Information

Online course on Plant Taxonomy and Physiology


After following a course in Permaculture, I realised that if I want to get serious about it, I need to be able to distinguish plants. So I am looking for an online Video course on Plant Taxonomy and Physiology. My understanding is that it is a fairly standard course in basic Botany degrees, and since there are more and more school that put their material online it is quite possible that one of them might have placed this online too. Any suggestion?


Well, I wasn't able to find an online video course. The closest I came was this site, which links to courses that put their material online. Most of these are compilations of the lecture notes. There's also this page from the University of British Columbia, that has a nice little overview of the field of plant taxonomy.

In my experience, botany and plant identification are subjects where one really needs to learn by doing. You really need to grab a plant and take a close look at it while noting why its in the group that its in. A great way to get started might be to join a local gardening club or native plant society. The people in those groups can provide their tips for ID-ing plants.

One of the primary skills you'll want to learn is identifying what family a plant is in. Plant families have (mostly) consistent characters, and learning how to spot the most common families in your area will be a big help.


I don't know of video course, but here are two book recommendations:

First, Botany in a Day by Elpel is superb in terms of being an approachable, systematic look at plant identification and basic botanical knowledge.

Second, as I mentioned in this answer, the Botany Coloring Book is a great resource for basic self-education on botany / plant anatomy.


Gardening Courses

Demand for Horticulturists in the UK and abroad is on the move. You could be a hands-on gardener, a plant scientist a garden designer, work in the commercial, amenity or environmental sector. Did you know that the Horticulture industry is the largest employer in the UK.

Job opportunities abound not only nationally, but, also internationally embracing the commercial and environmental sectors as well as research and journalism. You can expect salaries within the industry to range from £15,000 all the way up to £99,000 per annum.


Plant taxonomy online course

Taxonomy is the method by which scientists, conservationists, and naturalists classify and organize the vast diversity of living things on this planet in an effort to understand the evolutionary relationships between them. Plants, and indeed all organisms, are classified in a hierarchical system that attempts to illustrate the evolutionary relationships between the various groupings within the hierarchy.

This concept of relatedness forms the backbone of modern classification schemes. Scientists who attempt to classify organisms and place them within an evolutionary framework are called Taxonomists, the most famous of which would be Linnaeus himself. Plant systematics will explore the origin and diversification of land plants while emphasizing flowering plants. You will become familiar with taxonomy (identification, nomenclature, classification emphasizing flowering plants), evolution (speciation, reproductive biology, adaptation, convergence, biogeography), and phylogenetics (phenetics, cladistics, morphology and molecules).

This is really something that EVERYONE who works with plants should study.

It covers things colleagues have complained about being neglected in most horticulture and agriculture courses for decades. These are things that used to be in most certificates, diplomas and degrees but no longer. This is knowledge that could be lost to the industry if younger generations don’t make an effort to learn it.

To the ill informed, it is a low priority for gardeners, environmentalists or farmers to identify obscure parts of a plant or place plants into a high level scientific classification such as a family or class. For anyone who understands these industries well however, it can be critical to have that knowledge. Taxonomy trains people to observe the finer details that separate one plant cultivar from another. It provides a framework that makes the process of identifying plants systemic.

Without this level of taxonomic knowledge though you risk misidentifying plants. That can mean growing a less productive species or even worse – growing a plant with higher levels of toxins and being unaware you are doing so. You will learn the essential plant physiology and taxonomy. This course will give you a sound introduction to plant morphology and anatomy in agriculture, horticulture, environmental or plant science. Base knowledge for careers in teaching, pharmaceuticals or for those seeking a pathway to undergraduate plant specialist courses.


Plant Biology, Taxonomy, and Morphology

This self-paced course teaches you the parts of plants and how they function. You'll review plant development and plant processes like photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration. The information is presented with a specific focus on managing plants in a landscape.

Educational videos, images, short readings, and knowledge check questions teach you about plant taxonomy and morphology so you can accurately identify plants and use scientific plant names, common names, and cultivars. For landscapers, this helps you communicate with vendors and clients. You will also learn about plant defenses and environmental factors that influence plant survival.

There are four sections in this course, and each has a quiz at the end. You will need to achieve a score greater than 80% on each quiz to pass this course and receive a certificate of completion.

This course was supported by the generous contributions of the Pennsylvania Landscape and Nursery Association.


Botany I Plant Physiology And Taxonomy

Are you looking for a career change? or just want to learn a new skill? The Botanical Science Course programs have been developed in response to industry demand and are specifically designed to equip graduates with work-ready skills. Each participant will be trained and assessed in theory and in practical tasks. Real-world exercises are used throughout the program.

Plant taxonomy is the science that finds, identifies, describes, classifies, and names plants. Thus making it one of the main branches of taxonomy (the science that finds, describes, classifies, and names living things).

Plant taxonomy is closely allied to plant systematics, and there is no sharp boundary between the two. In practice, "Plant systematics" involves relationships between plants and their evolution, especially at the higher levels, whereas "plant taxonomy" deals with the actual handling of plant specimens. The precise relationship between taxonomy and systematics, however, has changed along with the goals and methods employed.

Plant taxonomy is well known for being turbulent, and traditionally not having any close agreement on circumscription and placement of taxa. See the list of systems of plant taxonomy.

Identification, classification and description

Three goals of plant taxonomy are the identification, classification and description of plants. The distinction between these three goals is important and often overlooked.

Plant identification is the determination of the identity of an unknown plant by comparison with previously collected specimens or with the aid of books or identification manuals. The process of identification connects the specimen with a published name. Once a plant specimen has been identified, its name and properties are known.

If you are an Irish citizen you may be eligible to receive financial support, meaning you can defer payment of your course fees. Additionally, if you are a resident of Ireland, you may also be eligible to receive a student grant under the Student Grant Scheme

We live in a society where the pressures of daily living are high with financial expenses, personal and work commitments, and mortgage and rental obligations. Then there are the unexpected life challenges that also get thrown our way. With this in mind the thought of taking on study can be daunting for most people. Here at Learning Cloud we understand that life doesn’t run in a straight line it has many ups and downs.

As an enrolled student at Learning Cloud, you are entitled to access a variety of non-academic support services from the Student Services Unit. These supports are designed to walk beside you throughout your studies they will assist you in life’s ups and downs to provide you the best opportunity to successfully complete your chosen course.

STUDENT SERVICES PROGRAMS INCLUDE:

  • Careers Counselling Service
  • General Counselling Service
  • Disability Liaison Service
  • Retention & Engagement Service
  • Student Activities
  • Accommodation
  • E Counselling
  • Your-Tutor
  • Parent support
  • Reasonable Adjustment Plan (RAP)

Call our student support today on 0419803370 or Email Faculty

Want more information about financial and student support? Fill out the enquiry form to the right and a study consultant will contact you with the details you need.

How will this course advance my career?

Learning Cloud programs have been developed in response to industry demand and are specifically designed to equip graduates with work-ready skills. Each participant will be trained and assessed in theory and in practical tasks and Real-world exercises are used throughout the program.

Studies prove, time and again, that college-educated workers earn more than those with only a high school qualification. College graduates often enjoy additional benefits, including greater job opportunities and promotions. Though the proof for greater earning potential exists, some might wonder whether the cost of the education warrants the overall expense in the long run.


Botany I Plant Physiology And Taxonomy

Are you looking for a career change? or just want to learn a new skill? The Botanical Science Course programs have been developed in response to industry demand and are specifically designed to equip graduates with work-ready skills. Each participant will be trained and assessed in theory and in practical tasks. Real-world exercises are used throughout the program.

Plant taxonomy is the science that finds, identifies, describes, classifies, and names plants. Thus making it one of the main branches of taxonomy (the science that finds, describes, classifies, and names living things).

Plant taxonomy is closely allied to plant systematics, and there is no sharp boundary between the two. In practice, "Plant systematics" involves relationships between plants and their evolution, especially at the higher levels, whereas "plant taxonomy" deals with the actual handling of plant specimens. The precise relationship between taxonomy and systematics, however, has changed along with the goals and methods employed.

Plant taxonomy is well known for being turbulent, and traditionally not having any close agreement on circumscription and placement of taxa. See the list of systems of plant taxonomy.

Identification, classification and description

Three goals of plant taxonomy are the identification, classification and description of plants. The distinction between these three goals is important and often overlooked.

Plant identification is the determination of the identity of an unknown plant by comparison with previously collected specimens or with the aid of books or identification manuals. The process of identification connects the specimen with a published name. Once a plant specimen has been identified, its name and properties are known.

We live in a society where the pressures of daily living are high with financial expenses, personal and work commitments, and mortgage and rental obligations. Then there are the unexpected life challenges that also get thrown our way. With this in mind the thought of taking on study can be daunting for most people. Here at Learning Cloud we understand that life doesn’t run in a straight line it has many ups and downs.

As an enrolled student at Learning Cloud, you are entitled to access a variety of non-academic support services from the Student Services Unit. These supports are designed to walk beside you throughout your studies they will assist you in life’s ups and downs to provide you the best opportunity to successfully complete your chosen course.

STUDENT SERVICES PROGRAMS INCLUDE:

  • Careers Counselling Service
  • General Counselling Service
  • Disability Liaison Service
  • Retention & Engagement Service
  • Student Activities
  • Accommodation
  • E Counselling
  • Your-Tutor
  • Parent support
  • Reasonable Adjustment Plan (RAP)

Call our student support today on 0800 000 361 or Email Faculty

Want more information about financial and student support? Fill out the enquiry form to the right and a study consultant will contact you with the details you need.

How will this course advance my career?

Learning Cloud programs have been developed in response to industry demand and are specifically designed to equip graduates with work-ready skills. Each participant will be trained and assessed in theory and in practical tasks and Real-world exercises are used throughout the program.

Studies prove, time and again, that college-educated workers earn more than those with only a high school qualification. College graduates often enjoy additional benefits, including greater job opportunities and promotions. Though the proof for greater earning potential exists, some might wonder whether the cost of the education warrants the overall expense in the long run.


Biology (BIOL)

Integrated lecture and laboratory focusing on the overriding principles of Biology. Designed to convey biological reasoning to non-science majors. May not count as prerequisite for advanced courses in BIOL. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer)

BIOL�L. Principles of Biology Laboratory (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 1014 Lab). 1 Hour.

Experimental and observational techniques used in biology with emphasis on the acquisition and interpretation of results that illustrate major biological principles. Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer)

BIOL�M. Honors Principles of Biology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

This course is designed for the well prepared student in the Honors program. It focuses on teaching students experimental and observational techniques used in the science of biology. It emphasizes the acquisition and interpretation of results that illustrate the major principles of biology. Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�L.

BIOL�. Principles of Biology (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 1014 Lecture). 3 Hours.

Principles that unify biology with emphasis on scientific study that demonstrates how all organisms are the product of evolution and are parts of interacting systems from the molecular to the ecosystem level. Corequisite: BIOL�L. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer)

BIOL�H. Honors Principles of Biology. 3 Hours.

This course is designed for the well prepared student in Honors program. It focuses on the principles that unify the science of biology. Students will be exposed to how scientific principles have been used to demonstrate that all organisms are the products of evolution and are parts of interacting systems from the molecular to the ecosystem level. Corequisite: BIOL�M or BIOL�L. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�.

BIOL�. Biology for Majors (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 1014 Lecture). 4 Hours.

Integrated lecture and laboratory course designed to prepare Biology Majors to enter the rest of the Biology Core of Cell Biology, General Genetics, Evolutionary Biology, and General Ecology. Pre- or Corequisite: CHEM� or CHEM�. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)

BIOL�H. Honors Biology for Majors. 4 Hours.

Integrated lecture and laboratory course designed to prepare Biology Majors to enter the rest of the Biology Core of Cell Biology, General Genetics, Evolutionary Biology, and General Ecology. Pre or Corequisite: CHEM� or CHEM�. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�.

BIOL�L. Principles of Zoology Laboratory (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 1054 Lab). 1 Hour.

Laboratory exercises illustrating animal structure, physiology, genetics, and ecology. Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall and Summer)

BIOL�. Principles of Zoology (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 1054 Lecture). 3 Hours.

Introduction to zoological principles relating to cells, organ systems, development, genetics, ecology, and animal phyla. Corequisite: BIOL�L. Prerequisite: BIOL� or BIOL� and BIOL�L. (Typically offered: Fall and Summer)

BIOL�L. Plant Biology Laboratory (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 1034 Lab). 1 Hour.

Plant biology lab. Pre- or Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring and Summer)

BIOL�. Plant Biology (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 1034 Lecture). 3 Hours.

Consideration of basic flowering plant structure, growth, development, physiology, genetics, ecology, and a brief survey of other plant groups. Lecture 3 hours per week. BIOL�L is recommended as a corequisite and both are required for partial fulfillment of the Fulbright College natural sciences requirement. Prerequisite: BIOL� or BIOL� and BIOL�L. (Typically offered: Spring and Summer)

BIOL�. Biology Bridges. 3 Hours.

Prepares students for advanced biology courses including genetics, cell biology, ecology, and evolutionary biology, among others. Synthesizes sub-disciplines within biology using the underlying concepts of evolutionary theory found in scientific literature. Prerequisite: BIOL� or BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�L. General Microbiology Laboratory (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 2004 Lab). 1 Hour.

Techniques for handling microorganisms. Does not count toward BS in Biology. Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer)

BIOL�M. Honors General Microbiology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Techniques for handling microorganisms. Does not count towards BS in Biology. Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�L.

BIOL�. General Microbiology (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 2004 Lecture). 3 Hours.

Basic concepts of microbiology including diversity, genetics, metabolism, growth, control of growth, pathogenesis, and immunology. Does not count towards BS in Biology. Corequisite: BIOL�L. Prerequisite: (BIOL� and BIOL�L) or BIOL�)) and (CHEM� and CHEM�L or CHEM� or CHEM� and CHEM�L or CHEM� and CHEM�L). (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer)

BIOL�L. Human Physiology Laboratory (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 2414 Lab). 1 Hour.

Exercises include experiments on osmosis, reflexes, senses, muscle, cardiovascular system, ventilation, metabolism, renal function, etc. Data collection, analysis, and report writing. Does not satisfy the Fulbright College writing requirement. Does not count toward BS in Biology. Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)

BIOL�. Human Physiology (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 2414 Lecture). 3 Hours.

Fundamental concepts of physiology with emphasis in the human. Does not count toward BS in Biology. Corequisite: BIOL�L. Prerequisite: (CHEM� and CHEM�L) or (CHEM�) or (CHEM� and CHEM�L) and MATH�. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)

BIOL�L. General Genetics Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Analysis of genetic problems and experiments with emphasis on "hands-on" experience with a variety of organisms. May require time outside laboratory period. Laboratory 3 hours per week. Pre- or Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)

BIOL�. General Genetics. 3 Hours.

Surveys of Mendelian, molecular, and population mechanisms of inheritance and gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Lecture 3 hours per week. Prerequisite: (BIOL� or BIOL� and BIOL�L) and (CHEM� or CHEM�) and (MATH� or higher or STAT� or STAT� or equivalent). (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)

BIOL�L. Human Anatomy Laboratory (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 2404 Lab). 1 Hour.

Laboratory 3 hours exercises in mammalian anatomy. Cannot be taken without prior credit in BIOL� or concurrent enrollment in BIOL�. Does not count toward BS in Biology. Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer)

BIOL�. Human Anatomy (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 2404 Lecture). 3 Hours.

Description of human body as a series of organ systems and their interrelationships. Does not count towards BS in Biology. Corequisite: BIOL�L. Prerequisite: Four hours of biological sciences. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer)

BIOL�L. Cell Biology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Introduction to methods and techniques used in Cell Biology research. Laboratory experiences to highlight topics covered in BIOL�. Pre- or Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)

BIOL�. Cell Biology. 3 Hours.

Introduction to cell structure, cell processes, biological polymers, energetics, and diversity. An introduction to biochemistry and cell chemistry. Recommended: (CHEM� and CHEM�L) or (CHEM� and CHEM�L) or equivalent. Prerequisite: BIOL�, or BIOL� and BIOL�L. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)

BIOL�L. Microbial Fermentation Laboratory. 3 Hours.

An inquiry-based introductory lab course that explores the biology and chemistry of brewing, with a focus on brewing microbiology. Laboratory 6 hours per week. Students must be 21 years of age or older on the first day of class. Prerequisite: BIOL� or BIOL�. Pre- or Corequisite: FDSC�. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�L. Principles of Plant Pathology Lab. 1 Hour.

Lab course in examination of the causes and symptoms of plant disease and the genetics of plant disease. Physiology, and ecology of host-pathogen interactions. Spread of disease and principles of disease control. Pre- or Corequisite: PLPA� or BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall)
This course is cross-listed with PLPA�L.

BIOL�. Principles of Plant Pathology. 3 Hours.

Examination of the causes and symptoms of plant disease and the genetics of plant disease. Physiology, and ecology of host-pathogen interactions. Spread of disease and principles of disease control. (Typically offered: Fall)
This course is cross-listed with PLPA�.

BIOL�L. Introduction to Insect Identification Lab. 1 Hour.

Introductory lab course on insect identification, collection, and curation techniques, primarily designed as an intensive add-on to BIOL� for students wanting a more in-depth examination of insect diversity. Insect collection required. Course includes field trips. Students are encouraged to contact instructor before enrolling. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall)
This course is cross-listed with ENTO�L.

BIOL�. Introduction to Entomology. 3 Hours.

Fundamentals of insect biology including structure and function, development, ecology, behavior, plant feeding and disease transmission. Lecture 3 hours/week. Students interested in a more intensive examination of insects, including collection, curation, and identification techniques, should sign up for the separate one credit lab BIOL�L. Students are strongly encouraged to take BIOL� before registering for this course. (Typically offered: Fall)
This course is cross-listed with ENTO�.

BIOL�. Evolutionary Biology. 3 Hours.

An introduction to the mechanisms and patterns of evolutionary change. Seeks to develop logical, scientific skills and to apply them in understanding how life has changed during the history of the earth. Corequisite: Drill component. Prerequisite: (BIOL� or BIOL�, BIOL�L) and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)

BIOL�. Bones, Bodies, and Brains in Evolutionary Perspective. 3 Hours.

Reviews the anatomy of the human body, comparing this anatomy with primates, mammals, and vertebrates, and it will consider how the major features of the human body emerged throughout evolution. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Prokaryote Biology. 3 Hours.

An in-depth coverage of prokaryote diversity, genetics, metabolism, growth, structures and functions. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�H. Honors Prokaryote Biology. 3 Hours.

An in-depth coverage of prokaryote diversity, genetics, metabolism, growth, structures and functions. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�.

BIOL�. Inquiry and Modeling in Science Education. 3 Hours.

Study of science practices with an emphasis on modeling and inquiry for learning/teaching. Includes practical, philosophical, cognitive, and disciplinary specific dimensions of doing science in academic and nonacademic settings. Includes planning and implementing. Prerequisite: 8 hours of BIOL courses. Corequisite: Drill component. (Typically offered: Spring)
This course is cross-listed with PHYS�, CHEM�.

BIOL�H. Honors UAteach Research Methods. 3 Hours.

A project-based course for prospective science and mathematics teachers utilizing scientific research methods and inquiry to solve research problems. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: ARSC� and ARSC 1221, junior standing and honors. (Typically offered: Spring)
This course is cross-listed with PHYS�, CHEM�, BIOL�.

BIOL�. Comparative Vertebrate Morphology. 4 Hours.

Anatomy of selected vertebrate animals with emphasis upon homologous structures in various animal groups. The recommended anatomy course for Biology BS majors. Lecture 2 or 3 hours, laboratory 4 or 6 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL� or BIOL� and BIOL�L. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)

BIOL�L. General Ecology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

General ecology lab. Pre-or Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. General Ecology. 3 Hours.

Ecological principles and concepts environmental factors and interactions that determine distribution and abundance of organisms. Prerequisite: 7 hours of biological science. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)

BIOL�H. Honors Colloquium. 3 Hours.

Covers a special topic or issue, offered as part of the honors program. Prerequisite: honors candidacy (not restricted to candidacy in biological sciences). (Typically offered: Irregular) May be repeated for degree credit.

BIOL�L. Laboratory in Prokaryote Biology. 3 Hours.

Laboratory techniques in prokaryote culture, identification, physiology, metabolism, and genetics. Laboratory 6 hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)

BIOL�. Insect Behavior and Chemical Ecology. 3 Hours.

Basic concepts in insect senses and patterns of behavioral responses to various environmental stimuli. Previous knowledge of basic entomology is helpful, but not required. Lecture 2 hours, laboratory/discussion 2 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)
This course is cross-listed with ENTO�.

BIOL�. Insect Diversity and Taxonomy. 4 Hours.

Principles and practices of insect classification and identification with emphasis on adult insects. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: ENTO�. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)
This course is cross-listed with ENTO�.

BIOL�. Insect Ecology. 3 Hours.

To develop understanding of important ecological concepts through study of dynamic relationships among insects and their environment. To become familiar with the literature of insect ecology, and interpretation and critique of ecological research. Previous knowledge of basic entomology and/or ecology will be assumed. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)
This course is cross-listed with ENTO�.

BIOL�. Taxonomy of Flowering Plants. 4 Hours.

Identifying, naming, and classifying of wildflowers, weeds, trees, and other flowering plants. Emphasis is on the practical aspects of plant identification. Lecture 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�L and BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Dendrology. 4 Hours.

Morphology, classification, geographic distribution, and ecology of woody plants. Lecture 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week, and fieldtrips. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Food Microbiology. 2 Hours.

The study of food microbiology including classification/taxonomy, contamination, preservation and spoilage of different kinds of foods, pathogenic microorganisms, food poisoning, sanitation, control and inspection and beneficial uses of microorganisms. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�L or BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall)
This course is cross-listed with FDSC�.

BIOL�. Plant Disease Control. 3 Hours.

Principles, methods and mechanics of plant disease control. Emphasis is given to the integration of control measures and epidemiology of plant diseases. Lecture 3 hours per week. Prerequisite: PLPA�. (Typically offered: Fall)
This course is cross-listed with PLPA�.

BIOL�. Biology of Global Change. 3 Hours.

Covers impact of global change on sustainability and adaptability of biological systems. Corequisite: BIOL�. Prerequisite: (BIOL� and BIOL�L) or BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Dynamic Models in Biology. 3 Hours.

Mathematical and computational techniques for developing, executing, and analyzing dynamic models arising in the biological sciences. Both discrete and continuous time models are studied. Applications include population dynamics, cellular dynamics, and the spread of infectious diseases. Prerequisite: MATH�. (Typically offered: Irregular)
This course is cross-listed with MATH�.

BIOL�. Conservation Genetics. 4 Hours.

Covers concepts of biodiversity identification and illustrates how genetic data are generated and analyzed to conserve and restore biological diversity. Corequisite: Lab component and drill. Prerequisite: BIOL�, BIOL� and STAT� (or equivalent), and Junior standing. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Biological Regulation and Subcellular Communication. 3 Hours.

Combines lectures, review of primary literature, student presentations, and small group discussions to explore a diversity of topics related to mechanisms of biological regulation and subcellular communication. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Bacterial Lifestyles. 3 Hours.

Introduces students to bacteria as prokaryotic organisms, different from eukaryotes such as plants and animals. Model microbial systems will be studied to identify unique strategies that bacteria employ to thrive in their respective environments or develop special adaptations to harsh environments. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�L or BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)
This course is cross-listed with PLPA�.

BIOL�. Genomics and Bioinformatics. 3 Hours.

Principles of molecular and computational analyses of genomes. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�H. Honors Genomics and Bioinformatics. 3 Hours.

Principles of molecular and computational analyses of genomes. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�.

BIOL�. Comparative Physiology. 4 Hours.

Comparison of fundamental physiological mechanisms in various animal groups. Adaptations to environmental factors at both the organismal and cellular levels are emphasized. Lecture 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL� and CHEM� and (CHEM�L or CHEM�M). (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�L. Ichthyology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Practical application of fish identification based on anatomy, fish sampling methods, and curation of fish specimen. Laboratory component of BIOL�. Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)

BIOL�M. Honors Ichthyology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Practical application of fish identification based on anatomy, fish sampling methods, and curation of fish specimen. Laboratory component of BIOL�H. Prerequisite: Honors standing. Corequisite: BIOL�H. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�L.

BIOL�. Ichthyology. 3 Hours.

Comprehensive overview of the diversity of fishes. Covers anatomy, physiology, evolution, taxonomy, ecology, behavior, zoogeography and conservation of marine and freshwater fishes. Lecture 3 hours per week. Prerequisite: Eight credits in Biology. Corequisite: BIOL�L. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)

BIOL�H. Honors Ichthyology. 3 Hours.

Comprehensive overview of the diversity of fishes. Covers anatomy, physiology, evolution, taxonomy, ecology, behavior, zoogeography and conservation of marine and freshwater fishes. Lecture 3 hours per week. Prerequisite: Eight credits in Biology and honors standing. Corequisite: BIOL�L. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�.

BIOL�. Biology of Global Change Seminar. 2 Hours.

Readings, essays, and group discussions that parallel the 27 lectures in BIOL� and which dissect the resulting impacts of global change on sustainability and adaptability of biological systems. Corequisite: BIOL�. Prerequisite: BIOL� or BIOL� and BIOL�L. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�H. Honors Biology of Global Change Seminar. 2 Hours.

Readings, essays, and group discussions that parallel the 27 lectures in BIOL� and which dissect the resulting impacts of global change on sustainability and adaptability of biological systems. Corequisite: BIOL�. Prerequisite: BIOL� or BIOL� and BIOL�L. (Typically offered: Spring)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�.

BIOL�. Cell Physiology. 3 Hours.

In-depth molecular coverage of cellular processes involved in growth, metabolism, transport, excitation, signalling and motility, with emphasis on function and regulation in eukaryotes, primarily animals. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL� and CHEM� and PHYS�. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�H. Honors Cell Physiology. 3 Hours.

In-depth molecular coverage of cellular processes involved in growth, metabolism, transport, excitation, signalling and motility, with emphasis on function and regulation in eukaryotes, primarily animals. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL� and CHEM� and PHYS�. (Typically offered: Fall)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�.

BIOL�. Endocrinology. 3 Hours.

In endocrinology we study hormonal integration of living processes as all levels from molecule to organism. We will work with the mechanisms of hormone action, the endocrine control axes and hormones physiological role. The course will include paper discussions and student presentations on topics of special interest. Prerequisite: BIOL� or equivalent. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Plant Physiology. 3 Hours.

An introductory course in plant physiology focusing on cellular processes that support the metabolic, developmental, and reproductive needs of plants. Prerequisite: BIOL� or CHEM� or CHEM�. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Molecular Cell Biology. 3 Hours.

In-depth molecular coverage of transcription, cell cycle, translation, and protein processing in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL� and CHEM� and CHEM�L and CHEM� and CHEM�L. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�H. Honors Molecular Cell Biology. 3 Hours.

In-depth molecular coverage of transcription, cell cycle, translation, and protein processing in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL� and CHEM� and CHEM�L and CHEM� and CHEM�L. (Typically offered: Spring)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�.

BIOL�. Comparative Neurobiology. 3 Hours.

Exploration of modern research approaches to understanding the development and function of animal nervous systems, with emphasis on molecular and cellular approaches in non-human animal models commonly used in biomedical research. Format combines lectures, group discussions, and student presentations using examples from the primary neurobiology literature. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL� or equivalents. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Biotechnology in Agriculture. 3 Hours.

Discussion of the techniques, applications, and issues of biotechnology as it is being used in modern agriculture. Coverage includes the basics of molecular biology, production of transgenic plants and animals, and new applications in the agricultural, food, and medical marketplace. Lecture and discussion, 3 hours per week. (Typically offered: Fall)
This course is cross-listed with PLPA�.

BIOL�. Ecological Genetics/Genomics. 3 Hours.

Analysis of the genetics of natural and laboratory populations with emphasis on the ecological bases of evolutionary change. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�L and MATH� and STAT� or equivalents. (Typically offered: Fall Odd Years)

BIOL�. Comparative Botany. 4 Hours.

A comparative approach to organisms classically considered to be plants with emphasis on morphology, life history, development, and phylogeny. Three hours lecture, 4 hours lab per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Mycology. 4 Hours.

Form and function of the fungi. Lecture 2 hours, laboratory 4 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Principles of Evolution. 3 Hours.

Advanced survey of the mechanisms of evolutionary change with special emphasis on advances since the Modern Synthesis. Historical, theoretical, and population genetics approaches are discussed. Recommended BIOL� and BIOL�L and BIOL�L. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)

BIOL�. Physiological Ecology. 3 Hours.

Interactions between environment, physiology, and properties of individuals and populations on both evolutionary and ecological scales. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL� and its lab component. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)

BIOL�L. Population Ecology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Population Ecology Lab. Pre- or Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)

BIOL�. Population Ecology. 3 Hours.

Survey of theoretical and applied aspects of population processes stressing models of growth, interspecific interactions, and adaptation to physical and biotic environments. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)

BIOL�. Plant Ecology. 3 Hours.

To develop understanding of important ecological concepts through study of dynamics relationships among plants and their environment. To become familiar with the literature of plant ecology, and interpretation and critique of ecological research. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)

BIOL�. Developmental Biology. 3 Hours.

An analysis of the principles and mechanisms of development emphasizing the embryonic and postembryonic development of animals. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Developmental Biology with Laboratory. 4 Hours.

An analysis of the concepts of mechanisms of development emphasizing the experimental approach. Lecture 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week. Students may not receive degree credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL� or graduate standing. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Cancer Biology. 3 Hours.

An introduction to the fundamentals of cancer biology. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. 3 Hours.

Introduction to the biology of the order Primates. This course considers the comparative anatomy, behavioral ecology and paleontology of our nearest living relatives. Prerequisite: BIOL� or ANTH�. (Typically offered: Spring)
This course is cross-listed with ANTH�.

BIOL�. Wetlands Ecology and Management. 4 Hours.

To familiarize students with the ecology and management of wetlands. Students will be exposed to the characteristics of wetlands, the environmental factors that produce wetland types, and the management techniques used to meet desired wetland goals. Primary lecture topics will include: wetland definition, wetlands of the world, wetland status, trends, laws, wetland hydrology, wetland soils, wetland plants, wetland plant adaptations, wetland wildlife, wetland wildlife adaptations, wetland ecosystem development, and wetland management. Lecture 2 hours, Laboratory 3 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Forest Ecology. 3 Hours.

Introduction to the various biological, ecological and historical aspects of forest communities, with particular emphasis on the forests of the central and southeastern United States. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Mechanisms of Pathogenesis. 3 Hours.

A survey of the events causing human disease at the molecular, cellular and genetic levels. Seeks to develop an appreciation that both the tricks pathogens use and the body's own defenses contribute to pathology. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�L. Basic Immunology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Basic immunology laboratory. Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Basic Immunology. 3 Hours.

(Formerly MBIO 4714) A general overview of immunity with emphasis on the underlying cellular, molecular, and genetic events, and discussions of more specialized issues in immunology, such as disease states involving the immune system, and other interesting problems in modern immunology. Lecture 2 hours, laboratory 4 hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�H. Honors Basic Immunology. 3 Hours.

A general overview of Immunity with emphasis on the underlying cellular, molecular, and genetic events, and discussions of more specialized issues in Immunology, such as disease states involving the Immune system, and other interesting problems in modern Immunology. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�.

BIOL�. Protistology. 4 Hours.

The biology of eukaryotes other than animals, land plants, and fungi with emphasis on morphology and modern approaches to phylogenetic systematics. Three hours lecture, four hours lab/week. Involves writing term papers. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Wildlife Management Techniques. 4 Hours.

To familiarize students with techniques used in the management of wildlife populations. Students will be exposed to field methods, approaches to data analysis, experimental design, and how to write a scientific paper. Management applications will be emphasized. Lecture 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Fish Biology. 4 Hours.

Morphology, classification, life history, population dynamics, and natural history of fishes and fish-like vertebrates. Lecture 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: 12 hours of biological science. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)

BIOL�. General Virology. 3 Hours.

An introduction to viral life-cycles, structure, and host cell interactions. Emphasis placed on molecular and biochemical aspects of virology. Two hour lecture and one hour discussion. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Ornithology. 3 Hours.

Taxonomy, morphology, physiology, behavior, and ecology of birds. Lecture, laboratory, and field work. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL� (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)

BIOL�. Biometry. 4 Hours.

Students learn biological statistics and experimental design by actually designing experiments and analyzing data, as well as through lecture, discussion, reading, writing, and problem solving. Lecture 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours each week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: (STAT� or STAT� or equivalent) and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)

BIOL�. Mammalogy. 3 Hours.

Lectures and laboratory dealing with classification, morphology, distribution, ecology, behavior, and physiology of mammals. Two hours lecture, 4 hours laboratory. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: 10 hours Biological Sciences. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)

BIOL�. Introduction to Neurobiology. 3 Hours.

Exploration of the neurological underpinnings of perception, action, and experience including: how sense receptors convert information in the world into electricity, how information flows through the nervous systems, how neural wiring makes vision possible, how the nervous system changes with experience, and how the system develops. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL𧋠V. Special Topics in Biological Sciences. 1-6 Hour.

Consideration of new areas of biological sciences not yet treated adequately in other courses. Prerequisite: 8 hours of biological sciences. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer) May be repeated for degree credit.

BIOL𧋠VH. Honors Special Topics in Biological Sciences. 1-6 Hour.

Consideration of new areas of biological sciences not yet treated adequately in other courses. Prerequisite: 8 hours of biological sciences. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer) May be repeated for degree credit.
This course is equivalent to BIOL𧋠V.

BIOL�. Animal Behavior. 3 Hours.

Organization, regulation, and phylogeny of animal behavior, emphasizing vertebrates. Lecture, laboratory, and field work. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Fall Odd Years)

BIOL�. Community and Ecosystem Ecology. 4 Hours.

Survey of theoretical and applied aspects of community processes stressing structure, tropic dynamics, community interactions, and major community types. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall Odd Years)

BIOL�. Analysis of Animal Populations. 3 Hours.

Basic principles of design and analysis for population studies of fish and wildlife species. Students will be instructed in the use of the latest software for estimating population parameters. Focus will be on both concepts and applications. Management applications of estimated parameters will be emphasized. Lecture 2 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)

BIOL�. Microbial Molecular Genetics and Informatics. 3 Hours.

Fundamentals of microbial genomics and bioinformatics. Course covers microbial genetics, genetic structure, genome organization, proteome organization, approaches for the analysis of DNA, RNA, and proteins, cellular metabolic pathways, genetic regulation, small RNA molecules, functional genomics, metagenomics, and bioinformatics approaches for analysis of microbial genomes. Prerequisite: BIOL� or BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�H. Honors Microbial Molecular Genetics and Informatics. 3 Hours.

Fundamentals of microbial genomics and bioinformatics. Course covers microbial genetics, genetic structure, genome organization, proteome organization, approaches for the analysis of DNA, RNA, and proteins, cellular metabolic pathways, genetic regulation, small RNA molecules, functional genomics, metagenomics, and bioinformatics approaches for analysis of microbial genomes. Prerequisite: BIOL� or BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�.

BIOL�. Mammalian Evolution and Osteology. 3 Hours.

Focuses on describing the evolutionary history of mammals, a group of vertebrates that include over 5,000 species in 29 orders, and will provide an overview of living species and their identifying features. Prerequisite: ANTH� and ANTH�L, or BIOL� and BIOL�L, or instructor consent. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)
This course is equivalent to ANTH�.

BIOL𧋰V. Culture and Environment: Field Studies. 1-6 Hour.

May be taken by students participating in overseas study programs or other domestic field study programs approved by the department. (Typically offered: Irregular) May be repeated for up to 12 hours of degree credit.

BIOL𧋰VH. Honors Culture and Environment: Field Studies. 1-6 Hour.

May be taken by students participating in overseas study programs or other domestic field study programs approved by the department. (Typically offered: Irregular) May be repeated for up to 12 hours of degree credit.
This course is equivalent to BIOL𧋰V.

BIOL𧋲V. Senior Thesis. 1-6 Hour.

Senior thesis. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer)

BIOL𧋳V. Research In Biological Sciences. 1-4 Hour.

Research. Prerequisite: Senior standing. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer) May be repeated for up to 8 hours of degree credit.

BIOL𧋳VH. Honors Research in Biological Sciences. 1-4 Hour.

Honors research. Prerequisite: Senior standing. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer) May be repeated for up to 8 hours of degree credit.
This course is equivalent to BIOL𧋳V.

BIOL�. Seminar in Biology. 1 Hour.

Discussion of selected topics and review of current literature in any area of the biological sciences. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring) May be repeated for up to 2 hours of degree credit.

BIOL�L. Laboratory in Prokaryote Biology. 3 Hours.

Laboratory techniques in prokaryote culture, identification, physiology, metabolism, and genetics. Laboratory 6 hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)

BIOL�. Insect Diversity and Taxonomy. 4 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) Principles and practices of insect classification and identification with emphasis on adult insects. 2.5 hours lecture, 4 hours lab. Previous knowledge of basic entomology is necessary. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Prerequisite: Instructor consent. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Fall)
This course is cross-listed with ENTO�.

BIOL�. Wildlife Management Techniques. 4 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) To familiarize students with techniques used in the management of wildlife populations. Students will be exposed to field methods, approaches to data analysis, experimental design, and how to write a scientific paper. Management applications will be emphasized. Lecture 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Insect Ecology. 3 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) Teaches important ecological concepts through study of dynamic relationships among insects and their environment. Introduces literature of insect ecology, and interpretation and critique of ecological research. Previous knowledge of basic entomology and/or ecology will be assumed. 2 hours lecture/2 hours lab. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Prerequisite: Instructor consent. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)
This course is cross-listed with ENTO�.

BIOL�. Taxonomy of Flowering Plants. 4 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) Identifying, naming, and classifying of wildflowers, weeds, trees, and other flowering plants. Emphasis is on the practical aspects of plant identification. Lecture 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�L and BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Insect Behavior and Chemical Ecology. 3 Hours.

Basic concepts in insect senses and patterns of behavioral responses to various environmental stimuli. Previous knowledge of basic entomology is helpful, but not required. Prerequisite: Instructor consent. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)
This course is cross-listed with ENTO�.

BIOL�. Food Microbiology. 2 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) The study of food microbiology including classification/taxonomy, contamination, preservation and spoilage of different kinds of foods, pathogenic microorganisms, food poisoning, sanitation, control and inspection and beneficial uses of microorganisms. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�L or BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall)
This course is cross-listed with FDSC�.

BIOL�. Dendrology. 4 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) Morphology, classification, geographic distribution, and ecology of woody plants. Lecture 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week, and fieldtrips. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Insect Molecular Genetics. 3 Hours.

A hands on course in insect molecular genetic techniques including molecular diagnostics and population genetics. Students will learn how to apply advanced molecular genetic methodologies and Internet database resources to insects that they are using for their graduate research. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)
This course is cross-listed with ENTO�.

BIOL�. Practical Programming for Biologists. 3 Hours.

Hands-on instruction in the fundamentals of biological computing. Students learn how to set up a Unix work station, work from the command line, install software, build databases, and program in Python, a popular scripting language for biological applications. Most examples focus on the analysis of genomic data. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Dynamic Models in Biology. 3 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) Mathematical and computational techniques for developing, executing, and analyzing dynamic models arising in the biological sciences. Both discrete and continuous time models are studied. Applications include population dynamics, cellular dynamics, and the spread of infectious diseases. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Prerequisite: MATH�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Conservation Genetics. 4 Hours.

Covers concepts of biodiversity identification and illustrates how genetic data are generated and analyzed to conserve and restore biological diversity. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL�, BIOL� and STAT� (or equivalent) and graduate standing. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Biological Regulation and Subcellular Communication. 3 Hours.

Combines lectures, review of primary literature, student presentations, and small group discussions to explore a diversity of topics related to mechanisms of biological regulation and subcellular communication. Prerequisite: Graduate standing. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Bacterial Lifestyles. 3 Hours.

The course will introduce students to bacteria as prokaryotic organisms, different from eukaryotes such as plants and animals. Model microbial systems will be studied in more detail to identify unique strategies that bacteria employ to thrive in their respective environment, whether they are causing diseases or establishing beneficial interactions with animal or plants or coexisting with other microorganisms in diverse ecological environments. The course will also cover special adaptations that bacteria have evolved to adapt to harsh environments and how these adaptations can be harnessed to control pollution. Prerequisite: (BIOL� and BIOL�L) or BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)
This course is cross-listed with PLPA�.

BIOL�. Genomics and Bioinformatics. 3 Hours.

Principles of molecular and computational analyses of genomes. Prerequisite: BIOL� or BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�L. Ichthyology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Practical application of fish identification based on anatomy, fish sampling methods, and curation of fish specimen. Laboratory component of BIOL�. Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)

BIOL�. Ichthyology. 3 Hours.

Comprehensive overview of the diversity of fishes. Covers anatomy, physiology, evolution, taxonomy, ecology, behavior, zoogeography and conservation of marine and freshwater fishes. Lecture 3 hours per week. Corequisite: BIOL�L. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)

BIOL�. Comparative Physiology. 4 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) Comparison of fundamental physiological mechanisms in various animal groups. Adaptations to environmental factors at both the organismal and cellular levels are emphasized. Lecture 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Prerequisite: BIOL� and CHEM� and (CHEM�L or CHEM�M). (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Cell Physiology. 3 Hours.

In-depth molecular coverage of cellular processes involved in growth, metabolism, transport, excitation, signaling and motility, with emphasis on function and regulation in eukaryotes, primarily animals. Prerequisite: BIOL�, BIOL�, BIOL�L, CHEM�, and PHYS�. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Endocrinology. 3 Hours.

In endocrinology we study hormonal integration of living processes at all levels from molecule to organism. We will work with the mechanisms of hormone action, the endocrine control axes and hormones physiological role. The course will include paper discussions and student presentations on topics of special interest. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Plant Physiology. 3 Hours.

Introductory course in plant physiology focusing on cellular processes that support the metabolic, developmental, and reproductive needs of plants. Prerequisite: 3 hours of cell biology or biochemistry. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Molecular Cell Biology. 3 Hours.

In-depth molecular coverage of transcription, cell cycle, translation, and protein processing in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL� and CHEM� and CHEM�L and CHEM� and CHEM�L. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Comparative Neurobiology. 3 Hours.

Exploration of modern research approaches to understanding the development and function of animal nervous systems, with emphasis on molecular and cellular approaches in non-human animal models commonly used in biomedical research. Format combines lectures, group discussions, and student presentations using examples from the primary neurobiology literature. Prerequisite: Graduate standing. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Advanced Immunology. 3 Hours.

Aspects of innate, cell-mediated, and humoral immunity in mammalian and avian species. Molecular mechanisms underlying the function of the immune system are emphasized. A course in Basic Immunology prior to enrollment in Advanced Immunology is recommended but not required. Lecture 3 hours per week. (Typically offered: Spring)
This course is cross-listed with POSC�.

BIOL�L. Immunology in the Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Laboratory course on immune-diagnostic laboratory techniques and uses of antibodies as a research tool. Included are cell isolation and characterization procedures, immunochemistry, flow cytometry, ELISA and cell culture assay systems. Laboratory 6 hours per week. Prerequisite: POSC� or BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)
This course is cross-listed with POSC�L.

BIOL�. Ecological Genetics/genomics. 3 Hours.

Analysis of the genetics of natural and laboratory populations with emphasis on the ecological bases of evolutionary change. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�L, BIOL� and MATH� and STAT� or equivalents. (Typically offered: Fall Odd Years)

BIOL�. Comparative Botany. 4 Hours.

A comparative approach to organisms classically considered to be plants with emphasis on morphology, life history, development, and phylogeny. Three hours lecture, 4 hours lab per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: Graduate standing. (Typically offered: Fall Odd Years)

BIOL�. Mycology. 4 Hours.

Form and function of the fungi. Lecture 2 hours, laboratory 4 hours per week.Corequisite: Laboratory component. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Principles of Evolution. 3 Hours.

Advanced survey of the mechanisms of evolutionary change with special emphasis on advances since the Modern Synthesis. Historical, theoretical, and population genetics approaches are discussed. Recommended: BIOL� and BIOL�L and BIOL�L. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)

BIOL�. Physiological Ecology. 3 Hours.

Interactions between environment, physiology, and properties of individuals and populations on both evolutionary and ecological scales. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)

BIOL�L. Population Ecology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Demonstration of the models and concepts from BIOL�. Pre- or Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)

BIOL�. Population Ecology. 3 Hours.

Survey of theoretical and applied aspects of populations processes stressing models of growth, interspecific interactions, and adaptation to physical and biotic environments. Corequisite: BIOL�L. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)

BIOL�. Plant Ecology. 3 Hours.

To develop understanding of important ecological concepts through study of dynamics relationships among plants and their environment. To become familiar with the literature of plant ecology, and interpretation and critique of ecological research. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)

BIOL�. Developmental Biology with Laboratory. 4 Hours.

An analysis of the concepts and mechanisms of development emphasizing the experimental approach. Students may not receive degree credit for both BIOL� Developmental Biology and BIOL� Developmental Biology with Laboratory. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Biochemical Genetics. 4 Hours.

Lectures and laboratories based on modern molecular genetic techniques for analyses of eukaryotes and manipulation of prokaryotes. A hands-on course in recombinant DNA techniques: laboratory practices in gene identification, cloning, and characterization. Lecture 2 hours, laboratory 6 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL� (or equivalent) and CHEM� (or equivalent). (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Developmental Biology. 3 Hours.

An analysis of the principles and mechanisms of development emphasizing the embryonic and postembryonic development of animals. Degree credit will not be allowed for both BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Astrobiology. 3 Hours.

Discusses the scientific basis for the possible existence of extraterrestrial life. Includes the origin and evolution of life on Earth, possibility of life elsewhere in the solar system (including Mars), and the possibility of life on planets around other stars. Prerequisite: Instructor consent. (Typically offered: Irregular)
This course is cross-listed with SPAC�.

BIOL�. Cancer Biology. 3 Hours.

An introduction to the fundamentals of cancer biology. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. 3 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) Introduction to the biology of the order Primates. This course considers the comparative anatomy, behavioral ecology and paleontology of our nearest living relatives. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Prerequisite: BIOL� or ANTH�. (Typically offered: Spring)
This course is cross-listed with ANTH�.

BIOL�. Wetlands Ecology and Management. 4 Hours.

To familiarize students with the ecology and management of wetlands. Students will be exposed to the characteristics of wetlands, the environmental factors that produce wetland types, and the management techniques used to meet desired wetland goals. Primary lecture topics will include: wetland definition, wetlands of the world, wetland status, trends, laws, wetland hydrology, wetland soils, wetland plants, wetland plant adaptations, wetland ecosystem development, and wetland management. Lecture 2 hours, Laboratory 3 hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Eukaryote Phylogeny. 3 Hours.

Molecular analysis of the eukaryotic tree of life, phylogenetic tree reconstruction, and eukaryote diversity and evolutionary relationships. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)

BIOL�. Forest Ecology. 3 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) Introduction to the various biological, ecological and historical aspects of forest communities, with particular emphasis on the forests of the central and southeastern United States. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Mechanisms of Pathogenesis. 3 Hours.

A survey of events causing human disease at the molecular, cellular and genetic levels. Seeks to develop an appreciation that both the tricks pathogens use and the body's own defenses contribute to pathology. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�L. Basic Immunology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

(Formerly BIOL�L.) Basic immunology laboratory. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL�L and BIOL�L. Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Basic Immunology. 3 Hours.

A general overview of Immunity with emphasis on the underlying cellular, molecular and genetic events controlling immune reactions. Reading of the primary literature on disease states involving the immune system. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Fish Biology. 3 Hours.

Morphology, classification, life histories, population dynamics, and natural history of fishes and fish-like vertebrates. Lecture 2 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: 12 hours of biological sciences. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)

BIOL�. Protistology. 4 Hours.

The biology of eukaryotes other than animals, land plants, and fungi with emphasis on morphology and modern approaches to phylogenetic systematics. Three hours lecture, four hours lab/week. Involves writing term papers. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Herpetology. 3 Hours.

Morphology, classification and ecology of amphibians and reptiles. Lecture 2 hours, laboratory 1 hour per week. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)

BIOL�. General Virology. 3 Hours.

An introduction to viral life-cycles, structure, and host cell interactions. Emphasis placed on molecular and biochemical aspects of virology. Two hour lecture and one hour discussion. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Ornithology. 3 Hours.

Taxonomy, morphology, physiology, behavior, and ecology of birds. Lecture, laboratory, and field work. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: 10 hours of biological sciences. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)

BIOL�. Biometry. 4 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) Students learn biological statistics and experimental design by actually designing experiments and analyzing data, as well as through lecture, discussion, reading, writing, and problem solving. Lecture 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours each week. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: STAT� or equivalent, BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)

BIOL�. Mammalogy. 3 Hours.

Lectures and laboratory dealing with classification, morphology, distribution, ecology, behavior, and physiology of mammals. Two hours lecture, 4 hours laboratory. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Introduction to Neurobiology. 3 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) Exploration of the neurological underpinnings of perception, action, and experience including: how sense receptors convert information in the world into electricity, how information flows through the nervous systems, how neural wiring makes vision possible, how the nervous system changes with experience, and how the system develops. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL𧍄V. Special Topics in Biological Sciences. 1-6 Hour.

Consideration of new areas of biological sciences not yet treated adequately in other courses. Prerequisite: 8 hours of biological sciences. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer) May be repeated for up to 6 hours of degree credit.

BIOL�. Science Communication. 3 Hours.

Covers the foundations of writing strategies, how to communicate with discipline-specific versus broad audiences, elements of an effective presentation, and the manuscript and proposal review process. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Animal Behavior. 3 Hours.

Organization, regulation, and phylogeny of animal behavior, emphasizing vertebrates. Lecture, laboratory, and field work. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Fall Odd Years)

BIOL�. Conservation Biology. 3 Hours.

The study of direct and indirect factors by which biodiversity is impacted by human activity. It is a synthetic field of study that incorporates principles of ecology, biogeography, population genetics, economics, sociology, anthropology, philosophy, geology, and geography. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Community Ecology. 4 Hours.

Survey of theoretical and applied aspects of community processes stressing structure, trophic dynamics, community interactions, and major community types. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall Odd Years)

BIOL�. Analysis of Animal Populations. 3 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) Basic principles of design and analysis for population studies of fish and wildlife species. Students will be instructed in the use of the latest software for estimating population parameters. Focus will be on both concepts and applications. Management applications of estimated parameters will be emphasized. Lecture 2 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)

BIOL�. Microbial Molecular Genetics and Informatics. 3 Hours.

Fundamentals of microbial genomics and bioinformatics. Course covers microbial genetics, genetic structure, genome organization, proteome organization, approaches for the analysis of DNA, RNA, and proteins, cellular metabolic pathways, genetic regulation, small RNA molecules, functional genomics, metagenomics, and bioinformatics approaches for analysis of microbial genomes. Prerequisite: Graduate status. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Mammalian Evolution and Osteology. 3 Hours.

Focuses on describing the evolutionary history of mammals, a group of vertebrates that include over 5,000 species in 29 orders, and will provide an overview of living species and their identifying features. Credit will not be given for both ANTH� and ANTH�. Prerequisite: Instructor consent. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)
This course is cross-listed with ANTH�.

BIOL�. Stream Ecology. 4 Hours.

Current concepts and research in lotic ecosystem dynamics. Lecture, laboratory, field work and individual research projects required. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: 3 hours of ecology-related coursework. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)

BIOL�. Global Biogeochemistry: Elemental Cycles and Environmental Change. 3 Hours.

This course explores the chemical, biological, and geological processes occurring within ecosystems. An understanding of these processes is used to investigate how they form the global biogeochemical cycles that provide energy and nutrients necessary for life. Class discussions focus on global change and the effects of more recent anthropogenic influences. Prerequisite: 3 hours of chemistry or biochemistry and ecology. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)

BIOL𧍔V. Culture and Environment: Field Studies. 1-6 Hour.

(Formerly BIOL𧋰V.) May be taken by students participating in overseas study programs or other domestic field study programs approved by the department. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL𧋰V and BIOL𧍔V. (Typically offered: Irregular) May be repeated for up to 12 hours of degree credit.

BIOL𧍘V. Master's Thesis. 1-6 Hour.

Master's Thesis. Prerequisite: Graduate standing. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer) May be repeated for degree credit.

BIOL�. Insect Physiology. 3 Hours.

General and comparative physiology of insects. Previous knowledge of basic entomology is helpful, but not required. Lecture 2 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)
This course is cross-listed with ENTO�.

BIOL𧎼V. Doctoral Dissertation. 1-18 Hour.

Doctoral Dissertation. Prerequisite: Graduate standing. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer) May be repeated for degree credit.


Biology

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A topical approach to basic biological principles. Topics include molecular aspects of cells, bioenergetics, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, cellular and organismal reproduction, genetics and evolution, and ecology. Not applicable for credit toward the major in biology.

BIOL𧅧. Global Environmental Biology. 4 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours (delivered mostly online). 4 credits. Online presentations, assignments, debates and exams require students to understand situations and ideas that involve scientific, social and economic concepts associated with Earth’s environment. Laboratory exercises reinforce major course concepts. Integrates aspects of biology, chemistry, geology, physics and sociology. Topics include ecology, evolution, natural resources, air and water resources, energy and recycling, population biology, and sustainable global societies. Not applicable as a prerequisite for any biology course at the 200 level or above, nor for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL𧆗. Introduction to Biological Sciences I. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH𧆍, MATH𧆗, MATH𧇈, MATH𧇉 or a satisfactory score on the math placement exam and CHEM𧅤 with a minimum grade of B, CHEM𧅥 with a minimum grade of C or a satisfactory score on the chemistry placement exam. Introduction to core biological concepts including cell structure, cellular metabolism, cell division, DNA replication, gene expression and genetics. Designed for biology majors.

BIOL𧆘. Introduction to Biological Sciences II. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧆗 and CHEM𧅥, both with a minimum grade of C. Focuses on evolutionary principles, the role of natural selection in the evolution of life forms, taxonomy and phylogenies, biological diversity in the context of form and function of organisms, and and basic principles of ecology. Designed for biology majors.

BIOL𧇈. Quantitative Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours (delivered online or hybrid). 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧆗 and BIOZ𧆗 with minimum grades of C and MATH𧆗, MATH𧇈, MATH𧇉, STAT𧇒 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within a one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Enrollment is restricted to biology majors and biology minors. An introduction to the application of the scientific method, experimental design and quantitative aspects of biology.

BIOL𧇉. Human Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧅥, 151, or 152, or BIOL/ENVS 103. Fundamentals of human biology, including the structure, function and disorders of human body systems, principles of human genetics and inheritance, human evolution, and the interaction of humans with the environment. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL𧇍. Basic Human Anatomy. 4 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours (plus online component). 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧅥 and BIOZ𧅥, BIOL𧆗 and BIOZ𧆗, or BIOL𧆘 and BIOZ𧆘, each with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to students majoring in communication arts, health and physical education, health, physical education and exercise science pre-health majors in clinical laboratory sciences, clinical radiation sciences, dental hygiene and nursing students enrolled in the health sciences certificate program and students in the advising tracks for pre-occupational therapy, pre-physician assistant, pre-pharmacy and pre-physical therapy. Additionally, students in the pre-dentistry and pre-nursing accelerated advising tracks must speak with a pre-professional health adviser prior to enrolling in the class. Human specimens, models and interactive software are used to study human body structures emphasis is on the skeleto-muscular aspects. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL𧇑. Medical Microbiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧅥 and BIOZ𧅥, BIOL𧆗 and BIOZ𧆗, or BIOL𧆘 and BIOZ𧆘, each with a minimum grade of C. General principles of microbiology and immunology to provide a thorough understanding of the host-microbe relationship in disease. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL𧇙. Principles of Nutrition. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧅥, 151 or 152 with a minimum grade of C, or BIOL/ENVS 103 with a minimum grade of C. An introduction to basic principles of nutrition and their application in promoting growth and maintaining health throughout the life cycle. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL𧈜. Laboratory Assistant Experience. 0 Hours.

Semester course 0 hours. 0 credits. Enrollment is restricted to students with permission of the departmental chair and limited to students for whom a laboratory supervisor has agreed to mentor their laboratory assistantship. Helps facilitate student involvement in research laboratories within the Department of Biology. Students will assist with components of the laboratory’s operation and gain experience working in a laboratory setting. Students will gain hands-on experience in performing tasks related to specific research areas based on the laboratory in which they are accepted to work. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL𧈣. Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisites: BIOL𧆗, 152 and BIOZ𧆗, 152, with minimum grades of C. A study of a selected topic in biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOL𧈬. Cellular and Molecular Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧆗 and 152 BIOZ𧆗 or LFSC/BNFO𧇻 BIOZ𧆘 or LFSC/BNFO𧇼 CHEM𧅥 and CHEZ𧅥, all with a minimum grade of C BIOL𧇈, MATH𧇈, MATH𧇉, STAT𧇒, STAT𧇔 or STAT𧈺. Biology majors must have completed BIOL𧇈. Pre- or corequisites: CHEM𧅦 and CHEZ𧅦. A study of the molecular biology of the cell as it relates to gene expression, cell signaling, and cell growth and differentiation.

BIOL𧈯. Microbiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈬 with a minimum grade of C. The morphological, biochemical, taxonomic, genetic and evolutionary characteristics of microorganisms with a primary focus on bacteria. Focuses on the structural, mechanical and biochemical adaptations employed by microorganisms in their interactions with host cells and substrates.

BIOL𧈰. Biology Skills. 2 Hours.

Semester course 1 lecture hour (delivered online) and 3 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧆗 and BIOZ𧆗 and permission of instructor. This course provides a hands-on experience in laboratory techniques, emphasizes the development of library and informational fluency skills, and uses current biological and/or biomedical research topics to aid in development of critical-thinking and problem-solving skills.

BIOL𧈳. Aquatic Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈽, CHEM𧅦 and CHEZ𧅦, with minimum grades of C. The physical, chemical and especially the biological aspects of freshwater ecosystems.

BIOL𧈴. Vertebrate Histology. 4 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈬 with a minimum grade of C. Microanatomy of vertebrate cells, tissues and organs and the relationship of structure to function. Laboratory work involves an in-depth study of vertebrate microanatomy at the light microscope level as well as an introduction to techniques used for the preparation of materials for histological study.

BIOL𧈵. Entomology. 4 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧆗, 152 and BIOZ𧆗, 152, with minimum grades of C. A field-based course that focuses on insect diversification, identification, natural history and basic biology.

BIOL𧈶. Genetics. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧆗 and 152 BIOZ𧆗 or LFSC/BNFO𧇻 BIOZ𧆘 or LFSC/BNFO𧇼 BIOL𧈬 CHEM𧅥 and CHEZ𧅥, each with a minimum grade of C and BIOL𧇈, MATH𧇈, MATH𧇉, STAT𧇒, STAT𧇔 or STAT𧈺. Biology majors must have completed BIOL𧇈. Pre- or corequisites: CHEM𧅦 and CHEZ𧅦. The basic principles of molecular and applied genetics of plants, animals and microorganisms.

BIOL𧈸. Invertebrate Zoology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧆗, 152 and BIOZ𧆗, 152, with minimum grades of C. A survey of the invertebrate animals with emphasis on environmental interactions. A weekend trip to a marine environment is required.

BIOL𧈹. Vertebrate Natural History. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧆗, 152 and BIOZ𧆗, 152, with minimum grades of C. The natural history of vertebrates with emphasis on the species native to Virginia.

BIOL𧈺. Animal Reproduction. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ𧆗, BIOL and BIOZ𧆘, and BIOL𧈬, each with a minimum grade of C. Introduction to basic reproductive anatomy and physiology. Examination of the basic factors that affect reproductive performance and how these factors are used to regulate the reproductive processes of domestic animals and humans.

BIOL𧈽. Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧆗 and 152 BIOZ𧆗 or LFSC/BNFO𧇻 BIOZ𧆘 or LFSC/BNFO𧇼 CHEM𧅥 and CHEZ𧅥, all with a minimum grade of C BIOL𧇈, MATH𧇈, MATH𧇉, STAT𧇒, STAT𧇔 or STAT𧈺. Biology majors must have completed BIOL𧇈. An introduction to the basic principles of ecology, including interactions among organisms and influences of the physical environment.

BIOL𧈾. Evolution. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧆗 and 152 BIOZ𧆗 or LFSC/BNFO𧇻 BIOZ𧆘 or LFSC/BNFO𧇼 CHEM𧅥 and CHEZ𧅥, all with a minimum grade of C BIOL𧇈, MATH𧇈, MATH𧇉, STAT𧇒, STAT𧇔 or STAT𧈺. Biology majors must have completed BIOL𧇈. An exploration of the theoretical and empirical foundations of evolutionary biology with a focus on the processes driving evolutionary change across all of life.

BIOL𧉀. Biology of the Seed Plant. 4 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ𧆗 and BIOL and BIOZ𧆘, each with a minimum grade of C. The physiology, structure and adaptation of seed plants.

BIOL𧉁. Plant Development. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈬 and 310, each with a minimum grade of C. A survey of the developmental changes that take place during the life cycle of lower and higher plants. Emphasis is placed on the control factors that are involved in regulating the ordered changes which take place during development.

BIOL𧉂. Economic Botany. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧆗 and 152 and BIOZ𧆗 and 152, or equivalents, with minimum grades of C. This class focuses on plant morphology, anatomy, phytochemistry, growth and reproduction through an examination of the biology of economically and culturally important plants, including crops used for foods and beverages, medicines and drugs, fibers, and timber.

BIOL𧉄. Medicinal Botany. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧆗 and BIOZ𧆗 BIOL𧆘 and BIOZ𧆘 and BIOL𧈬, all with a minimum grade of C. Topics include plant anatomy, morphology and reproduction traditional plant medicine such as Ayurveda and traditional Chinese medicine plant defense systems and secondary metabolites and plant-derived drugs for various illnesses/ailments including cancer, arthritis, depression and diabetes.

BIOL𧉅. Fungal Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈬 with a minimum grade of C. The basic biology of fungi, including growth, structure, genetics, diversity, the commercial uses of fungi and their importance as model organisms. Also discusses the interactions between fungi and plants and fungi and humans.

BIOL𧉌. Environmental Pollution. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: eight credits in biology. The study of pollution in the environment with emphasis on the procedures for detection and abatement. Crosslisted as: ENVS𧉊.

BIOL𧉍. Evolution of the Angiosperms. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧆗,152 and BIOZ𧆗, 152, all with minimum grade of C. Application of evolutionary concepts to flowering plants. Topics include speciation concepts, evolution of vegetative and sexual characteristics and an overview of angiosperm diversity to the level of family.

BIOL𧉏. Global Change Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧆗, BIOL𧆘, BIOZ𧆗 and BIOZ𧆘, all with minimum grade of C. Examines how humans influence biological systems and explores what can be done to adapt to or to mitigate future global change, emphasizing anthropogenic climate change.

BIOL𧉔. Development and Stem Cells. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈬 and CHEM𧅦, each with a minimum grade of C. Basic principles of developmental biology and stem cells of vertebrates, pinpointing the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that guide development and stem cell biology. Significant emphasis on medical aspects of development such as human birth defects, cloning, properties of stem cells and their medical uses, and careers in developmental and stem cell biology.

BIOL𧉕. Human Evolution. 4 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV𧇈 or HONR𧇈 with a minimum grade of C. Introduces the range of human diversity as well as a broad understanding of evolution and evolutionary biology, particularly as it applies to hominid evolution. Specific topics include basic genetics, primatology, paleontology and the hominin fossil record. Crosslisted as: ANTH𧈭.

BIOL𧉟. Introduction to Bioinformatics. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BNFO𧇉 and BNFO𧈬 or permission of instructor. The course will present a practical and theoretical introduction to the tools and techniques needed to obtain and interpret a variety of genome-related data types. The course will include several bioinformatic methods underlying nucleotide and protein sequence alignment, statistical methods for data visualization in R, the types of experimental results commonly encountered in bioinformatics data analysis and the public databases where these data can be accessed. Crosslisted as: BNFO𧈭.

BIOL𧊇. Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course 1-4 lecture hours. 1-4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧆘 and BIOZ𧆘 and BIOL𧈬, BIOL𧈶, BIOL𧈽 or BIOL𧈾, each with a minimum grade of C. A study of a selected topic in biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOL𧊈. Introduction to Research. 2 Hours.

Semester course 1 lecture and 1 demonstration hour. 2 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈬, BIOL𧈶, BIOL𧈽 or BIOL𧈾 with a minimum grade of C. An introduction to the scientific process, including the mechanics of problem definition, information gathering and experimental design. Experimentation is discussed in context with methods of data collection and analysis. Aims are to prepare the student for future research experiences and to have the student write detailed research proposals.

BIOL𧊋. Directed Study. 1-2 Hours.

Semester course 1-2 independent study hours. 1-2 credits. Prerequisites: BIOZ𧆗 and BIOZ𧆘 with minimum grades of C, permission of the Department of Biology and research mentor. A maximum of two credits may be earned between BIOL𧊋 and BIOZ𧊋 maximum total of six credits for all research and internship courses (BIOL𧊋, BIOL𧋃, BIOL𧋅, BIOL𧋬, BIOL𧋭, BIOL𧋯 and/or BIOZ𧊋) may be applied to the the 40 credits of biology required for the major. Additional credits from these courses may be applied to upper-level and open elective credits toward the degree. Mentors are not limited to faculty members within the Department of Biology, but the context of the research study must be applicable to the biological sciences as determined by the department. Studies should include directed readings, directed experimentation or advanced guided inquiry — all under the direct supervision of a faculty member. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. This course may not apply as a laboratory experience. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL𧊑. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: 300 and 317, each with a minimum grade of C. The biology and chemical activities of microorganisms (bacteria, algae, virus and fungi) of industrial, pharmaceutical and agricultural importance.

BIOL𧊒. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. 5 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture and 4 laboratory hours. 5 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈬 and BIOL𧈾, each with a minimum grade of C. The evolution of vertebrate forms as demonstrated by anatomical studies of selected vertebrate types.

BIOL𧊓. Primatology. 4 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH𧇒 or ANTH𧈭/BIOL𧉕. Primatology investigates the taxonomic relationships among primates through comparative anatomy, comparative behavior and comparative biochemistry. Study of primate evolution, demography, subsistence, reproduction, social organization, communication systems and ecology. Crosslisted as: ANTH𧊓.

BIOL𧊛. Physiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈬 and CHEM𧈭, each with a minimum grade of C. Focuses on the characterization and understanding of the function and mechanisms of major physiological systems, primarily using human physiology as a model. Emphasis is placed on understanding how different physiological systems work together to maintain homeostasis and predicting the consequences of damaging or deleting system components that can occur in diseases and injuries.

BIOL𧊝. Parasitology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈬 with a minimum grade of C. The epidemiology and pathological effects of eukaryotic parasites, including parasite life cycles and host-parasite relationships.

BIOL𧊟. Mangrove Avian Field Ecology. 4 Hours.

Semester course two weeks abroad in Panama (or other tropical location with mangrove forests) followed by class meetings two days per week throughout most of spring semester. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈽. An immersive study of tropical ecology with a focus on bird ecology and conservation of mangrove ecosystems through a unique blend of rigorous science and community engagement. Two weeks of study abroad, including engagement with local conservation organizations and participation in education outreach with local schools, followed by discussion, data analysis and presentation of progress and research in a public symposium on campus.

BIOL𧊠. Ornithology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈽 with a minimum grade of C. Provides an integrative study of birds, including avian evolution and diversity, general anatomy and physiology, behavior, and ecology.

BIOL𧊡. Mammalogy. 4 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 218 and 317 with minimum grades of C. Study of the characteristics, adaptive radiation and distribution of mammals, with emphasis on North American forms.

BIOL𧊤. Yeast and Fermentation. 3 Hours.

Semester course 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈬 with a minimum grade of C. Corequisites: BIOL𧈯 and BIOL𧈶. Addresses the basic biology of yeast used in brewing beer and briefly in wine production. Topics will include yeast properties such as growth, structure, genetics, biodiversity and natural habitats. The process of wine and beer production will be discussed. Laboratory sessions include basic microbiology techniques, yeast isolations and characterization using DNA and biochemical methods, as well as the study of factors that affect fermentation. At the end of the course the students will give a presentation on other fermentation products of their interest such as vinegar, bread, etc., providing an expanded version of this important process.

BIOL𧊦. Forest Ecology. 4 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈽 with a minimum grade of C. Covers the fundamentals of forest ecology, with a particular emphasis on Virginia’s diverse forest ecosystems. Students gain an understanding of the principal controls on forest structure, growth and distribution and relate these principles to sustainable forest management.

BIOL𧊧. Plant Physiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧆗 and BIOZ𧆗 BIOL𧆘 and BIOZ𧆘 and BIOL𧈬 or equivalents, all with minimum grades of C. Physiology of higher plants at molecular, cellular and organism level. Topics include transport processes, metabolism, growth, stress responses and plant-soil interactions.

BIOL𧊩. Field Botany. 3 Hours. Play course video for Field Botany

Semester course 2 lecture hours and 3 laboratory hours.(60 percent online, 40 percent field/laboratory) 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈶 and BIOL𧈽, both with minimum grades of C. Online lectures, discussions, reflections and assessments in conjunction with field experience. Explores the effects of environmental conditions on plant morphology and adaptations, with emphasis on plant anatomy, plant physiology and ecology.

BIOL𧊮. Invasion Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧆗, BIOL𧆘, BIOZ𧆗, BIOZ𧆘 and BIOL𧈽, all with minimum grade of C. A comprehensive view of the ecology and impacts of invasive species. Integrates the effects of historical human demography, ecological disturbance, natural history, species interactions, barriers to invasion, invasive species management and impacts on natural communities and ecosystems.

BIOL𧊯. Introduction to Marine Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈽, CHEM𧅦 and CHEZ𧅦, with minimum grades of C. An introduction to physical, chemical and geological oceanography and a more detailed treatment of the organisms and ecological processes involved in the pelagic and benthic environments of the world's oceans and estuaries.

BIOL𧊳. Herpetology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈽 with a minimum grade of C. The evolution, ecology, structure, taxonomy and behavior of reptiles and amphibians.

BIOL𧊶. Forensic Molecular Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈶 with a minimum grade of C. Provides an understanding of molecular biology testing methodologies as applied to analysis of forensic samples. Current topics in forensic DNA analysis will include quality assurance, DNA databanking, contemporary research and population genetics. Crosslisted as: FRSC𧊶.

BIOL𧊸. Developmental Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈬 and 310, each with a minimum grade of C. Basic principles of developmental biology focused on vertebrate model organisms with an emphasis on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that guide development.

BIOL𧊽. Neurobiology and Behavior. 4 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈽 with a minimum grade of C. The study of animal behavior stressing ecological, evolutionary and neurobiological approaches.

BIOL𧋀. Neuroscience. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈬 with a minimum grade of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧈶. An examination of the basic structure of the nervous system, nervous system operation on a cellular and molecular level and the formation of the nervous system during development.

BIOL𧋂. Biology of Cancer I. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈬 with a minimum grade of C or PHIS𧈵. An examination of the cellular, molecular and clinical aspects of cancer development, progression and treatment.

BIOL𧋃. Biology of Cancer II. 4 Hours.

Semester course 1 lecture and 12 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧋂 and instructor's permission. A maximum total of six credits for all research and internship courses (BIOL𧊋, BIOL𧋃, BIOL𧋅, BIOL𧋬, BIOL𧋭, BIOL𧋯 and/or BIOZ𧊋) may be applied to the the 40 credits of biology required for the major. Additional credits from these courses may be applied to upper-level and open elective credits toward the degree. An examination of the cellular, molecular and clinical aspects of cancer development, progression and treatment.

BIOL𧋄. Biology of Drugs. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈬 with a minimum grade of C. Explores how drugs modulate biological signaling pathways to study, cure, enhance and intoxicate organisms. An introduction to basic pharmacology that largely focuses on human pathways and diseases. Topics include major drug classes (cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, etc.) and drugs of abuse (alcohol, marijuana, etc.).

BIOL𧋅. Cancer Biology Thesis. 4 Hours.

Semester course 1 recitation and 12 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧋃. A maximum total of six credits for all research and internship courses (BIOL𧊋, BIOL𧋃, BIOL𧋅, BIOL𧋬, BIOL𧋭, BIOL𧋯 and/or BIOZ𧊋) may be applied to the the 40 credits of biology required for the major. Additional credits from these courses may be applied to upper-level and open elective credits toward the degree. Enrollment is restricted to students with permission of the instructor and research mentor. Students will benefit from invaluable learning opportunities in cancer research including hands-on learning, direct mentorship from a VCU faculty member, scientific writing skills, time and research project management, and exposure to and training in various laboratory techniques. In addition, students will gain experience in preparation of a cancer research proposal and thesis.

BIOL𧋇. Immunology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈬 with a minimum grade of C or PHIS𧈵. A comprehensive introduction to the immune system of higher animals, emphasizing the molecular and cellular basis for antibody-medicated immunity.

BIOL𧋋. Infectious Disease Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧆗, BIOL𧆘, BIOZ𧆗, BIOZ𧆘 and BIOL𧈽, all with minimum grade of C. A comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the causes and consequences of infectious disease at levels from individual organisms to global scale. Examines the history of infectious disease ecology in human and nonhuman populations. Students learn about the roles of transmission and coevolution in infectious disease ecology and how population models are used to inform management of epidemics and emerging infectious diseases.

BIOL𧋌. Human Evolutionary Genetics. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈾 or BIOL𧉕 with a minimum grade of C. The origin and genetic history of modern humans, our historic colonization and migration, the utility of the Human Genome Project, our differences from other primates, adaptation to our environment and disease, and the ethical implications of genetic research in our society.

BIOL𧋛. Biology Capstone Seminar: ____. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course 1-3 seminar hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈬, BIOL𧈶, BIOL𧈽 and BIOL𧈾, each with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to biology majors with senior standing. Students read assigned topical papers before class, prepare critical analyses, discuss and debate selected positions. See Schedule of Classes for specific topics.

BIOL𧋝. Biology Capstone Experience. 0 Hours.

Semester course variable hours. 0 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈬, BIOL𧈶, BIOL𧈽 and BIOL𧈾, each with a minimum grade of C and 90 hours of undergraduate course work. The following courses qualify as a capstone experience if taken concurrently with this course: BIOL𧋬, BIOL𧋭, BIOL𧋯, BIOL𧋱 or other courses, including topics courses, which include the core competencies required for a capstone experience and are approved by the chair of the Department of Biology. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL𧋠. Animal-Plant Interactions. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈽 or BIOL𧈾 with a minimum grade of C, or permission of the instructor. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of interactions among animals and plants.

BIOL𧋢. Preceptor Experience. 0 Hours.

Semester course 0 hours. 0 credits. Enrollment is restricted to students who have completed the relevant course for which they will be a teaching assistant with a minimum grade of B and who have a minimum cumulative GPA of 3.0. Permission of instructor and departmental chair also required prior to registration. Teaching assistants will enhance their knowledge of course content and develop skills that are natural to an instructional role, an understanding of the learning process within a discipline and the ability to explain the importance and value of course content to a novice audience. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL𧋤. Research Assistant Experience. 0 Hours.

Semester course 0 hours. 0 credits. Enrollment is restricted to students with permission of the departmental chair and limited to students for whom a research supervisor has agreed to be a mentor. Helps facilitate student involvement in research laboratories within the Department of Biology. Students will gain hands-on experience including data collection and analysis, learning field and/or laboratory techniques, and/or mastering experimental procedures, all under the direct supervision of a faculty member. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL𧋩. Communicating Research. 1 Hour.

Semester course 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisite: Completion of the Biocore with minimum grades of C. Corequisite: BIOL𧋯, senior standing. An opportunity for students to develop skills necessary for effective communication of their research in writing. Includes a variety of seminar discussions and activities including preparation of figures for publication and the crafting of a research paper with correct usage of the primary literature. Students will use this as an opportunity to aid the writing of their thesis for BIOL𧋯.

BIOL𧋪. Presenting Research. 1 Hour.

Semester course 1 credit. Prerequisite: Completion of the Biocore with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisites: BIOL𧋬 or 495, and senior standing. Opportunity for students to develop skills necessary for effective oral presentation of their research work. Includes a variety of seminar discussions and activities such as preparation of visual materials and statistical analysis of data. Students will make several oral presentations directly related to their specific BIOL𧋬 or 495 projects.

BIOL𧋫. Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈬. A study of a selected topic in biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOL𧋬. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course 1-4 independent study hours. 1-4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOZ𧆗 and BIOZ𧆘, each with a minimum grade of C and permission of the chair of the Department of Biology. May be repeated for credit. A maximum total of six credits for all research and internship courses (BIOL𧊋, BIOL𧋃, BIOL𧋅, BIOL𧋬, BIOL𧋭, BIOL𧋯 and/or BIOZ𧊋) may be applied to the 40 credits of biology required for the major. Additional credits from these courses may be applied to upper-level and open elective credits toward the degree. A minimum of two credits is required for the course to count as a laboratory experience. Projects should include data collection and analysis, learning field and/or laboratory techniques, and/or mastering experimental procedures, all under the direct supervision of a faculty member. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. A final report must be submitted at the completion of the project.

BIOL𧋭. Biology Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course 1-3 field experience hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈶 or 317 with minimum grades of C and permission of the chair of the Department of Biology and of the agency, company or organization in which internship will be held. May be repeated for credit. Students may take a maximum of three credits per semester maximum total of six credits for all research and internship courses (BIOL𧊋, BIOL𧋃, BIOL𧋅, BIOL𧋬, BIOL𧋭, BIOL𧋯 and/or BIOZ𧊋) may be applied to the 40 credits of biology required for the major. Additional credits from these courses may be applied to upper-level and open elective credits toward the degree. One credit is awarded for each 100 hours of work experience in professional biology setting. Internship designed to provide laboratory or field experience in an off-campus professional biology setting. A final report must be submitted upon completion of the internship. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL𧋯. Research and Thesis. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course 1-4 research hours. 1-4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧊈, permission of the supervising faculty member and a research proposal acceptable to the departmental chair. Corequisite: BIOL𧋩 or BIOL𧋪. May be repeated for a maximum of eight credits. Students may take a maximum of four credits per semester maximum total of six credits for all research and internship courses (BIOL𧊋, BIOL𧋃, BIOL𧋅, BIOL𧋬, BIOL𧋭, BIOL𧋯 and/or BIOZ𧊋) may be applied to the 40 credits of biology required for the major. Additional credits from these courses may be applied to upper-level and open elective credits toward the degree. A minimum of two credits is required for the course to count as a laboratory experience. A minimum of four credits is required for honors in biology. Activities include field and/or laboratory research under the direct supervision of a faculty mentor. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. Research projects must include experimental design and analysis of data. This course must be taken for two consecutive semesters starting in the fall. A written thesis of substantial quality is required upon completion of the research.

BIOL𧋰. Biology Preceptorship: ____. 2 Hours.

Semester course 2 practicum hours. 2 credits. May be repeated with a different course for credit. Enrollment restricted to students who have completed the relevant course with a minimum grade of B and who have a minimum cumulative GPA of 3.0. Permission of instructor is required prior to registration. Preceptors assist instructors in lecture (BIOL) or laboratory (BIOZ) courses. Responsibilities vary and may include, but are not limited to, attending class, conducting review sessions and preparing course study/review materials. Graded as pass/fail. A maximum of four combined credits from BIOL𧋰 and BIOL𧋳 may be applied to degree requirements.

BIOL𧋱. Ecological Service Learning. 1 Hour.

Semester course 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈽 with a minimum grade of C. A service-learning course coupled to course content and material taught in BIOL𧈽. Students will seek out ecologically relevant opportunities with local, state and federal community partners who will provide experiences to enhance academic enrichment and personal growth and will help foster a sense of civic responsibility. Students must complete a minimum of 20 service-learning hours with community partner(s).

BIOL𧋲. Insects and Plants Service-learning. 2 Hours.

Semester course 2 field experience hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈽 or BIOL𧈾 with a minimum grade of C, and permission of the instructor. A service-learning course related to insect-plant interactions. Field experience with community partners, including public parks, botanical gardens and organic farms. Designed to expand academic instruction, enhance personal growth and foster a sense of civic responsibility. Students must complete a minimum of 40 service-learning hours with a community partner.

BIOL𧋳. Biology Lead Preceptorship. 2 Hours.

Semester course 2 practicum hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧋰 in the same course with a grade of Pass. Enrollment is restricted to students who have completed the relevant course with a minimum grade of B and who have a minimum cumulative GPA of 3.0. Permission of the instructor is required prior to registration. Lead preceptors assist instructors in lecture (BIOL) or laboratory (BIOZ) courses. Responsibilities cumulate beyond those required in the prerequisite course. Responsibilities vary and may include, but are not are limited to, organizing preceptor teams for large enrollment courses, preceptor mentorship, data entry of course materials, execution of group work, etc. Graded as pass/fail. A maximum of four combined credits from BIOL𧋰 and BIOL𧋳 may be applied to degree requirements.

BIOL𧋶. Microbial Biotechnology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MICR/BIOC𧋷 or BIOC𧌒, 531, 532 and 533 or equivalent, and MICR/BIOC𧋸 or equivalent. Open to qualified seniors and graduate students only. Discussion of the application of basic principles to the solution of commercial problems. The course will cover the historical principles in biotransformations as related to primary and secondary metabolism, as well as recombinant DNA technology and monoclonal antibodies and products resulting from the application of recombinant DNA technology.

BIOL𧋷. Fish Biology. 4 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈽 or equivalent. Open to qualified seniors and graduate students only. Classification, behavior, physiology and ecology of fishes. Laboratories will emphasize field collection of fish and identification of specimens.

BIOL𧋻. Aquatic Microbiology. 4 Hours.

Semester course 2 lecture and 4 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈯 and 307 or equivalents. Open to qualified seniors and graduate students only. This course will involve a practical approach to the methods used to culture, identify and enumerate specific microorganisms that affect the cycling of elements in aquatic systems and those that affect or indicate water quality.

BIOL𧋼. Barrier Island Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈽 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. A study of the physical factors affecting the formation of barrier islands, adaptations of plants and animals for colonization and persistence in these harsh environments, and how coastal ecological processes conform to general ecological theory. Examples and problems pertaining to Virginia and the southeastern United States are emphasized.

BIOL𧋽. Microbial Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈽 or equivalent with a grade of C or better. Open only to qualified seniors and graduate students. Explores the interactions of microorganisms and their environment, including discussion of microbial diversity, nutrient cycling, symbiosis and selected aspects of applied microbiology.

BIOL𧋾. Conservation Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Open to qualified seniors and graduate students only. Explores the accelerated loss of species due to increasing human population pressure and the biological, social and legal processes involved in conserving biodiversity.

BIOL𧌀. Plant Diversity and Evolution. 4 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture and 4 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈬 and 310 or equivalents, or permission of instructor. Taxonomy, diversity and evolutionary history of vascular plants (including ferns, gymnosperms and flowering plants). Lecture emphasis on evolutionary relationships laboratory emphasis on plant recognition and identification, especially of the Virginia flora, including some field trips to areas of local botanical interest.

BIOL𧌂. Stream Ecology. 4 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈽. Open to qualified seniors and graduate students only. A study of the ecology of streams and rivers. Laboratory emphasis is on the structure and functioning of aquatic communities in mountain to coastal streams.

BIOL𧌄. Population Genetics. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: STAT/BIOS𧌟. Theoretical and empirical analyses of how demographic and evolutionary processes influence neutral and adaptive genetic variation within populations.

BIOL𧌆. Plant Ecology. 4 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. One three-day field trip is required. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈽. Open to qualified seniors and graduate students only. A lecture, field and laboratory course concerned with the development, succession and dynamics of plant communities and their interrelations with climate, soil, biotic and historic factors.

BIOL𧌇. Forest Ecology. 4 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈽 or equivalent. Enrollment restricted to graduate students and upper-level undergraduates. Covers advanced topics in forest ecology, with a particular emphasis on Virginia’s diverse forest ecosystems. Students gain an understanding of the principal controls on forest structure, growth and distribution and apply these principles to the development and execution of a graduate-level field research project.

BIOL𧌈. Population Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈶 and BIOL𧈽 or permission of instructor. Open to qualified seniors and graduate students only. Theoretical and empirical analysis of processes that occur within natural populations, including population genetics, population growth and fluctuation, demography, evolution of life history strategies and interspecific interactions. Quantitative models will be used extensively to explore ecological concepts.

BIOL𧌉. Community Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈽 or equivalent. Open to qualified seniors and graduate students only. Theoretical and empirical analysis of the structure and function of natural communities, ecosystems and landscapes.

BIOL𧌊. Evolution and Speciation. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈶 or equivalent. Open to qualified seniors and graduate students only. Evolutionary principles, with emphasis on genetic and environmental factors leading to changes in large and small populations of plants and animals, and the mechanisms responsible for speciation.

BIOL𧌌. Endocrinology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈬 and CHEM𧈭-302 and CHEZ 301L, 302L or equivalent. Open to qualified seniors and graduate students only. Hormonal control systems at the organ, tissue and cellular level. Although the major emphasis will be on vertebrate endocrine systems, some discussion of invertebrate and plant control systems will be covered.

BIOL𧌒. Introduction to Human Genetics. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Enrollment restricted to qualified seniors and graduate students. Basic knowledge of genetics is recommended. Provides a comprehensive examination of the fundamentals of human genetics. Explores topics including Mendelian and non-Mendelian inheritance, pedigree analysis, cytogenetics, aneuploid syndromes, cancer, gene structure and function, epigenetics, gene expression, biochemical genetics, and inborn errors of metabolism.

BIOL𧌗. Wetlands Ecology. 4 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈽 or equivalent or permission of instructor. A study of the ecology of freshwater and coastal wetlands, including the physical and biological aspects of these systems, wetland functions at local, landscape and global scales, and wetland regulations and restoration. Students will acquire skills with analytical techniques used in laboratory settings and in field-based applications for purposes of identifying and delineating wetland ecosystems.

BIOL𧌜. Fundamentals of Molecular Genetics. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈶 or consent of instructor. The basic principles and methodologies of molecular biology and genetics are applied to genome organization, replication, expression, regulation, mutation and reorganization. Emphasis will be placed on a broad introduction to and integration of important topics in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Crosslisted as: BNFO𧌜.

BIOL𧌝. Laboratory in Molecular Genetics. 2 Hours.

Semester course 1 lecture and 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧌜 or equivalent. Experiments are designed to apply advanced techniques and concepts of molecular biology and genetics using prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Emphasis will be placed on experimental design, integrating results throughout the semester, making use of relevant published literature, scientific writing and providing hands-on experience with advanced equipment and methodologies. Crosslisted as: BNFO𧌝.

BIOL𧌡. Biological Complexity. 3 Hours.

Semester course 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: physics and calculus, or permission of instructor. Open only to graduate students and qualified seniors. An introduction to the basis of complexity theory and the principles of emergent properties within the context of integrative life sciences. The dynamic interactions among biological, physical and social components of systems are emphasized, ranging from the molecular to ecosystem level. Modeling and simulation methods for investigating biological complexity are illustrated. Crosslisted as: LFSC𧋾.

BIOL𧌤. Bioinformatic Technologies. 2 Hours.

Semester course 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧌡/LFSC𧋾 or permission of instructor. Introduction to the hardware and software used in computational biology, proteomics, genomics, ecoinformatics and other areas of data analysis in the life sciences. The course also will introduce students to data mining, the use of databases, meta-data analysis and techniques to access information. Crosslisted as: LFSC𧌈.

BIOL𧌦. Ecological Genetics. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Open to qualified seniors and graduate students only. Introduces the principles of ecological genetics, especially those with foundations in population and quantitative genetics, and illustrates conceptual difficulties encountered by resource stewards who wish to apply genetic principles. Explores various types of biological technologies employed by conservation geneticists and provides means for students to gain experience in analyzing and interpreting ecological genetic data.

BIOL𧌰. Conservation Medicine. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Introduces students to key elements of wildlife diseases, zoonoses, emerging infectious diseases associated with wildlife and humans, and both the conservation and health impacts of these topics. Included are discussions of the interactions among environmental quality and wildlife and human diseases and health. Topics include diseases of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, the effects of environmental contaminants and climate on those diseases, and their interaction with human health.

BIOL𧌵. Advances in Cell Signaling. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈬 or equivalent. Topical course focusing on advances in cellular communication by cytokines, hormones and neurotransmitters. Each semester, the course focuses on a different topic. Past topics have included cancer biology, allergy and asthma, and autoimmunity.

BIOL𧍄. Eukaryotic Biotechnology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈬 and BIOL𧈶, both with a minimum grade of C, or graduate standing in biology or a related field. Enrollment is restricted to graduate students and senior undergraduates. Discussion of principles, concepts, techniques, applications and current advances in cellular and molecular biology aspects of biotechnology for animal and plant cells. The course will cover molecular construction of foreign genes DNA cloning technologies for DNA, RNA and protein analyses nonvector and vector-mediated genetic transformation gene regulation in transgenic cells cell and tissue culture cell fusion and agricultural, medical and other industrial applications.

BIOL𧍏. Special Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course 1-4 credits. An in-depth study of a selected topic in biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites. If several topics are offered, students may elect to take more than one.

BIOL𧍙. Integrated Bioinformatics. 4 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Enrollment requires permission of instructor. Presents major concepts in bioinformatics through a series of real-life problems to be solved by students. Problems addressed will include but not be limited to issues in genomic analysis, statistical analysis and modeling of complex biological phenomena. Emphasis will be placed on attaining a deep understanding of a few widely used tools of bioinformatics. Crosslisted as: BNFO𧍙.

BIOL𧍚. Professional and Career Development in Biology. 1 Hour.

Semester course 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Enrollment is restricted to students with graduate standing. This course will equip students early in their graduate experience with the knowledge, resources and skills to rapidly and successfully complete the requirements for an M.S. in Biology while enhancing their communication and planning skills in several critical formats and areas, as well as exploring alternative career paths based on their personal goals and values.

BIOL𧍛. Fundamentals of Scientific Leadership. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Enrollment restricted to students with graduate standing. The purpose of this course is to prepare students to successfully work as members and leaders of diverse scientific teams during their graduate studies and in multiple scientific career paths. Students will be familiarized and gain experience with key concepts of teams and leading teams, including values-based missions and goals, effective communication and feedback, stages of team development and leadership, diversity and inclusivity, mentoring and coaching, resolving conflict, project management, leading change, leaving a legacy, and assessment.

BIOL𧍜. Research Integrity. 1 Hour.

Semester course 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Enrollment is restricted to students with graduate standing. This course is designed to provide a discussion-based approach to research integrity. By the end of the course students will be acutely aware of how science interacts with and informs society. They will have digested an array of topical issues relating to responsible conduct of research and be able to clearly articulate ethical and legal solutions to problems posed. This course addresses issues across a broad biosciences background including laboratory and field studies. This course targets master's- and entry-level Ph.D. students. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL𧍝. Diversity and Inclusion in Science. 1 Hour.

Semester course 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Enrollment is restricted to students with graduate standing. This course will familiarize and engage students with multiple forms of diversity in science through presentations, diverse guest speakers, class discussions and student assignments, preparing them to recognize and leverage this diversity by employing inclusiveness throughout their scientific careers and lives.

BIOL𧍞. Quantitative Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Principles and applications of mathematical ecology at the community level, including experimental design sampling techniques, assumptions and limitations and the use of cluster analysis, gradient analysis and ordination to evaluate, summarize and compare large data sets.

BIOL𧍟. Science Communication: Fundamentals. 2 Hours.

Semester course 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Enrollment is restricted to students with graduate standing. The goal of this course is to provide training in science communication to diverse audiences from scientific and nonscientific backgrounds and across diverse career paths. The course covers fundamental rules of writing, the writing process, technical writing, visual presentation, oral presentation, engaging audiences and communication with the public. Students will attain science communication skills through writing exercises, videotaped oral exercises and peer review to prepare them for graduate school and beyond.

BIOL𧍠. Science Communication: Research Proposals. 2 Hours.

Semester course 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Enrollment is restricted to students with graduate standing. The goal of this course is to provide training in writing competitive research proposals. Students will learn the necessary skills for the proposal-writing stage of scientific research preparatory stage, including reference managers, annotated bibliographies, selling the idea, mock review panels, short-form proposals, long-form proposals and thesis/dissertation proposals. Students will learn proposal-writing skills that will provide an edge in applications for a diversity of funding sources.

BIOL𧍡. Scientific Communication: Public Discourse. 1 Hour.

Semester course 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisite: BIOL𧍟. Enrollment is restricted to students with graduate standing. The mission of this course is to train students nearing completion of a thesis/dissertation to apply skills they learned in the prerequisite course to effectively communicate their own thesis/dissertation research, and its relevance to global issues in biology, to nonscientific audiences. Students successfully completing this course will be able to effectively communicate the science and relevance of their own research in verbal and written formats with non-scientists in the lay public, government and nongovernment institutions and the media. Graded as satisfactory/unsatisfactory.

BIOL𧍢. Conservation Applications. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Covers the implementation of conservation techniques including monitoring, planning, education, habitat management and combining conservation with human development strategies. Focuses on how to make conservation work where biodiverstiy and human livelihoods must be reconciled. Students will utilize a number of computer programs to analyze and interpret management strategies.

BIOL𧍪. Ecosystems Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈽 or equivalent or permission by instructor. Introduction to the structure and functioning of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The course complements other offerings in the graduate program by considering ecological processes at higher orders of organization and in the context of abiotic factors. Students will gain discipline-specific knowledge through lectures and readings while building quantitative and critical thinking.

BIOL𧍬. Biogeochemistry. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Enrollment restricted to graduate students. This course will examine the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and iron on Earth from both a historical perspective and in the context of global environmental change, considering the cycles individually while also acknowledging that there are significant interactions between these cycles. Examples of biogeochemical processes will be drawn from multiple ecosystems, ranging from terrestrial soils to the deep ocean.

BIOL𧍲. Physiological Ecology. 4 Hours.

Semester course 4 lecture hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈽 or equivalent. This course examines the physiological adjustments and adaptations made by organisms in response to their environment.

BIOL𧍶. Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A comprehensive ecological and evolutionary study of specializations and adaptive radiation in mammalian reproductive anatomy, the reproductive cycle, seasonality of reproduction and factors affecting litter size and developmental state of neonates. Human reproductive biology is included when pertinent.

BIOL𧎀. Evolution and Molecular Markers. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Methodologies and applications of molecular biology as they pertain to the study of evolution, with a focus on systematics, speciation and biogeography. The course provides proficiency in the understanding, interpretation and choice of appropriate molecular markers for evolutionary research, with particular attention to current methods and recent literature. Designed to benefit students of both natural history (ecologists, systematics, evolutionary biologists) and molecular biology.

BIOL𧎊. Conservation Genetics. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Covers the application of molecular genetics to biodiversity conservation. Essential topics include molecular measures of genetic diversity, estimating loss of genetic diversity in small populations, detecting inbreeding, resolution of taxonomic uncertainties, genetic management of T&E species, captive breeding and reintroduction. Students will utilize a number of computer programs to analyze and interpret molecular genetic data.

BIOL𧎎. Environmental Remote Sensing. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENVS𧍚, or permission of the instructor. This course provides a basic and applied understanding on the use of digital remote sensor data to detect, identify and characterize earth resources. Students are required to demonstrate an understanding of the spectral attributes of soils, vegetation and water resources through various labs involving both image- and non-image-based optical spectral data. Crosslisted as: ENVS𧎎/URSP𧎎.

BIOL𧎔. Developmental Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: biochemistry or cell biology or their equivalent. Molecular and cellular principles of developmental biology in model systems, including flies, worms, fish and mammals. Understanding of morphogen gradients, transcription, cell movements and signaling in development. Advanced methods are taught enabling students to interpret and present findings from the primary literature.

BIOL𧎤. Plant and Animal Cell Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: biochemistry or cell biology or permission of instructor. Molecular and cellular principles of cell behavior and function in plant and animal cells. Topics include intracellular transport, cell cycle control, signaling and cell motility. Advanced methods are taught enabling students to interpret and present findings from the primary literature in this field.

BIOL𧎲. Biology Seminar. 1 Hour.

Semester course 1 credit. May be repeated for credit. Presentations by faculty and visiting lecturers, and discussions of research and developments in biology and related fields. Graded as S/U/F.

BIOL𧎳. Special Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course variable hours. 1-4 credits. An advanced study of a selected topic in biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites. If several topics are offered, students may elect to take more than one.

BIOL𧎴. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course hours to be arranged. Credits to be arranged. Determination of the amount of credit and permission of instructor, adviser and department chair must be obtained prior to registration for this course. A course designed to provide an opportunity for independent research in any area of biology outside the graduate student thesis area.

BIOL𧎵. Current Topics in Biology. 1 Hour.

Semester course 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. May be repeated for credit. Designed to develop skills in preparing and delivering oral presentations in conjunction with an in-depth study of a current topic in biology. Students present talks and lead discussions on the selected topic.

BIOL𧎺. Thesis. 1-16 Hours.

Semester course hours to be arranged. Credits to be arranged. Independent research by students in areas of systematics, environmental, developmental, behavioral, cellular and molecular biology, and comparative physiology.

BIOZ𧅥. Biological Concepts Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧅥, 151 or 152. Laboratory exercise correlated with BIOL𧅥. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOZ𧆗. Introduction to Biological Science Laboratory I. 1 Hour.

Semester course 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisite: MATH𧆍, MATH𧆗, MATH𧇈, MATH𧇉 or a satisfactory score on the math placement exam and CHEM𧅤 with a minimum grade of B, CHEM𧅥 with a minimum grade of C or a satisfactory score on the chemistry placement exam. Corequisite: BIOL𧆗. Laboratory investigation of cellular metabolism, genetics and molecular biology, with an emphasis on formation and testing of hypotheses. Laboratory exercises will elaborate themes discussed in BIOL𧆗.

BIOZ𧆘. Introduction to Biological Science Laboratory II. 1 Hour.

Semester course 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: BIOL𧆗, BIOZ𧆗 and CHEM𧅥, each with a minimum grade of C. Corequisite: BIOL𧆘. Laboratory investigation of evolutionary concepts, evolution of organisms, biological diversity and ecology, with an emphasis on formation and testing of hypotheses. Laboratory exercises will elaborate themes discussed in BIOL𧆘.

BIOZ𧇉. Human Biology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧇉. Laboratory exercises correlated with BIOL𧇉 Human Biology. Exercises emphasize the structure, function and disorders of human body systems, principles of human genetics and inheritance, and human evolution and ecology. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOZ𧇑. Medical Microbiology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧇑. Techniques to culture, isolate and identify microbes with related topics such as water coliform tests, and antibiotics and disinfectant sensitivity testing. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOZ𧈯. Microbiology Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧈯. Laboratory application of techniques and concepts in microbiology. Emphasis is placed on techniques to isolate, culture and identify bacteria genetics and molecular biology of bacteria safety and aseptic protocols assays for antibiotic and disinfectant susceptibility.

BIOZ𧈳. Aquatic Ecology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈽, CHEM𧅦 and CHEZ𧅦, with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧈳. Laboratory and field studies of the biota of aquatic habitats and their relationship with the environment.

BIOZ𧈶. Laboratory in Genetics. 2 Hours.

Semester course 1 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV𧇈 or HONR𧇈 and BIOL𧆘 and BIOZ𧆘, each with a minimum grade of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧈶. Demonstrates the laws and molecular basis of heredity through exercises and experiments that use a variety of organisms.

BIOZ𧈸. Invertebrate Zoology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ𧆗 and 152, with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧈸. A laboratory survey of the invertebrate animals, with emphasis on environment interactions. A weekend trip to a marine environment is required.

BIOZ𧈹. Vertebrate Natural History Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ𧆗 and 152, with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧈹. Laboratory exercises focusing on the natural history of vertebrates, with emphasis on the species native to Virginia.

BIOZ𧈽. Ecology Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ𧆗 and 152, and UNIV𧇈 or HONR𧇈 all with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧈽. A field-oriented course that provides experience in ecological research, including experimental design, instrumentation, data collection and data analysis.

BIOZ𧉁. Plant Development Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧉁. An experimental approach applied to a phylogenetic survey of developmental model systems. Observational and experimental protocols will be used to collect data and gather information. Problem-solving skills will be utilized to analyze and present experimental results.

BIOZ𧉄. Medicinal Botany Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites BIOL𧆗 and BIOZ𧆗 BIOL𧆘 and BIOZ𧆘 and BIOL𧈬, all with a minimum grade of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧉄. Introduces basic plant biology concepts, plant diversity and systematics, and various medicinal plant species, compounds and properties.

BIOZ𧉕. Human Evolution Lab. 1 Hour.

Semester course 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: BIOL𧉕/ANTH𧈭. Laboratory exercises correlated with BIOL𧉕/ANTH𧈭. Exercises emphasize comparative primate and fossil anatomy, morphology and behavior, as well as practice in recognizing and applying evolutionary principles in human evolution. Crosslisted as: ANTZ𧈭.

BIOZ𧊇. Topics in Biology Laboratory. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course 1-4 laboratory hours. 1-2 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈬, BIOL𧈶, BIOL𧈽 or BIOL𧈾, with a minimum grade of C. Laboratory investigations in a selected topic of biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOZ𧊋. Directed Study. 1-2 Hours.

Semester course 1-2 independent study hours. 1-2 credits. Prerequisites: BIOZ𧆗 and BIOZ𧆘 with minimum grades of C, permission of the Department of Biology and research mentor. A maximum of two credits may be earned between BIOL𧊋 and BIOZ𧊋 maximum total of six credits for all research and internship courses (BIOL𧊋, BIOL𧋃, BIOL𧋅, BIOL𧋬, BIOL𧋭, BIOL𧋯 and/or BIOZ𧊋) may be applied to the the 40 credits of biology required for the major. Additional credits from these courses may be applied to upper-level and open elective credits toward the degree. A minimum of two credits is required for the course to count as a laboratory experience. Mentors are not limited to faculty members within the Department of Biology, but the context of the research study must be applicable to the biological sciences as determined by the department. Studies should include directed readings, directed experimentation or advanced guided inquiry — all under the direct supervision of a faculty member. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOZ𧊠. Ornithology Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL𧈽 with a minimum grade of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL𧊠. A field-oriented course that develops basic skills in bird identification by sight and sound for a variety of regional taxa with emphasis on avian anatomy and adaptations for flight. Students conduct an independent or small-group research project on a question of their choice relating to avian ecology or behavior, including experimental design, data collection and analysis, and a final project presentation.

BIOZ𧊢. Integrative Physiology Laboratory. 3 Hours.

Semester course 2 recitation and 3 laboratory hours (hybrid course taught mostly on campus). 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧆗 and BIOZ𧆗 BIOL𧆘 and BIOZ𧆘 and BIOL𧈬 or equivalents, all with minimum grades of C. Corequisite: BIOL𧊛 or BIOL𧊧. A comparative laboratory investigation of physiological responses across plant and animal taxa, with application to changing environmental conditions and ecological interactions. Topics include metabolism, water balance, gas exchange, resource allocation and chemical signaling.

BIOZ𧊶. Forensic Molecular Biology Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL/FRSC𧊶. Provides comprehensive coverage of the various types of DNA testing currently used in forensic science laboratories. Students will have hands-on experience with the analytical equipment employed in forensic science laboratories and the techniques for human identification in forensic casework. Students also will explore and practice both scientific writing and writing of DNA case reports. Crosslisted as: FRSZ𧊶.

BIOZ𧋜. Molecular Capstone Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course 1 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈬 and BIOL𧈶, each with a minimum grade of C and 90 credit hours of undergraduate course work. Application of basic methods used in cellular and molecular biology to the investigation of topics of current biological interest. Emphasis on experimental design, data collection and analysis, communication skills, critical thinking, and ethical and social responsibility.

BIOZ𧋫. Topics in Biology Laboratory. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisites: BIOL𧈬 with a minimum grade of C. Laboratory investigations in a selected topic of biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.


Biology Course Descriptions

BI 100 PRE-HEALTH CAREER EXPLORATION 3.0 Credit(s)
As healthcare is being coupled with advanced technologies to provide exceptional care to patients and to meet the rising demand for healthcare professionals, new and interesting jobs in the healthcare field are available. Students considering academic study and careers in the health professions will benefit from increasing their knowledge of both the breadth and depth of career opportunities in the healthcare field and systematically approaching questions of healthcare technology, the changing needs of patients, and vocational fit.
Offered: Summer 2 Semester Contact Department

BI 101 THE NATURE OF LIFE 3.0 Credit(s)
This course examines science as a process to understand basic biological concepts of cells, genetics, evolution, and ecology. Students will examine current biological research and how that impacts their lives and the future of humankind. Three hours of lecture per week. Non-science majors. A prerequisite to SW 267.
Offered: Fall & Spring Semesters All Years

BI 102 INTRODUCTION TO PATHOPHYSIOLOGY 3.0 Credit(s)
This course is designed to promote the understanding and application of fundamental disease processes and disabilities. General concepts of disease, including etiology, morphology and clinical significance are discussed. These concepts are applied in a systems oriented approach to disease processes, and concepts of human genetics will be covered.
Offered: As Needed Contact Department

BI 103 THE HUMAN BODY 3.0 Credit(s)
Focuses on human physiology and the role humans play in the health and maintenance of their bodies. Topics include human organization, processing and transporting, integration and coordination, and reproduction. Three hours of lecture per week. Non-science majors. A prerequisite to SW 267.
Offered: Fall & Spring Semesters All Years

BI 104 INTRODUCTION TO COASTAL ECOLOGY 3.0 Credit(s)
This course investigates the interrelationship between coastal environments and the organisms living in these environments. It also looks at related societal implications. Non-science majors.
Offered: Spring & Late Spring Semesters All Years

BI 105 INTRO TO NUTRITION 3.0 Credit(s)
A study of the basic concepts of nutrition as well as current controversies surrounding food choices in relation to body needs and of design­ing and consuming a balanced diet for sound nutrition throughout life.
Offered: As Needed Contact Department

BI 106 MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY 3.0 Credit(s)
This online course is intended to introduce the language and application of medical terminology to students interested in a career in health care.
Offered: Fall Semester All Years

BI 107 HEREDITY & SOCIETY 3.0 Credit(s)
BI 107 is a genetics course examining the evidence for proposing the existence of genes, the molecular nature of genes, and the ethical implications of recent advances in genetic research. Three hours of lecture per week. Non-science majors.
Offered: Spring Semester All Years

BI 109 BIOLOGY FOR ELEM. TEACHERS 3.0 Credit(s)
This course covers the fundamental concepts of biology at all levels from cells to organisms to ecosystems as outlined in the Next Generation Science Standards for K-4. The course will illustrate these principles through lecture and laboratory utilizing current pedagogy including hands-on, inquiry-oriented practices. 100 minutes of lecture and 2.5 hours of lab per week.
Offered: Spring Semester All Years

BI 110 PRIMATE BEHAVIOR & CONSERVATION 3.0 Credit(s)
This course introduces students to the study of animal behavior in zoos. Students will gain general skills to explore field methods for behavioral observation and data collection in a captive setting. In addition, students consider how they might use captive behavioral data to help conserve threatened and endangered animal species. Students will have the unusual opportunity to conduct field studies at LEO Zoological Conservation Center in Greenwich. Non-science majors.
Offered: Summer Semester Contact Department

BI 111 CONCEPTS IN BIOLOGY I 3.0 Credit(s)
BI 111 is the first foundational course in biology and provides an introduction to the molecular concepts that form the basis of cellular life. Concepts in Biology I covers the basic principles of evolution, biochemistry, cell structure and function, signal transduction, cell division, transmission genetics, the central dogma of molecular biology, and control of gene expression. Two 50-minute lectures and one 75-minute discussion/week. A prerequisite to BI 112, 201, 202, 205, 206, 212, and 230 PS 335, 350, 351, 352, and 353. Prerequisite: Co: Take BI-113
Offered: Fall & Spring Semesters All Years

BI 112 CONCEPTS IN BIOLOGY II 3.0 Credit(s)
BI 112 is the second foundational course in biology. The course focuses on the cellular and organismal levels in the hierarchy of biological organization. Concepts in Biology II covers adaptations of plant and animal life in an evolutionary context and includes discussion of development, body and tissue organization, homeostasis, energy yielding metabolism, nutrition, digestion, circulation, nutrient transport, and gas exchange. Two 50-minute lectures and one 75 minute discussion/week. A prerequisite to BI 201, 202, 210, 212, 230, 245, 255, 274, 276, 278, 305, and 345. Prerequisite: Pre: BI-111 and BI-113
Offered: Fall & Spring Semesters All Years

BI 113 CONCEPTS IN BIOLOGY I LAB 1.0 Credit(s)
The laboratory associated with Concepts in Biology I focuses on multiweek exercises that reinforce critical concepts on the molecular and cellular levels of biological organization. The laboratory incorporates student-designed experiments, extensive journal-format scientific writing, and emphasizes science as a process. One 3-hour laboratory/week. Prerequisite: Co: Take BI-111
Offered: Fall & Spring Semesters All Years

BI 114 CONCEPTS IN BIOLOGY II LAB 1.0 Credit(s)
The laboratory associated with Concepts in Biology II focuses on introduction of techniques for observing organismal physiology and behavior that reinforce critical concepts on the cellular and organismal levels of biological organization. The laboratory incorporates an open-ended multiweek student-designed experiment, extensive journal-format scientific writing, and emphasizes science as a process. One 3-hour laboratory/week. Prerequisite: Pre: BI-111 and BI-113
Offered: Fall & Spring Semesters All Years

BI 120 GENETICS & GENEALOGY 3.0 Credit(s)
Who are we and where do we come from? This course addresses that question by understanding the genetics that underlie personalized genetic ancestry test results and relating this to students' family trees and the historical context surrounding specific individuals in those trees. Each student will explore their own individual family genealogy and genetic history. In addition, the class as a whole will research the family genealogy of a Black member of the Sacred Heart community and compare the history impacting their family trees.
Offered: Spring Semester All Years

BI 126 NURSING HUMAN ANAT/PHYS I 3.0 Credit(s)
Lecture on the investigation of cell structure and function, tissues, skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems. Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion. Nursing students only. Prerequisite: Co:Take BI-127
Offered: Fall Semester All Years

BI 127 NURSING HUMAN ANAT/PHYS I LAB 1.0 Credit(s)
Laboratory involves investigation of cell structure and function, tissues, skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems. Three hours of laboratory. Prerequisite: Co: Take BI-126
Offered: Fall Semester All Years

BI 128 NURSING HUMAN ANAT/PHYS II 3.0 Credit(s)
Lecture involves the investigation of the endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion. Nursing students only. Prerequisite: Pre: BI-126 BI-127
Offered: Spring Semester All Years

BI 129 Nursing Human Anat/Phys II Lab 1.0 Credit(s)
Laboratory involves the investigation of the endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. Three hours of laboratory. Prerequisite: Pre: BI 126 and BI-127
Offered: Spring Semester All Years

BI 150 BIOLOGY OF POISONS 3.0 Credit(s)
This course presents the principles of toxicology within a human context, discusses how toxicology affects everyday life, and investigates the broader issues for public health and disease prevention. Non-science majors.
Offered: Summer Semester Contact Department

BI 152 ENVIRONMENT & SUSTAINABILITY 3.0 Credit(s)
Students will learn about environmental science, exploring how human activity changes our natural environment. The importance of clean air, land, and water will also be discussed. Non-science majors.
Offered: Summer Semester Contact Department

BI 155 BIOLOGY & HUMANISTIC INQUIRY 3.0 Credit(s)
Topics in Biology and Humanistic inquiry will explore how nature and culture are interconnected. This course will cover a variety of instructor selected thematic content centered on topics chosen to increase student awareness of how advances in biology have shaped human societies and culture.
Offered: As Needed Contact Department

BI 156 BIOLOGY & GLOBAL AWARENESS 3.0 Credit(s)
Topics in Biology and Social and Global Awareness will cover a variety of instructor selected thematic content centered on topics chosen to increase enrolled students awareness of social and global issues.
Offered: As Needed Contact Department

BI 157 BIOLOGY & SCIENTIFIC LITERACY 3.0 Credit(s)
Topics in Biology and Scientific inquiry will cover a variety of instructor selected thematic content centered on topics chosen to increase the ability of students to assess the quality of scientific information, to pose and evaluate arguments based on evidence, and to apply the principles of scientific inquiry to make and communicate reasoned and ethical judgments about the role of science and in individuals' lives, communities, and the world.
Offered: As Needed Contact Department

BI 161 INTRO TO MICROBIOLOGY 3.0 Credit(s)
A course focused on the study of microorganisms with emphasis on morphology, cultivation, genetics of bacteria, viruses and fungi, and infectious diseases caused by these microbes. Three hours of lecture per week. Nursing students only. Prerequisite: Co: Take BI-162
Offered: Fall Semester All Years

BI 162 INTRO TO MICROBIOLOGY LAB 1.0 Credit(s)
Laboratory work stresses aseptic technique and the microscopic, nutritional, and biochemical characteristics of bacteria. One three-hour laboratory period per week. Prerequisite: Co: Take BI-161
Offered: Fall Semester All Years

BI 165 HUMAN EVOLUTION 3.0 Credit(s)

Offered: Fall & Spring Semesters Contact Department

BI 174 INTRODUCTION TO COASTAL MGMT 3.0 Credit(s)
BI 174 is a lecture and field-oriented course that introduces students to the biological, chemical, and physical theory that aids in the understanding and management of coastal ecosystems. Non-science majors.
Offered: Spring Semester All Years

BI 176 INTRODUCTION TO OCEANOGRAPHY 3.0 Credit(s)
BI 176 is a lecture and field-oriented course that introduces students to the principles of oceanography emphasizing the chemical and physical processes that affect coastal oceans. Non-science majors.
Offered: Late Spring Semester Contact Department

BI 185 BIO & PSYCH OF CONSERVATION 3.0 Credit(s)
This course connects the two sciences of biology and psychology by exploring topics in nature conservation related to the biological perspective and human attitudes.
Offered: Spring Semester Odd Academic Years

BI 190 SEMINAR ON HEALTH PROFESSIONS 1.0 Credit(s)
Seminar will meet weekly for discussions and other activities associated with planning for a future in the relevant health professions. Discussion topics include advice on course selections, timing of registration for courses in relation to exams such as the MCAT/DAT/GRE, balance between pre-health studies and other academic and extracurricular goals, etc. Also included will be forums with invited speakers such as alumni, admission directors, and extracurricular program coordinators. Freshman and sophomore pre-health profession students only. Pass/fail only.
Offered: Spring Semester All Years

BI 191 ADV. SEMINAR ON HEALTH PROFESSIONS 1.0 Credit(s)
Seminar will meet weekly for discussions and other activities associated with planning for and applying to schools in the relevant health professions. Discussion topics include advice on selecting schools for applications, application preparation, writing personal statements, advice on preparation for professional exams such as the MCAT/DAT/GRE, etc. Also included will be forums with invited speakers such as alumni, admission directors, and extracurricular program coordinators. Junior and senior pre-health profession students only. Pass/fail only.
Offered: Fall Semester All Years

BI 199 SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY 3.0 Credit(s)

Offered: Fall & Spring Semesters Contact Department

BI 200 INTEGRATING MA & BI ACROSS THE CURRIC. 2.0 Credit(s)
Seminar for Noyce Scholars in Biology and Mathematics Education Program on integrating Mathematics and Biology in the 9-12 curriculum.
Offered: Fall & Spring Semesters All Years

BI 201 GENETICS & EVOLUTION 3.0 Credit(s)
Organisms to Populations is the third in the series of courses that serve as the foundation of the biology major. The focus of this course is on the evolutionary forces that lead to the biologically fascinating trade-offs between growth, survival, and reproduction. Topics covered include reproductive biology, transmission and population genetics, mechanisms of evolution and an exploration of adaptation, and life history characteristics in a diversity of organisms. A prerequisite to BI 210, 212, 306, 311, 312, 320, 325, 335, 340, 355, and 398. Prerequisite: TAKE BI-111 BI-112 BI-113 BI-114 WITH MIN GRADE OF C, P
Offered: Spring Semester All Years

BI 202 ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION 3.0 Credit(s)
Populations to Ecosystems is the final course in the biology major foundational series of courses. Students will discover the unity and interdependence of the living and nonliving components of the environment while exploring the limitless diversity of life on earth through the lens of ecological theory. Topics include population dynamics, species interactions, abundance and diversity, nutrient cycling, succession, and stability. A prerequisite to BI 240, 260, 265, and 398. Prerequisite: BI-111 BI-113 BI-112 BI-114 MA-131ýMinimum grade of C, P
Offered: Fall Semester All Years

BI 203 GENETICS & EVOLUTION LAB 1.0 Credit(s)
Organisms to Populations Laboratory is the mandatory corequisite for BI 201. The interactive laboratory course will concentrate on multi-week exercises that reinforce essential course concepts. Student-designed experiments, the process of science, and oral and written scientific communication are focal points of the course design. Prerequisite: Co-req.:Take BI-201
Offered: Spring Semester All Years

BI 204 ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION LAB 1.0 Credit(s)
Populations to Ecosystems Laboratory is the mandatory corequisite for BI 202. The interactive laboratory course will concentrate on multi-week exercises that reinforce essential course concepts. Student-designed experiments, the process of science, and oral and written scientific communication are focal points of the course design. Prerequisite: Co-req.: Take BI-202
Offered: Fall Semester All Years

BI 205 ESSENTIALS OF NEUROSCIENCE 3.0 Credit(s)
This course is an introduction to neuroscience, a discipline in which the biological and psychological sciences are integrated. This broad overview addresses topics ranging from the cellular physiology of neurons to issues of human language, cognition, and mental illness. A prerequisite to BI 305. Prerequisite: Take BI 111, 112 and PS 110
Offered: Spring Semester All Years

BI 206 HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I 3.0 Credit(s)
Lecture on the investigation of the tissues, skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems. This section is for students interested in athletic training, exercise science, physical therapy, occupational therapy, or physician assistant programs. This course does not count as a Biology elective in the major or minor. Three hours of lecture per week. A prerequisite to BI 207. Prerequisite: Pre: BI-111 BI 113
Offered: Fall Semester All Years

BI 207 HUMAN ANATOMY/PHYSIOLOGY II 3.0 Credit(s)
Lecture involves the investigation of endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. This section is for students interested in athletic training, exercise science, physical therapy, occupational therapy, human movement, or physician assistant programs. This course can count as a Biology elective in the major or minor. Three hours of lecture per week. Prerequisite: Pre: BI-206 and BI-208
Offered: Spring Semester All Years

BI 208 HUMAN ANAT/PHYSIOLOGY LAB I 1.0 Credit(s)
Laboratory involves investigation of the tissues, skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems. Three hours of laboratory. Prerequisite: Pre: BI-111 BI-113
Offered: Fall Semester All Years

BI 209 HUMAN ANAT/PHYSIOLOGY LAB II 1.0 Credit(s)
Laboratory involves the investigation of endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. Three hours of laboratory. Prerequisite: Pre: BI-206 and BI-208
Offered: Spring Semester All Years

BI 210 PLANT BIOLOGY 3.0 Credit(s)
Three diverse topics in plant biology are introduced: plant evolution and diversity, plant ecology, and the linked topics of ethnobotany and economic botany. Laboratory work concentrates on field methodology, plant identification, and digital data collection. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Prerequisite: Pre: Take BI-112, BI-114, BI-201, BI-203
Offered: Fall Semester Odd Academic Years

BI 211 PLANT BIOLOGY LAB 1.0 Credit(s)
Three diverse topics in plant biology are introduced: plant evolution and diversity, plant ecology, and the linked topics of ethnobotany and economic botany. Laboratory work concentrates on field methodology, plant identification, and digital data collection. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Prerequisite: Prereq.: BI-112 AND BI-114 BI-201 BI-203
Offered: Fall Semester Odd Academic Years

BI 230 MICROBIOLOGY 4.0 Credit(s)
Microbial diversity and the evolution, physiology, genetics, and ecology of microbes are addressed. Specific topics include epidemiology and infectious disease and the use of microorganisms in industry and research. Laboratory work focuses on modern molecular methods of experimental microbiology and bacterial identification, including a semester-long research project. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Prerequisite: Take BI-11/113, BI-112/114, CH-151/152/153/154 ýMinimum grade C,T, P
Offered: Spring Semester All Years

BI 240 INVERTEBRATE BIOLOGY 3.0 Credit(s)
BI 240 examines the evolution and ecology of invertebrates including phylogenetic relationships, life history, physiology, and morphological adaptations. Laboratory component includes dissections and field trips to Long Island Sound. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Prerequisite: Take BI-202/204 with minimum grade of C, P
Offered: Spring Semester Odd Academic Years

BI 241 INVERTEBRATE BIOLOGY LAB 1.0 Credit(s)
BI 240 examines the evolution and ecology of invertebrates including phylogenetic relationships, life history, physiology, and morphological adaptations. Laboratory component includes dissections and field trips to Long Island Sound. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Prerequisite: Take BI-202/204 with minimum grade of C, P
Offered: Spring Semester Odd Academic Years

BI 245 VERTEBRATE BIOLOGY 3.0 Credit(s)
BI 245 examines the evolution and ecology of the vertebrates including taxonomy and life history as well as the anatomy and physiology of extant and extinct vertebrates. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Prerequisite: Take BI-202/204 with a minimum grade of C, P
Offered: Fall Semester Odd Academic Years

BI 246 VERTEBRATE BIOLOGY LAB 1.0 Credit(s)
BI 245 examines the evolution and ecology of the vertebrates including taxonomy and life history as well as the anatomy and physiology of extant and extinct vertebrates. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Prerequisite: Take BI-202 and BI-204ýMinimum grade of C, P
Offered: Fall Semester Odd Academic Years

BI 247 BIMINI CETACEAN ECOLOGY 3.0 Credit(s)
This course is a hands-on learning course examining the behaviorial and social ecology of wild dolphins, ecotourism and human impcts on the marine environment.
Offered: Summer Semester Contact Department

BI 255 ANIMAL BEHAVIOR 4.0 Credit(s)
An introduction to how animals of all different types use behaviors as strategies for interacting with the environment. Behaviors studied include communication, habitat selection, migration, mate choice, breeding, and parental care. Development and physiological control of behaviors are also examined. Three hours of lecture and one laboratory/field session per week. Prerequisite: Take BI-112, BI-114 and MA-131 with minimum grade of C, P
Offered: Spring Semester Even Academic Years

BI 258 EXPERIENCES IN COASTAL ECOLOGY 3.0 Credit(s)
This course uses field exercises and hands-on activities to explore the abiotic and biotic processes that influence multiple coastal habitats.
Offered: Late Spring Semester All Years

BI 260 MARINE BIOLOGY 4.0 Credit(s)
BI 260 examines the structure and function of marine habitats at the organismal, population, community, and ecosystem levels. Laboratory includes investigation of different types of estuarine and coastal habitats and design of basic and applied marine ecological investigations. Three hours of lecture and one laboratory session per week. Prerequisite: Take BI-202/204 with a minimum grade of C
Offered: Fall Semester Even Academic Years

BI 265 CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 4.0 Credit(s)
The focus of this course is on the science of conservation biology in the context of environmental policy, socioeconomic demands, and environmental ethics. Prerequisite: Take BI-202 and BI-204
Offered: Spring Semester Even Academic Years

BI 271 EVOLUTIONARY MEDICINE 3.0 Credit(s)
Evolutionary medicine examines the "disconnects" between the environments in which humans evolved and those in which we currently live and their effect on health. Reviews evolutionary theory and human evolutionary history and examines their application to medicine and public health. Special emphasis is placed on critical thinking and understanding the associated social/ethical issues. Prerequisite: Take BI-111 BI-113 BI-112 BI-114
Offered: Fall & Spring Semesters Even Academic Years

BI 274 COASTAL MANAGEMENT 3.0 Credit(s)
BI 274 is a lecture and field-oriented course that applies biological, chemical, and physical theory to the understanding and management of coastal ecosystems. The course utilizes empirical data collection with state-of-the-art research instrumentation to understand geospatial relationships between various processes. Prerequisite: TAKE BI-112 BI-114 CH-153 CH-154 with Minimum Grade of C, P
Offered: Fall Semester All Years

BI 276 OCEANOGRAPHY 3.0 Credit(s)
BI 276 is a lecture and field-oriented course that studies in depth the principles of oceanography, emphasizing the chemical and physical processes that affect coastal oceans. Prerequisite: TAKE BI-112 BI-114 CH-152 CH-154 with minimum grade of C, P
Offered: Spring Semester All Years

BI 277 OCEANOGRAPHY LABORATORY 1.0 Credit(s)
Oceanography laboratory is the mandatory corequisite for BI 276 Prerequisite: Take BI-112 BI-114 CH-152 CH-154 with Minimum Grade of C
Offered: Spring Semester All Years

BI 278 COASTAL ECOLOGY 3.0 Credit(s)
BI 278 is a lecture and field-oriented course that explores the importance of coastal ecology with respect to history, biodiversity, sustainability, and innovation. Topics focus on the abiotic and biotic processes that influence aquatic communities including coastal streams, rocky intertidal zones, sandy beaches, marshes, harbors, and the open ocean. Prerequisite: TAKE BI-112 BI-114 with Minimum grade of C, P
Offered: Spring Semester All Years

BI 279 COASTAL ECOLOGY LABORATORY 1.0 Credit(s)
Coastal Ecology laboratory is the mandatory corequisite for BI 278. Prerequisite: Take BI-111 and BI-112
Offered: Spring Semester All Years

BI 299 SPECIAL TOPICS IN BIOLOGY 3.0 Credit(s)
Special Topics are new or occasional courses that may or may not become part of the department's permanent offerings. Prerequisites are established by the department as appropriate for the specific course. Course title is shown on the student's transcript. Consult the current course schedule for available topics and prerequisites. Prerequisite: Take BI-111 BI-113 BI-112 BI-114 CH-153 CH-154ýwith Grade of C or better
Offered: As Needed Contact Department

BI 303 GIS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 4.0 Credit(s)
This course focuses on the GIS principles, methods, and techniques that are particularly relevant to and useful for problem solving in environmental analysis and management. Specfically this course has four major components: an overview of selected GIS principles including data models,scale and spatial sampling, and spatial autocorrelation a review of the major techniques or issues for environmental data acquisition and integration an introduction to environmental analysis and modeling techniques and a discussion of several applied areas of environmental modeling techniques as related to coastal ecology, hydrology, natural hazards, natural resources management, and environmental planning. Prerequisite: Take MA-140
Offered: Spring Semester All Years

BI 305 BEHAVIORAL NEUROBIOLOGY 3.0 Credit(s)
This course explores the neural basis of behaviors that animals perform in natural settings. The mechanisms studied underlie specialized behaviors such as the detection of prey, attraction of mates, orientation, and other adaptive behaviors. The animal model systems described demonstrate how neural substrates of behavior can be highly specialized to solve problems encountered in an animal's particular environmental niche. These model systems also provide insights into the organization of similar sensory and motor systems in humans. Three hours of lecture. Prerequisite: Take BI-111, BI-113, BI-112, BI-114
Offered: Spring Semester Odd Academic Years

BI 306 PHARMACOLOGY 3.0 Credit(s)
BI 306 is an introduction to principles of pharmacology and therapeutic uses of drugs with an emphasis on the cellular and molecular foundations of pharmacology. Topics include mechanisms of drug action, dose-response relations, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug-delivery systems, toxicity of pharmacological agents, drug interaction, and substance abuse. Prerequisite: TAKE BI-201 BI-203 CH-152 CH-154 with minimum grade of C, P
Offered: Fall Semester Odd Academic Years

BI 311 CELL BIOLOGY 3.0 Credit(s)
Covers advanced topics in eukaryotic cell biology with emphasis on cell identity, protein transport, and cellular physiology. Laboratory work includes cell culture, immuno-cytochemistry, and other biological analyses. Three hours lecture and three hours of lab per week. Prerequisite: Pre: Bi-201 BI-203 CH-152 CH-154
Offered: Fall Semester All Years

BI 312 SYSTEMS PHYSIOLOGY 3.0 Credit(s)
BI 312 focuses on investigation of the physiology of vertebrate systems. Topics include cardiovascular, respiratory, neural, muscular, digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and excretory physiology. Laboratory instruction includes practical investigation and research projects into the physiology of vertebrates. Prerequisite: Pre: BI-201 BI-203 CH-152 CH-154
Offered: Spring Semester All Years

BI 313 CELL BIOLOGY LAB 1.0 Credit(s)
Covers advanced topics in eukaryotic cell biology with emphasis on cell identity, protein transport, and cellular physiology. Laboratory work includes cell culture, immuno-cytochemistry, and other biological analyses. Three hours lecture and three hours of lab per week. Prerequisite: Pre: BI-201 BI-203 CH-152 CH-154
Offered: Fall Semester All Years

BI 314 SYSTEMS PHYSIOLOGY LAB 1.0 Credit(s)
BI 312 focuses on investigation of the physiology of vertebrate systems. Topics include cardiovascular, respiratory, neural, muscular, digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and excretory physiology. Laboratory instruction includes practical investigation and research projects into the physiology of vertebrates. Prerequisite: Pre: BI-201 BI-203 CH-152 CH-154 with minimum grade of C, P
Offered: Spring Semester All Years

BI 315 DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY 4.0 Credit(s)
Lecture examines cellular and molecular aspects of animal development from gametogenesis to morphogenesis and pattern formation. Laboratory work includes investigations on fertilization, cellular differentiation, regeneration, and the development of vertebrate organ systems. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Prerequisite: Take BI-201 and BI-203 (minimum grade C, P) for both and ýCH152 and CH-154
Offered: Spring Semester Odd Academic Years

BI 320 APPLIED MOLECULAR GENETICS 4.0 Credit(s)
BI 320 focuses on the many real-world applications of molecular genetic technology. Topics explored in a combined lecture/lab include PCR and cloning, molecular analysis of population structure, personal genomics, forensic DNA analysis, and synthetic biology. Prerequisite: Take BI-220 or BI-201 and CH-152 CH-154
Offered: Spring Semester Contact Department

BI 325 IMMUNOLOGY 3.0 Credit(s)
BI 325 examines the mammalian immune response including characteristics of antigens, antibodies, and antigen-antibody interactions. Three hours of lecture per week. Prerequisite: Take BI-201 and BI-203
Offered: Spring Semester Contact Department

BI 330 VIROLOGY 3.0 Credit(s)
Explores the nature of bacterial, animal and plant viruses. Topics cover viral absorption-penetration, replication, release, viral infection and pathology. Prerequisite: Take BI-201 and BI-203
Offered: Spring Semester Contact Department

BI 333 CHEMICAL ECOLOGY 4.0 Credit(s)
Chemical ecology explores the ways that naturally occurring chemicals control interactions between organisms in various environments and how humans can use this information. Prerequisite: Take BI-202 and BI 204 with minimum grade of C, P
Offered: As Needed Contact Department

BI 335 TOPICS IN GENETICS 3.0 Credit(s)
This seminar course will both expand and deepen students' knowledge of genetics while exploring hot topics such as gene therapy, DNA as a digital information storage molecule, complex genetic disorders, DNA circuits, synthetic genomes, genome wide association studies, metabolomics, DNA barcoding, genome-based medicine, DNA-based treatments, RNAi, epigenetics, conservation genetics, and controversial genetic ethics topics such as gene doping, etc. Prerequisite: Take BI-201 and BI-203 with Minimum grade of C, P
Offered: Spring Semester Odd Academic Years

BI 340 CANCER BIOLOGY 3.0 Credit(s)
BI 340 is an introduction to the biology of cancer through a format consisting of lectures, student-led discussions, problembased learning, and case studies. Concepts to be covered in this course include tumorigenesis, carcinogenesis, types of cancer, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis, growth factors and cell signaling, oncogenes, tumor suppressors, genomic, chromosomal and cell morphology changes in cancer, and the role of the immune system in cancer. Students also will have the opportunity to explore the ethics and human face of cancer throughout the course. Prerequisite: Take BI-201 BI-203 CH-152 CH 154
Offered: Fall Semester Even Academic Years

BI 341 HUM. DISEASE-PATHOPHYSIOLOGY FOR AH MAJ 3.0 Credit(s)
This course studies basic physiological systems and underlying system dysfunctions associated with human disease processes across the life span. Relationships between etiologic agents and their consequence to human form and function are stressed. Critical thinking processes integrating symptoms, treatment and prognosis are applied to physiological perspectives. This course is designed for allied health majors.
Offered: As Needed Contact Department

BI 345 NEURO BIOLOGY 4.0 Credit(s)
Covers cell biology of neurons, electrical and biochemical signaling, motor control, sensation and perception, learning and memory, and brain anatomy. Laboratory instruction includes practical investigations and survey research projects into the above topics and related illnesses. Prerequisite: Take BI 112,114,CH 152, 154
Offered: Fall Semester All Years

BI 350 ECOLOGY 3.0 Credit(s)
Examines the fundamental concepts of community ecology through primary literature and field studies. Prerequisite: Pre-req BI-202/204 with C or better and MA-131 or MA-133
Offered: As Needed Contact Department

BI 351 ECOLOGY LAB 1.0 Credit(s)
Examines the fundamental concepts of community ecology through primary literature and field studies. Ecology lab is the mandatory corequisite for Bi 350. Prerequisite: Pre-req: BI-202/204 with C, P or better and MA-131 or MA-133
Offered: As Needed Contact Department

BI 355 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 4.0 Credit(s)
Provides foundations of molecular biology and recombinant DNA technology, analysis of relevant primary journal articles, hands-on training in recombinant DNA techniques, and exposure to the use of computers in DNA sequence analysis and scientific communication. Prerequisite: TAKE BI-201 BI-203 CH-152 CH-154
Offered: Spring Semester Even Academic Years

BI 360 INTERNSHIP-BIOLOGY MAJORS 1.0-9.0 Credit(s)
Internships in Biology focus on gaining applied experience through study of a biological topic or an interdisciplinary project that provides majors with an opportunity to gain real-world experience not specifically available in Sacred Heart University's Biology curriculum. Students complete an internship portfolio under the direction of an appropriate professional in consultation with a biology faculty advisor.
Offered: Fall & Spring Semesters All Years

BI 371 EVOLUTION 3.0 Credit(s)
Examines the fundamental aspects of evolution through a focus on primary literature with respect to the processes of evolution and the patterns generated by these processes. Prerequisite: Take BI-202 BI-204 with Minimum Grade of C, P
Offered: As Needed Contact Department

BI 378 RESTORATION ECOLOGY 3.0 Credit(s)
Restoration Ecology is the practiceof renewing and restoring degraded, damaged or destroyed ecosystems and habitats in the environment using ecological principles. Prerequisite: Take Bi-202 and Bi-204 with minimum grade of C
Offered: Spring Semester Contact Department

BI 379 RESTORATION ECOLOGY LAB 1.0 Credit(s)
Restoration Ecology is the practiceof renewing and restoring degraded, damaged or destroyed ecosystems and habitats in the environment using ecological principles. Prerequisite: Take BI-202 and BI-204 with minimum grade of C, P
Offered: Spring Semester Contact Department

BI 390 SUPERVISED RESEARCH 1.0-6.0 Credit(s)
Individual research projects in the basic areas of Biology under the supervision of faculty.
Offered: Fall & Spring Semesters All Years

BI 391 STEM CAPSTONE 2.0 Credit(s)
STEM Capstone provides the opportunity to apply critical thinking skills while investigating specialized areas of interest from their core STEM courses in biology, chemistry, physics, computer science, mathematics, and engineering.
Offered: Fall Semester All Years

BI 398 SENIOR SEMINAR PREP 1.0 Credit(s)
This course is designed for students to begin working on their Senior Thesis.
Offered: Fall & Spring Semesters All Years

BI 399 SENIOR SEMINAR 2.0 Credit(s)
Senior Seminar is the capstone course for the Biology major. The course focuses on review of current research and literature on specialized fields of current interest in biological science. An independent project resulting in a research paper on a current question of scientific, public policy, or ethical focus and a final oral presentation on a selected topic is required.
Offered: Fall & Spring Semesters All Years

BI ELEC BIOLOGY ELECTIVE 1.0-9.0 Credit(s)

Offered: As Needed Contact Department

BI ELECF BIOLOGY FOUNDATIONAL ELECTIVE 1.0-9.0 Credit(s)

Offered: As Needed Contact Department


BIOLOGY CLASSES

This biology course focuses on the world of plants and plant-like organisms. Students will study vascular plant anatomy, physiology, and ecology as well as explore the significance of plants to human life. The laboratory work will include a survey of algae, fungi, and all representative plant groups.

BIOL 10 - Fundamentals of Biology

4 units
3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab
Recommended Preparation: ENGL 84
Credit, degree applicable
Transfer CSU, UC*

This course is a survey of all living things: prokaryotes, protists, fungi plants, and animals. Basic principles of structure, function, and relationships of living organisms are discussed with special reference to humans.

Note: Students will not receive UC credit for Biology 10 if taken after BIOL 101.

BIOL 10H - Honors Fundamentals of Biology

4 units
3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab
Recommended Preparation: eligibility for ENGL 1A
Credit, degree applicable
Transfer CSU, UC

This honors course is designed for students in the Honors Transfer Program. This course is a survey of all living things: prokaryotes, protists, fungi, plants, and animals. Basic principles of structure, function, and relationships of living organisms are discussed with special reference to humans. This course is enriched through writing assignments that involve research and analysis.

Note: Students may take either BIOL 10 or Biology 10H. Duplicate credit will not be awarded for BIOL 10 and Biology 10H.

BIOL 11 - Fundamentals of Zoology

4 units
3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab
Recommended Preparation: eligibility for ENGL 1A
Credit, degree applicable
Transfer CSU, UC

This course introduces major animal groups and the single-celled protozoans. Comparative studies of animal structure and physiology will illustrate principles of classification and evolution. Ecological topics include animal behavior, natural history, and relationships of animals to humans. Genetics and basic cell biology are also covered.

BIOL 12 - Field Zoology

4 units
2 hours lecture, 6 hours lab
Recommended Preparation: ENGL 84
Credit, degree applicable
Transfer CSU, UC

This course is a survey of invertebrate and vertebrate animals involving general principles of biology, taxonomy, physiology, and ecology with an emphasis on California. Major invertebrate phyla will be introduced in the classroom and through field trip experiences. The taxonomy, anatomy, and natural history of all major vertebrate animal classes will be explored through classroom lecture and demonstration and field assessment. Field experience will include both optional and required trips to museums, aquariums, and field locations.

BIOL 15 - Environmental Aspects of Biology

3 units
3 hours lecture
Recommended Preparation: ENGL 82
Credit, degree applicable
Transfer CSU, UC

Basic ecological and biological principles and concepts are emphasized in the study of the structure and function of ecosystems. Major ecological problems such as overpopulation, resource depletion and food production are related to endangered species and habitat degradation. Environmental pollution of air and water resources is considered in local areas as well as national and international situations. Air quality and global warming issues are considered. Students are encouraged to participate in local activities addressing environmental problems and restoring and improving local habitats.

BIOL 16 - Field Entomology

4 units
2 hours lecture, 6 hours lab
Recommended Preparation: eligibility for ENGL 1A
Credit, degree applicable
Transfer CSU, UC

This is a survey course in insect biology, taxonomy, physiology, and ecology, and considers the methods and economic importance of controlling insect populations. Major insect orders and families are introduced through lecture with slides and live and preserved specimens. Emphasis is placed on learning how to identify insect specimens in the laboratory and to recognize them in the field. Field trips to local sites, local desert and coastal mountain habitats will be taken to practice collection, preparation, and recognition techniques.

BIOL 17 - Marine Biology

3 units
3 hours lecture
Recommended Preparation: ENGL 1 or eligibility for ENGL 1A or qualification by appropriate assessment
Credit, degree applicable
Transfer CSU, UC

This is an introductory marine biology lecture course exploring biological principles of structure, function and adaptation for marine life. It includes a review of the history of marine biology and a discussion of local species of marine plants and animals and major marine communities. Human interaction and impact on the ocean is also discussed.

BIOL 18 - Marine Biology Laboratory

1 unit
3 hours lab
Prerequisite: BIOL 17 with a minimum grade of C or concurrent enrollment
Recommended Preparation: ENGL 1 or eligibility for ENGL 1A or qualification by appropriate assessment
Credit, degree applicable
Transfer CSU, UC

This is an introductory marine biology laboratory course designed to complement the marine biology lecture course. The laboratory course will explore the animals and plants living in the ocean and their structure and adaptations for a marine environment. Local species will be identified and classified and local aquariums will be visited.

BIOL 99 - Independent Study in Life Science

1-3 units
hours to be arranged
Enrollment Limitation: any two Life Science courses, except Biology 10 or Biology 15, with a minimum grade of B in each and acknowledgment by the instructor with whom the student will work
Credit, degree applicable
Transfer CSU*

This course provides special advanced studies in a subject field of Biology not covered in the regular departmental offerings. Regular conferences with the instructor are coordinated with assigned Biology projects (54 hours per unit).

Note: *Transfer limitations apply. For eligibility requirements, go to www.elcamino.edu/admissions/credit.asp
(formerly Biology 99abc)

BIOL 101 - Principles of Biology I

5 units
3 hours lecture, 6 hours lab
Prerequisite: CHEM 4 or CHEM 4H with minimum grade of C or equivalent
Recommended Preparation: eligibility for ENGL 1A
Credit, degree applicable
Transfer CSU, UC

This course is a survey of eukaryotic organisms, their evolution and ecology. The student will have a thorough exposure to plant and animal anatomy and physiology, and will utilize animal dissection in the lab. Students will be expected to complete a project that includes hypothesis, prediction, experimentation, and presentation of results. This course is one of three courses in the biology series designed for biology majors, including those students planning to pursue a career in medicine, dentistry, or other life sciences.

Note: It is recommended that CHEM 1A be taken concurrently in preparation for BIOL 102.

BIOL 101H - Honors Principles of Biology I

5 units
3 hours lecture, 6 hours lab
Prerequisite: CHEM 4 with minimum grade of C in prerequisite or equivalent
Recommended Preparation: eligibility for ENGL 1A or ENGL 1AH
Credit, degree applicable
Transfer CSU, UC

This honors course, intended for students in the Honors Transfer Program, is a survey of eukaryotic organisms, their evolution and ecology. The student will have a thorough exposure to plant and animal anatomy and physiology, and will utilize animal dissection in the lab. Students will be expected to complete a project that includes hypothesis, prediction, experimentation, and presentation of results. This course is one of three courses in the biology series designed for biology majors, including those students planning to pursue a career in medicine, dentistry, or other life sciences. This course is enriched through extensive rigorous reading, writing, and research assignments.

Note: Students may take either BIOL 101 or Biology 101H. Duplicate credit will not be awarded for BIOL 101 and Biology 101H.

BIOL 102 - Principles of Biology II

5 units
3 hours lecture, 6 hours lab
Prerequisite: CHEM 1A with minimum grade of C or equivalent
Recommended Preparation: eligibility for ENGL 1A
Credit, degree applicable
Transfer CSU, UC

This course offers a detailed study of eukaryotic cell anatomy, metabolism, and division, including the study of Mendelian genetics and the molecular genetics of eukaryotes. Prokaryotic cellular structure (eubacteria and archaea), microbial genetics, and viruses are also studied. The scientific method is discussed in the lecture component and students implement elements of the process in various laboratory exercises. This course is one of three courses in the biology series designed for biology majors, including those students planning to pursue a career in medicine, dentistry, or other life sciences.

BIOL 102H - Honors Principles of Biology II

5 units
3 hours lecture, 6 hours lab
Prerequisite: CHEM 1A with minimum grade of C or equivalent
Recommended Preparation: eligibility for ENGL 1A or ENGL 1AH
Credit, degree applicable
Transfer CSU, UC

This honors course, intended for students in the Honors Transfer Program, offers a detailed study of eukaryotic cell anatomy, metabolism, and division, including the study of Mendelian genetics and the molecular genetics of eukaryotes. Prokaryotic cellular structure (eubacteria and archaea), microbial genetics, and viruses are also studied. The scientific method is discussed in the lecture component and students implement elements of the process in various laboratory exercises. This course is one of three courses in the biology series designed for biology majors, including those students planning to pursue a career in medicine, dentistry, or other life sciences. This course is enriched through extensive rigorous reading, writing, and research assignments.

Note: Students may take either BIOL 102 or Biology 102H. Duplicate credit will not be awarded for BIOL 102 and Biology 102H.

BIOL 103 - Fundamentals of Molecular Biology

3 units
3 hours lecture
Prerequisite: BIOL 101 or BIOL 101H and BIOL 102 or BIOL 102H with a minimum grade of C in each course CHEM 7A with a minimum grade of C or concurrent enrollment
Credit, degree applicable
Transfer CSU, UC

This course is an introduction to molecular biology. The student will study DNA, RNA and protein structure protein biochemistry protein purification and analysis genome organization of viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes DNA replication transcription and splicing regulation of transcription translation and recombinant DNA technology. The student will also explore the uses of DNA technology, such as forensics and agriculture, as well as the ethical considerations of these uses.


Watch the video: Plant Taxonomy - SFA Dendrology Lecture FORS 2319 (January 2022).