at Steady State 202

                                                  6.10.2 Applications of the Rate Balances to Control Volumes at Steady State 202

                                                  6.11 Isentropic Processes 207

                                                  6.11.1 General Considerations 207

                                                  6.11.2 Using the Ideal Gas Model 208

                                                  6.11.3 Illustrations: Isentropic Processes of Air 210

                                                  6.12 Isentropic Efficiencies of Turbines, Nozzles, Compressors, and Pumps 212

                                                  6.12.1 Isentropic Turbine Efficiency 212

                                                  6.12.2 Isentropic Nozzle Efficiency 215

                                                  6.12.3 Isentropic Compressor and Pump Efficiencies 216

                                                  6.13 Heat Transfer and Work in Internally Reversible, Steady-State Flow Processes 218

                                                  6.13.3 Work in Polytropic Processes 220

                                                  Chapter Summary and Study Guide 222

                                                  7 Exergy Analysis 225

                                                  7.1 Introducing Exergy 226

                                                  7.2 Conceptualizing Exergy 227

                                                  7.2.1 Environment and Dead State 227

                                                  7.3 Exergy of a System 228

                                                  7.4 Closed System Exergy Balance 233

                                                  7.4.1 Introducing the Closed System Exergy Balance 233

                                                  7.4.2 Closed System Exergy Rate Balance 236

                                                  7.4.3 Exergy Destruction and Loss 237

                                                  7.4.4 Exergy Accounting 239

                                                  7.5 Exergy Rate Balance for Control Volumes at Steady State 240

                                                  7.5.1 Comparing Energy and Exergy for Control Volumes at Steady State 242

                                                  7.5.2 Evaluating Exergy Destruction in Control Volumes at Steady State 243

                                                  7.5.3 Exergy Accounting in Control Volumes at Steady State 246

                                                  7.6 Exergetic (Second Law) Efficiency 249

                                                  7.6.1 Matching End Use to Source 249

                                                  7.6.2 Exergetic Efficiencies of Common Components 251

                                                  7.6.3 Using Exergetic Efficiencies 253

                                                  7.7.2 Using Exergy in Design 254

                                                  7.7.3 Exergy Costing of a Cogeneration System 256

                                                  Chapter Summary and Study Guide 260

                                                  8 Vapor Power Systems 261

                                                  8.1 Introducing Vapor Power Plants 266

                                                  8.2.1 Modeling the Rankine Cycle 269

                                                  8.2.2 Ideal Rankine Cycle 271

                                                  8.2.3 Effects of Boiler and Condenser Pressures on the Rankine Cycle 274

                                                  8.2.4 Principal Irreversibilities and Losses 276

                                                  8.3 Improving Performance&mdashSuperheat, Reheat, and Supercritical 279

                                                  8.4 Improving Performance&mdashRegenerative Vapor Power Cycle 284

                                                  8.4.1 Open Feedwater Heaters 284

                                                  8.4.2 Closed Feedwater Heaters 287

                                                  8.4.3 Multiple Feedwater Heaters 289

                                                  8.5 Other Vapor Power Cycle Aspects 292

                                                  8.5.3 Carbon Capture and Storage 295

                                                  8.6 Case Study: Exergy Accounting of a Vapor Power Plant 296

                                                  Chapter Summary and Study Guide 301

                                                  9 Gas Power Systems 303

                                                  9.1 Introducing Engine Terminology 304

                                                  9.2 Air-Standard Otto Cycle 306

                                                  9.3 Air-Standard Diesel Cycle 311

                                                  9.4 Air-Standard Dual Cycle 314

                                                  9.5 Modeling Gas Turbine Power Plants 317

                                                  9.6 Air-Standard Brayton Cycle 318

                                                  9.6.1 Evaluating Principal Work and Heat Transfers 318

                                                  9.6.2 Ideal Air-Standard Brayton Cycle 319

                                                  9.6.3 Considering Gas Turbine Irreversibilities and Losses 324

                                                  9.7 Regenerative Gas Turbines 326

                                                  9.8 Regenerative Gas Turbines with Reheat and Intercooling 329

                                                  9.8.1 Gas Turbines with Reheat 329

                                                  9.8.2 Compression with Intercooling 331

                                                  9.8.3 Reheat and Intercooling 335

                                                  9.8.4 Ericsson and Stirling Cycles 337

                                                  9.9 Gas Turbine&ndashBased Combined Cycles 339

                                                  9.9.1 Combined Gas Turbine&ndashVapor Power Cycle 339

                                                  9.10 Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle Power Plants 344

                                                  9.11 Gas Turbines for Aircraft Propulsion 346

                                                  9.12 Compressible Flow Preliminaries 350

                                                  9.12.1 Momentum Equation for Steady One-Dimensional Flow 350

                                                  9.12.2 Velocity of Sound and Mach Number 351

                                                  9.12.3 Determining Stagnation State Properties 353

                                                  9.13 Analyzing One-Dimensional Steady Flow in Nozzles and Diffusers 353

                                                  9.13.1 Exploring the Effects of Area Change in Subsonic and Supersonic Flows 353

                                                  9.13.2 Effects of Back Pressure on Mass Flow Rate 356

                                                  9.13.3 Flow Across a Normal Shock 358

                                                  9.14 Flow in Nozzles and Diffusers of Ideal Gases with Constant Specific Heats 359

                                                  9.14.1 Isentropic Flow Functions 359

                                                  9.14.2 Normal Shock Functions 362

                                                  Chapter Summary and Study Guide 366

                                                  10 Refrigeration and Heat Pump Systems 369

                                                  10.1 Vapor Refrigeration Systems 370

                                                  10.1.1 Carnot Refrigeration Cycle 370

                                                  10.1.2 Departures from the Carnot Cycle 371

                                                  10.2 Analyzing Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Systems 372

                                                  10.2.1 Evaluating Principal Work and Heat Transfers 372

                                                  10.2.2 Performance of Ideal Vapor-Compression Systems 373

                                                  10.2.3 Performance of Actual Vapor-Compression Systems 375

                                                  10.2.4 The p&ndashh Diagram 378

                                                  10.3 Selecting Refrigerants 379

                                                  10.4 Other Vapor-Compression Applications 382

                                                  10.4.3 Multistage Compression with Intercooling 384

                                                  10.5 Absorption Refrigeration 385

                                                  10.6 Heat Pump Systems 386

                                                  10.6.1 Carnot Heat Pump Cycle 387

                                                  10.6.2 Vapor-Compression Heat Pumps 387

                                                  10.7 Gas Refrigeration Systems 390

                                                  10.7.1 Brayton Refrigeration Cycle 390

                                                  10.7.2 Additional Gas Refrigeration Applications 394

                                                  10.7.3 Automotive Air Conditioning Using Carbon Dioxide 395

                                                  Chapter Summary and Study Guide 396

                                                  11 Thermodynamic Relations 399

                                                  11.1 Using Equations of State 400

                                                  11.1.2 Two-Constant Equations of State 401

                                                  11.1.3 Multiconstant Equations of State 404

                                                  11.2 Important Mathematical Relations 405

                                                  11.3 Developing Property Relations 408

                                                  11.3.1 Principal Exact Differentials 408

                                                  11.3.2 Property Relations from Exact Differentials 409

                                                  11.3.3 Fundamental Thermodynamic Functions 413

                                                  11.4 Evaluating Changes in Entropy, Internal Energy, and Enthalpy 414

                                                  11.4.1 Considering Phase Change 414

                                                  11.4.2 Considering Single-Phase Regions 417

                                                  11.5 Other Thermodynamic Relations 422

                                                  11.5.1 Volume Expansivity, Isothermal and Isentropic Compressibility 422

                                                  11.5.2 Relations Involving Specific Heats 423

                                                  11.5.3 Joule&ndashThomson Coefficient 426

                                                  11.6 Constructing Tables of Thermodynamic Properties 428

                                                  11.6.1 Developing Tables by Integration Using p&ndash&upsilon &ndashT and Specific Heat Data 428

                                                  11.6.2 Developing Tables by Differentiating a Fundamental Thermodynamic Function 430

                                                  11.7 Generalized Charts for Enthalpy and Entropy 432

                                                  11.8 p&ndash&upsilon&ndashT Relations for Gas Mixtures 438

                                                  11.9 Analyzing Multicomponent Systems 442

                                                  11.9.1 Partial Molal Properties 443

                                                  11.9.2 Chemical Potential 445

                                                  11.9.3 Fundamental Thermodynamic Functions for Multicomponent Systems 446

                                                  11.9.6 Chemical Potential for Ideal Solutions 452

                                                  Chapter Summary and Study Guide 453

                                                  12 Ideal Gas Mixture and Psychrometric Applications 457

                                                  12.1 Describing Mixture Composition 458

                                                  12.2 Relating p, V, and T for Ideal Gas Mixtures 461

                                                  12.3 Evaluating U, H, S, and Specific Heats 463

                                                  12.3.1 Evaluating U and H 463

                                                  12.3.2 Evaluating c&upsilon and cp463

                                                  12.3.3 Evaluating S 464

                                                  12.3.4 Working on a Mass Basis 464

                                                  12.4 Analyzing Systems Involving Mixtures 465

                                                  12.4.1 Mixture Processes at Constant Composition 465

                                                  12.4.2 Mixing of Ideal Gases 470

                                                  12.5 Introducing Psychrometric Principles 474

                                                  12.5.2 Humidity Ratio, Relative Humidity, Mixture Enthalpy, and Mixture Entropy 475

                                                  12.5.3 Modeling Moist Air in Equilibrium with Liquid Water 477

                                                  12.5.4 Evaluating the Dew Point Temperature 478

                                                  12.5.5 Evaluating Humidity Ratio Using the Adiabatic-Saturation Temperature 482

                                                  12.6 Psychrometers: Measuring the Wet-Bulb and Dry-Bulb Temperatures 483

                                                  12.7 Psychrometric Charts 484

                                                  12.8 Analyzing Air-Conditioning Processes 486

                                                  12.8.1 Applying Mass and Energy Balances to Air-Conditioning Systems 486

                                                  12.8.2 Conditioning Moist Air at Constant Composition 488

                                                  12.8.3 Dehumidification 490

                                                  12.8.5 Evaporative Cooling 494

                                                  12.8.6 Adiabatic Mixing of Two Moist Air Streams 496

                                                  Chapter Summary and Study Guide 501

                                                  13 Reacting Mixtures and Combustion 503

                                                  13.1 Introducing Combustion 504

                                                  13.1.2 Modeling Combustion Air 505

                                                  13.1.3 Determining Products of Combustion 508

                                                  13.1.4 Energy and Entropy Balances for Reacting Systems 511

                                                  13.2 Conservation of Energy&mdashReacting Systems 511

                                                  13.2.1 Evaluating Enthalpy for Reacting Systems 511

                                                  13.2.2 Energy Balances for Reacting Systems 514

                                                  13.2.3 Enthalpy of Combustion and Heating Values 520

                                                  13.3 Determining the Adiabatic Flame Temperature 523

                                                  13.3.1 Using Table Data 523

                                                  13.3.2 Using Computer Software 523

                                                  13.3.3 Closing Comments 525

                                                  13.4.1 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell 527

                                                  13.4.2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell 529

                                                  13.5 Absolute Entropy and the Third Law of Thermodynamics 530

                                                  13.5.1 Evaluating Entropy for Reacting Systems 530

                                                  13.5.2 Entropy Balances for Reacting Systems 531

                                                  13.5.3 Evaluating Gibbs Function for Reacting Systems 534

                                                  13.6 Conceptualizing Chemical Exergy 536

                                                  13.6.1 Working Equations for Chemical Exergy 538

                                                  13.6.2 Evaluating Chemical Exergy for Several Cases 538

                                                  13.6.3 Closing Comments 540

                                                  13.7 Standard Chemical Exergy 540

                                                  13.7.1 Standard Chemical Exergy of a Hydrocarbon: CaHb 541

                                                  13.7.2 Standard Chemical Exergy of Other Substances 544

                                                  13.8 Applying Total Exergy 545

                                                  13.8.1 Calculating Total Exergy 545

                                                  13.8.2 Calculating Exergetic Efficiencies of Reacting Systems 549

                                                  Chapter Summary and Study Guide 552

                                                  14 Chemical and Phase Equilibrium 555

                                                  14.1 Introducing Equilibrium Criteria 556

                                                  14.1.1 Chemical Potential and Equilibrium 557

                                                  14.1.2 Evaluating Chemical Potentials 559

                                                  14.2 Equation of Reaction Equilibrium 560

                                                  14.2.1 Introductory Case 560

                                                  14.3 Calculating Equilibrium Compositions 562

                                                  14.3.1 Equilibrium Constant for Ideal Gas Mixtures 562

                                                  14.3.2 Illustrations of the Calculation of Equilibrium Compositions for Reacting Ideal Gas Mixtures 565

                                                  2.9 Conclusion

                                                  As the career paths available in big data continue to grow so does the shortage of big data professionals needed to fill those positions. In the previous sections of this chapter the characteristics needed to be successful in the field of big data have been introduced and explained. The characteristics such as communication, knowledge of big data concepts, and agility are equally as important as the technical skill aspects of big data.

                                                  Big data professionals are the bridge between raw data and useable information. They should have the skills to manipulate data on the lowest levels, and they must know how to interpret its trends, patterns, and outliers in many different forms. The languages and methods used to achieve these goals are growing in strength and numbers, a pattern unlikely to change in the near future, especially as more languages and tools enter and gain popularity in the big data fray.

                                                  Regardless of language, method, or specialization, big data scientists face a unique technical challenge: working in a field where their exact role lacks a clear definition. Within an organization, they help to solve problems, but even these problems may be undefined. To further complicate matters, some data scientists work outside any specific organization and its direction, like in academic research. Future chapters will explore concrete applications of big data across multiple disciplines to demonstrate how diversely big data scientists can work.


                                                  Angi Christensen

                                                  Dr. Christensen received her BA in Anthropology at the University of Washington in Seattle, WA (1997), and her MA and PhD in Anthropology at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville, TN (2000 and 2003). Since 2004, she has worked for the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory in Quantico, Virginia. She was board certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology in 2012 and is also an Adjunct Professor in the Forensic Science Program at George Mason University. Angi is a co-author of the award-winning textbook Forensic Anthropology: Current Methods and Practice, as well as a co-founder and Editor of the journal Forensic Anthropology. Her research interests include methods of personal identification, trauma analysis, elemental analysis, and skeletal imaging. She has published articles in Journal of Forensic Sciences, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging, Forensic Science International, Journal of Forensic Identification, Forensic Anthropology, Forensic Science Medicine & Pathology, and Journal of Anatomy.

                                                  Affiliations and Expertise

                                                  Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory in Quantico, Virginia, USA

                                                  Nicholas Passalacqua

                                                  Dr. Passalacqua received his Ph.D. in Anthropology from Michigan State University in 2012 and was certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology in 2016. Dr. Passalacqua is an Assistant Professor and the Forensic Anthropology Program Coordinator at Western Carolina University. Prior to arriving at WCU, he worked as a deploying forensic anthropologist with the Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency – Laboratory in Oahu, Hawaii. Dr. Passalacqua is a co-founder and a current co-editor of the journal Forensic Anthropology. He is also currently a board member of the American Board of Forensic Anthropology, the chair of the Anthropology Consensus Body of the Academy Standards Board, and a member of the Anthropology sub-committee of the Organization of Scientific Area Committees. Dr. Passalacqua co-authored the award-winning textbook: Forensic anthropology: Current methods and practice, as well as the books: Ethics and professionalism in forensic anthropology, and A laboratory manual for forensic anthropology. Dr. Passalacqua also has numerous publications in such journals as: Forensic Anthropology, The American Journal of Physical Anthropology, The International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, and The Journal of Forensic Sciences, as well as chapters in such books as: Skeletal trauma analysis: Case studies in context, The analysis of burned human remains, Age estimation of the human skeleton, and A companion to forensic anthropology.

                                                  Affiliations and Expertise

                                                  Assistant Professor and the Forensic Anthropology Program Coordinator at Western Carolina University, NC, USA

                                                  Eric Bartelink

                                                  Eric J. Bartelink is a Full Professor in the Department of Anthropology and co-Director of the Human Identification Laboratory at California State University, Chico. He received his BS in Anthropology at Central Michigan University (1995), his MA in Anthropology at California State University, Chico (2001), and his PhD in Anthropology at Texas A&M University (2006). He became the 89th Diplomate of the American Board of Forensic Anthropology in 2012. Eric’s interests are in forensic anthropology and bioarchaeology, and he has conducted research focused on skeletal trauma, taphonomy, paleopathology, and stable isotope analysis. He has conducted an extensive research program focused on central California bioarchaeology, and also conducted work in American Samoa. In 2000, he assisted with the excavation of mass graves in Bosnia-Herzegovina through the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, and also assisted in the identification of victims from the World Trade Center 9/11 disaster in 2002 and 2003. He has published articles in Journal of Forensic Sciences, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Journal of Archaeological Science, International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, Archaeometry, and California Archaeology. Eric teaches courses in introductory physical anthropology, human osteology, forensic anthropology, bioarchaeology, forensic science, and statistics. He is Fellow of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, and a member of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Society of American Archaeology, Paleopathology Association, and the Society for California Archaeology. He is a current board member of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences and a member of the Anthropology Sub-Committee of the Organization of Scientific Area Committees.

                                                  Affiliations and Expertise

                                                  Full Professor in the Department of Anthropology and co-Director of the Human Identification Laboratory at California State University, Chico, CA, USA

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