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Help identifying a part of a flower

Help identifying a part of a flower


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I researched about floral diagrams and this is what I found:- This is floral diagram of Theobroma cacao. I managed to identify others but this part near the stamens was not found anywhere. Also the floral diagram includes some circular parts which I have highlighted.

So what exactly are these parts called?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floral_diagram


Four Whorls: The Parts of a Flower and Their Functions

The parts and functions of a flower are much more detailed than they might appear at first glance. If you look at a flower from the top, you will be able to distinguish between four “whorls,” or circular sections that share a common center. The outer whorl is called the calyx, and consists of the sepals. The next whorl is the corolla, and consists of the petals. The two innermost whorls are the stamens and the carpels, and those contain the male and female reproductive parts of the flower respectively.


The growing plant

Once you have a plant with two sets of leaves on the new stem, the plant starts making its own food.

It continues to drink water through its roots, too.

The water also gives the plant vitamins and minerals it gets from the soil.

All of these things help to make the plant grow.

Plants don’t just grow on top of the ground, though.

The root system of a plant grows as the plant grows.

The main root that comes out of the seed is the taproot or main root.

It is connected to the stem of the plant and sends water and nourishment from the soil to the stem of the plant.

The taproot gets lots of help from the lateral roots.

The lateral roots also help to hold the plant in the ground.

The parts of the plant

The stem is the main part of the plant.

It is strong enough to hold the weight of the leaves and flowers and carries the water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves, flowers, and fruits or veggies.

Without a healthy stem, a plant cannot survive.

Buds are the first thing to grow on the stem of a plant. Buds are little bumps on the stem that grow into petioles. The petiole is another name for the:

Leaves appear on the plant soon after the stem comes through the ground.

The leaves are responsible for making food for the whole plant to eat.

The leaves use sunlight, water (from the stem) and carbon dioxide (from the air) to make sugar for the plant to eat.

If the plant is a non-flowering plant, it will continue to grow and make more leaves over time.

If the plant is a flowering plant, the plant will grow and make more leaves, but it will also be working to make flowers.

If the plant is a flowering plant, the flowers on a plant appear after the plant has matured (grown-up). In some plants, the flowers turn into fruits or vegetables.

In other plants, the flowers are ‘just’ flowers.

Every flower sits on the end of a stem. Some flowers (like tulips) have a single stem for a flower to sit on. Other flowers (like marigolds) have several stems each with a flower on the end of it.

When we look at a flower we see the pretty colors and designs of the petals.

But did you know flowers actually have many different parts and that each part has a special job?

The receptacle is the green ‘cup’ the flower sits in.

The receptacle is directly connected to the stem.

The colorful parts of the flower are called petals.

Inside the petals of the flower, you will find all the parts needed for the flower to make seeds so more flowers can grow.


Help identifying a part of a flower - Biology

The lifecycle of angiosperms follows the alternation of generations explained previously. The haploid gametophyte alternates with the diploid sporophyte during the sexual reproduction process of angiosperms. Flowers contain the plant’s reproductive structures.

A typical flower has four main parts—or whorls—known as the calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium (Figure 1). The outermost whorl of the flower has green, leafy structures known as sepals. The sepals, collectively called the calyx, help to protect the unopened bud. The second whorl is comprised of petals—usually, brightly colored—collectively called the corolla. The number of sepals and petals varies depending on whether the plant is a monocot or dicot. In monocots, petals usually number three or multiples of three in dicots, the number of petals is four or five, or multiples of four and five. Together, the calyx and corolla are known as the perianth . The third whorl contains the male reproductive structures and is known as the androecium. The androecium has stamens with anthers that contain the microsporangia. The innermost group of structures in the flower is the gynoecium , or the female reproductive component(s). The carpel is the individual unit of the gynoecium and has a stigma, style, and ovary. A flower may have one or multiple carpels.

Figure 1. The four main parts of the flower are the calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium. The androecium is the sum of all the male reproductive organs, and the gynoecium is the sum of the female reproductive organs. (credit: modification of work by Mariana Ruiz Villareal)

If all four whorls (the calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium) are present, the flower is described as complete. If any of the four parts is missing, the flower is known as incomplete. Flowers that contain both an androecium and a gynoecium are called perfect, androgynous or hermaphrodites. There are two types of incomplete flowers: staminate flowers contain only an androecium, and carpellate flowers have only a gynoecium (Figure 2).

Figure 2. The corn plant has both staminate (male) and carpellate (female) flowers. Staminate flowers, which are clustered in the tassel at the tip of the stem, produce pollen grains. Carpellate flower are clustered in the immature ears. Each strand of silk is a stigma. The corn kernels are seeds that develop on the ear after fertilization. Also shown is the lower stem and root.

Practice Question

If the anther is missing, what type of reproductive structure will the flower be unable to produce?


Tissues in the Leaf

When cells of the same type work together to perform a collective function, the collection of cells is called a tissue. For example, the epidermis is a collection of parenchyma-like cells working together to separate the internal environment of the plant from the exterior. The epidermis also contains specialized cells. Trichomes are outgrowths from the epidermis that look like hairs. These can protect the plant from sun damage by being white and reflective, trap evaporating moisture on the plant&rsquos surface, secrete sticky substances, and be unpleasant for herbivores.

A second type of specialized cell in the epidermis is the guard cell. Guard cells are shaped like parentheses and flank small pores in the epidermis called stomata (sing. stoma). When the plant has adequate water, the guard cells inflate and the stoma is open, allowing water vapor to escape through transpiration. When the plant is low on water, the guard cells collapse, closing the stoma and trapping water inside. However, for the plant to perform photosynthesis, it must have access to carbon dioxide and be able to release oxygen. Both of these gases are exchanged through the stomata.

Figure (PageIndex<5>): Stomata in a stomatal crypt

The image above is from the lower epidermis of a Nerium leaf. These plants live in harsh, dry environments and have many adaptations to prevent water loss. This is a pocket on the lower side of the leaf where stomata are located. You can see three different sets of guard cells, currently closed, appearing slightly darker than the other epidermal cells. Surrounding these stomata and filling the pocket are trichomes.

How does the location of the trichomes relate to prevention of water loss?

View a leaf under the dissecting scope. Can you find trichomes, guard cells, or other specialized epidermal cells?

Peel off the lower epidermis of the leaf, similar to how you removed it from the onion. It may help to break the leaf slowly, hopefully getting a piece of the epidermis that you can peel off. It will look like a transparent layer of skin. Make a wet mount of the epidermis and view it under the compound microscope. Draw what you see below, labeling any specialized epidermal cells.

What cell type (-enchyma) are these cells most similar to?

When multiple tissues work together to perform a collective function, this collection of tissues is called an organ. While we are familiar with the concept of organs in animals, it can sometimes be surprising to consider this aspect of plants.

An example of an organ in a plant is the leaf. A leaf is surrounded by epidermal tissue, protecting the interior environment, and allowing for the exchange of gases with the environment. The xylem tissue, found in the veins of the leaf, provides the water needed for specialized parenchyma, mesophyll cells, to carry out photosynthesis. Phloem tissue runs alongside the xylem tissue, transporting sugars made during photosynthesis to other areas of the plant for either immediate use or storage. Together, these tissues allow the leaf to function as an organ specialized for photosynthesis.

View a prepared slide of a leaf cross section. Draw what you see below. Identify and label as many tissues, cell types, and specialized cells as you can.


Pigment wars

Leveraging powerful genetic editing tools such as CRISPR, Yuan and Blackman’s teams analyzed the red-tongued mutant monkeyflowers and re-engineered them in the lab. They tracked down two genes responsible for the speckled pattern of red spots that monkeyflower tongues typically display in the wild.

For a monkeyflower cell to turn red, it must churn out gobs of a pigment called anthocyanin—a process switched on by a gene that generates an “activator” molecule. These activators prompt the flower to make more activators, spurring pigmentation onward. If this process goes unchecked, the entire tongue of the flower will turn red.

“It basically looks like the plant is sassing you,” Blackman says of the red-tongued mutants.

To keep themselves in check, the activator molecules also trigger the production of a “repressor”—another molecule that can leak into adjacent cells and shut off their activators, preventing coloration. Farther out from the first cell, the repressor becomes less abundant, allowing activators in distant cells to flip the pigmentation switch on again, and new spots of color form on the flower petal.

Driven by battling microscopic molecules, the genetic workings behind monkeyflowers’ spots are a perfect example of the reaction-diffusion model proposed by Alan Turing more than half a century ago.

Just two genes are enough to make this deceptively simple system work, and both are crucial to producing pigmentation patterns. If the activator molecule in Mimulus mutates, it can result in bland, spot-free plants if the repressor molecule mutates, that can yield flowers with an oversaturated red blemish. Either is bad news for the plant, discombobulating the bumblebees that would otherwise land to slurp up the flower’s nectar and pollinate it in the process.

Yuan, Blackman, and Cooley all think reaction-diffusion plays at least a partial role in determining every visual pattern that repeats itself in nature. “If you look at a vine that pops out flowers at intervals, or stripes repeated across the body, those are really good candidates,” Cooley says. With the team’s monkeyflower findings in hand, solving some of these other living equations looks more possible than ever before.


Plants are a common topic in elementary classrooms for good reason – they are an effective, inexpensive way for students to observe living organisms and life cycles firsthand. Primary students often focus on familiar plants, basic plant structures and their functions, and our use of plants as a food source. In the upper-elementary grades, students investigate germination, plant life cycles, and flowering and seed production in more detail. These students are also ready to consider the diversity of plants around the world and the adaptations that allow plants to survive in very different environments.

Whether you’re planting flowers for a Mother’s Day gift or meeting your science curriculum’s standards, plants can help students develop their ability to observe, describe, and classify. A study of plants is also a wonderful opportunity for inquiry-based teaching and learning.

Exploring Plants (Grades K-2)
Students observe plant growth by watching time-lapse videos and by growing their own plants. They identify the conditions needed for seed germination and explore the role of fruit in seed dispersal.

This lesson meets the Life Science and Science in Personal and Social Perspectives Content Standards of the National Science Education Standards.

To integrate literacy into this lesson, try the following:

Draw a Story: Stepping From Pictures to Writing (Grades K-2)
In this activity, students draw a series of pictures that tell a simple, sequential story. They read their story to others, transcribe their oral story into writing, and create an accordion book with drawings on the front side and writing on the back. Students could use this format to demonstrate understanding of plant germination, growth, flowering, and seed production. This lesson meets the following NCTE/IRA Standards: 4, 5, 6, 12.

What Parts Are There to a Plant? (Grades K-2)
In this lesson, students identify and sort plant parts through hands-on activities and group discussions and then work with magnifying lenses and tape measures to document their observations. The lesson uses vegetables, but teachers can customize the activity by using different plants or asking students to bring in plants to use. This lesson meets the Science as Inquiry and Life Science Content Standards of the National Science Education Standards.

To integrate literacy into this lesson, try the following:

Introducing the Venn Diagram in the Kindergarten Classroom (Grades K-2)
This lesson uses hula hoops, real objects, and online interactives to introduce the Venn diagram as students sort, compare and contrast, and organize information. Teachers could use this lesson to introduce Venn diagrams, then create a Venn diagram as a class as students compare roots, stems, and leaves from various plants. This lesson meets the following NCTE/IRA Standards: 3, 5, 7, 8, 11, 12.

Growth, Development, and Reproduction (Grades K-5)
This unit is designed to be used with Fast Plants, a type of plant that has been bred to have a very short life cycle. Fast Plants will produce harvestable seeds approximately 40 days after planting. The unit allows students to investigate germination, growth, pollination, and seed production. This unit meets the Science as Inquiry and Life Science Content Standards of the National Science Education Standards.

To integrate literacy into this lesson, try the following:

How Does My Garden Grow? Writing in Science Field Journals (Grades K-2, modify for 3-5)
Students record observations in a field journal. While this lesson was written around a gardening project, teachers can easily modify the lesson to fit any science investigation. This lesson meets the following NCTE/IRA Standards: 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12.

Supermarket Botany (Grades 2-5)
In this interactive activity, students categorize common foods according to the part of the plant from which they come. Students should have background knowledge of plant structures (roots, stems, seeds, leaves, flowers, and fruit) and their functions. This activity meets the Life Science Content Standard of the National Science Education Standards.

To integrate literacy into this lesson, try the following:

Rooting out Meaning: Morpheme Match-Ups in the Primary Grades (Grades 3-5)
Why not study root words while learning about plant parts? In this lesson, students use morphemes to deconstruct and construct words. Teachers could modify this lesson to include other prefixes, suffixes, and root words. This lesson meets the following NCTE/IRA Standards: 3, 8.

Living Life as a Plant (Grades 3-5)
In this media-rich lesson, students explore how plants are well adapted to their surroundings. This lesson focuses on desert plants, but teachers could extend the lesson by discussing adaptations in other environments (rain forest, tundra). This lesson meets the Life Science and Science in Personal and Social Perspectives Content Standards of the National Science Education Standards.

To integrate literacy into this lesson, try the following:

Teaching Science Through Picture Books: A Rainforest Lesson (Grades 3-5)
A study of the tropical rainforest is introduced through the picture book Welcome to the Green House by Jane Yolen. This science lesson, which incorporates reading, writing, and technology, is a template that can be used with other books by Jane Yolen to teach about the desert, the polar ice cap, and the Everglades. Teachers can modify this lesson to focus on plant adaptations in each environment. This lesson meets the following NCTE/IRA Standards: 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 11, 12.

Plants and Animals, Partners in Pollination (Grades 4-5)
In this three-lesson series, students explore the relationship between flowering plants and pollinating animals. This lesson meets the Life Science Content Standard of the National Science Education Standards.

To integrate literacy into this lesson, try the following:

Comics in the Classroom as an Introduction to Genre Study (Grades 3-5)
In this lesson, students explore a variety of comic strips, discuss components and conventions, and create their own. Teachers could modify this lesson to have students create a comic strip showing the process of pollination and seed formation or the relationship between flowering plants and pollinating animals. This lesson meets the following NCTE/IRA Standards: 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 11, 12.

How Do Seeds Travel? (Grades K-5)
Students observe and test seeds that travel by wind, water, and animals. Though this activity was originally written for students in grades 6-10, elementary teachers can easily modify it for use in their classrooms. This activity meets the Life Science Content Standard of the National Science Education Standards.

To integrate literacy into this lesson, try the following:

Draw a Story: Stepping From Pictures to Writing (Grades K-2)
In this activity, students draw a series of pictures that tell a simple, sequential story. They “read” their story to others, transcribe their oral story into writing, and create an accordion book with drawings on the front side and writing on the back. Students could use this format to demonstrate understanding of seed dispersal. This lesson meets the following NCTE/IRA Standards: 4, 5, 6, 12.

Comics in the Classroom as an Introduction to Genre Study (Grades 3-5)
In this lesson, students explore a variety of comic strips, discuss components and conventions, and create their own. Teachers could modify this lesson to have students create a comic strip showing the process of seed dispersal. This lesson meets the following NCTE/IRA Standards: 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 11, 12.

This article was written by Jessica Fries-Gaither. For more information, see the Contributors page. Email Kimberly Lightle, Principal Investigator, with any questions about the content of this site.

Copyright March 2009 – The Ohio State University. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0733024. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. This work is licensed under an Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons license.


Parsley Family

The main characteristic of plants in the Parsley Family is that they have "compound umbels" with one umbrella-like umbel supporting several smaller umbels. The carrot is a popular example of a plant that belongs to this family.


Plant Development and Evolution

Karina van der Linde , Virginia Walbot , in Current Topics in Developmental Biology , 2019

5 Future directions

As with many problems in plant biology , analysis of anther development and evolution of the regulatory pathways controlling it would benefit greatly from more researchers participating. Classical light microscopy investigations were immensely useful in categorizing species, in identifying exceptions to the general rules, and in analyzing mutants. Today the emphasis has switched from anatomy to uncovering the mechanisms guiding development. For anthers, these mechanisms do not depend on a meristem, making analysis of anthers a “new branch” of plant development, one that challenges us to discover local cell to cell as well as tissue and organ level signaling and response pathways. New technologies such as in vivo sensors for presumptive regulatory molecules (hormones, peptides, ions, nutrients), imaging methods that allow greater precision in cellular analysis, and deployment of new technologies beyond genetics for correcting or perturbing development (cf. van der Linde et al., 2018 ) can usher in a new era in anther biological studies. We anticipate many new discoveries! Comparative analyses between species and between anthers and other terminal organs in the same plant will clarify mechanisms that may be anther-specific (evolutionarily conserved in anthers but absent in other organs) as well as taxon-specific innovations fundamental in organs lacking meristems (utilized repetitively within a species but absent in distant species). As for the anther-specific mechanisms, the MAC1 protein and its homologs in other plants appear to function exclusively in anthers with an anther-specific receptor the general mechanism of peptide ligand and cognate receptor is widely deployed, but an apparently anther-specific module has deep roots within angiosperms. Yet, this conserved module seems to be used at slightly different checkpoints of anther development in different flowering plant species, because there are distinctive knockout phenotypes ( Jia et al., 2008 van der Linde et al., 2018 Wang et al., 2012 Yang et al., 2016 Zhao et al., 2008 ). The same holds true for MSCA1 and its homologs ( Kelliher & Walbot, 2012 Xing & Zachgo, 2008 ), proving the necessity to study anther developmental processes in a variety of flowering plants.

As for taxon-specific mechanisms, deployment of phasiRNAs is rapidly evolving within the grasses in terms of the number of PHAS loci, and based on limited sampling, phasiRNAs are found sporadically in dicots and non-grass monocots. Because the species definition in angiosperms requires that there be unique floral characteristics to qualify as a species, diversification of anther structures and underlying biochemical mechanisms is to be expected. The flowering plants are not only highly successful but also have evolved exceptionally rapidly into hundreds of thousands (perhaps millions) of species. This almost limitless frontier for future research promises not only to enrich our understanding of development and ecological and evolutionary interplay with development but also to provide insights critical to sustaining the world food supply.


Help identifying a part of a flower - Biology

Herbaceous:
Plants with stems that are usually soft and bendable. Herbaceous stems die back to the ground every year.

Woody:
Plants with stems, such as tree trunks, that are hard and do not bend easily. Woody stems usually don't die back to the ground each year.

Photosynthesis:
A process by which a plant produces its food using energy from sunlight, carbon dioxide from the air, and water and nutrients from the soil.

Pollination:
The movement of pollen from one plant to another. Pollination is necessary for seeds to form in flowering plants.

What's the difference between a fruit and a vegetable?
A fruit is what a flower becomes after it is pollinated. The seeds for the plant are inside the fruit.

Vegetables are other plant parts. Carrots are roots. Asparagus stalks are stems. Lettuce is leaves.

Foods we often call vegetables when cooking are really fruits because they contain seeds inside.

What Do Different Plant Parts Do?

P lant parts do different things for the plant.

Roots

Roots act like straws absorbing water and minerals from the soil. Tiny root hairs stick out of the root, helping in the absorption. Roots help to anchor the plant in the soil so it does not fall over. Roots also store extra food for future use.

Stems

Stems do many things. They support the plant. They act like the plant's plumbing system, conducting water and nutrients from the roots and food in the form of glucose from the leaves to other plant parts. Stems can be herbaceous like the bendable stem of a daisy or woody like the trunk of an oak tree.

A celery stalk, the part of celery that we eat, is a special part of the leaf structure called a petiole. A petiole is a small stalk attaching the leaf blade of a plant to the stem. In celery, the petiole serves many of the same functions as a stem. It's easy to see the "pipes" that conduct water and nutrients in a stalk of celery. Here the "pipes" are dyed red so you can easily see them.

Leaves

Most plants' food is made in their leaves. Leaves are designed to capture sunlight which the plant uses to make food through a process called photosynthesis.

Flowers

Flowers are the reproductive part of most plants. Flowers contain pollen and tiny eggs called ovules. After pollination of the flower and fertilization of the ovule, the ovule develops into a fruit.

Fruit

Fruit provides a covering for seeds. Fruit can be fleshy like an apple or hard like a nut.


Watch the video: Eugen Doga - Gramofon. Waltz of Roses (September 2022).


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