We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
The creature appears to have a green body with 5 legs of the same size, and one longer than the rest. It moved this long leg around, and it looked like it was using it to sense it's surroundings.
Location: Manchester, United Kingdom
That looks like what I would call a "daddy long legs", also known as harvestmen. These are arachnids of the order Opilones. There are some 30 species of harvestmen found in the UK. The webpage https://harvestmen.fscbiodiversity.uk/ has a very useful identification tool and based on it, I believe your photograph shows a Leiobunum sp. A:
Please visit the site itself for more details as it doesn't allow copying.
Prof Matthias Heil
Heil, M. (1998) Stokes Flow in an Elastic Tube -- A Large-Displacement Fluid-Structure Interaction Problem. The International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids 28 , 243-265. (abstract)(pdf preprint)
Heil, M. (1999) Minimal Liquid Bridges in Non-Axisymmetrically Buckled Elastic Tubes. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 380 , 309-337. (abstract) (ps preprint)
Heil, M. (1999) Airway Closure: Liquid Bridges in Strongly Buckled Elastic Tubes. ASME Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 121 , 487-493. (ps preprint) (abstract)
Heil, M. (2000) Finite Reynolds number effects in the propagation of an air finger into a liquid-filled flexible-walled channel. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 424 , 21-44.(ps preprint) (abstract)
Heil, M. (2001) The Bretherton problem in elastic-walled channels: Finite Reynolds number effects. In: IUTAM Symposium on Free Surface Flows , Editors: A. C. King & Y.D. Shikmurzaev. Kluwer, Dordrecht, Netherlands. pp. 113-120. (ps preprint) (abstract)
Heil, M. (2001) Finite Reynolds number effects in the Bretherton problem. Physics of Fluids 13 , 2517-2521. (ps preprint) (abstract)
Heil, M. & White, J.P. (2002) Airway Closure: Surface-tension-driven non-axisymmetric instabilities of liquid-lined elastic rings. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 462 , 79-109. (ps preprint)(abstract)
Hazel, A. L. & Heil, M. (2002) The steady propagation of a semi-infinite bubble into a tube of elliptical or rectangular cross-section. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 470 , 91-114. (pdf preprint) (abstract)
Heil, M. & Jensen, O.E. (2003) Flows in deformable tubes and channels -- Theoretical models and biological applications. Chapter 2 of: Flow in Collapsible Tubes and Past Other Highly Compliant Boundaries. Eds: T.J. Pedley and P.W. Carpenter. pp. 15-50. Kluwer, Dordrecht, Netherlands. (pdf preprint)(abstract)
Hazel, A. L. & Heil, M. (2003) Three-dimensional airway reopening: The steady propagation of a semi-infinite bubble into a buckled elastic tube. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 478 47-70. (pdf preprint) (abstract)
Jensen, O.E. & Heil, M. (2003) High-frequency self-excited oscillations in a collapsible-channel flow. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 481 235-268. (pdf preprint) (abstract)
Hazel, A. L. & Heil, M. (2003) Steady finite-Reynolds-number flows in three-dimensional collapsible tubes. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 486 79-103. (pdf preprint)(abstract)
Heil, M. & Hazel, A. L. (2003) Mass transfer from a finite strip near an oscillating stagnation point --- implications for atherogenesis. Journal of Engineering Mathematics. 47 315-334. (abstract)(pdf preprint)
Heil, M. (2004) An efficient solver for the fully-coupled solution of large-displacement fluid-structure interaction problems. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering. 193 1-23. (abstract) (pdf preprint)
Watton, P. N., Hill, N. A. & Heil, M. (2004) A mathematical model for the growth of the abdominal aortic aneurysm. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology 3 98-113. (abstract) (pdf reprint)
White, J.P. & Heil, M. (2005) Three-dimensional instabilities of liquid-lined elastic tubes -- a lubrication theory model. Physics of Fluids 17 (abstract) (pdf preprint)
Hazel, A. L. & Heil, M. (2005) Surface-tension-induced buckling of liquid-lined elastic tubes -- a model for pulmonary airway closure. Proceedings of the Royal Society A 461 , 1847-1868.(abstract) (pdf preprint)
Heil, M. & Waters, S.L. (2006) Transverse flows in rapidly oscillating, elastic cylindrical shells. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 547 , 185-214. (abstract) (pdf preprint)
Baroud, C.N., Tsikata, S. & Heil, M. (2006) The propagation of low-viscosity fingers into fluid-filled, branching networks. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 546 , 285-294. (abstract) (pdf preprint)
Hazel, A. L. & Heil, M. (2006) Finite-Reynolds-Number Effects in Steady, Three-Dimensional Airway Reopening. ASME Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 128 , 573-578. (abstract) (pdf preprint)
Heil, M. & Hazel, A. L. (2006) oomph-lib -- An O bject- O riented M ulti- Ph ysics Finite-Element Lib rary. In: Fluid-Structure Interaction , Editors: M. Schafer und H.-J. Bungartz. Springer (Lecture Notes on Computational Science and Engineering), pp. 19--49. (abstract) (pdf preprint)
Heil, M. & Waters, S.L. (2008) How rapidly oscillating collapsible tubes extract energy from a viscous mean flow. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 601 , 199-227. (abstract) (pdf preprint)
Hazel, A.L. & Heil, M. (2008) The influence of gravity on the steady propagation of a semi-infinite bubble into a flexible channel. Physics of Fluids 20 , 092109. (abstract) (pdf preprint)
Heil, M., Hazel, A.L. & Boyle, J. (2008) Solvers for large-displacement fluid-structure interaction problems: Segregated vs. monolithic approaches. Computational Mechanics 43 , 91-101. (abstract) (pdf preprint)
Heil, M., Hazel, A.L. & Smith, J.A. (2008) The Mechanics of Airway Closure Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 163 , 214-221. (abstract) (pdf preprint)
Muddle, R.L., Boyle, J.W., Mihajlovic, M.D. & Heil, M. (2009) : The Development of an Object-Oriented Parallel Block Preconditioning Framework Parallel scientific computing and optimization: Advances and applications 27 , 37-46 (abstract)
Whittaker, R.J., Waters, S.L., Jensen, O.E., Boyle, J. & Heil, M. (2010) The energetics of flow through a rapidly oscillating tube. Part I: General theory. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 648 , 83-121 (abstract) (pdf)
Whittaker, R.J., Heil, M., Boyle, J., Jensen, O.E., & Waters, S.L. (2010) The energetics of flow through a rapidly oscillating tube. Part II: Application to an elliptical tube. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 648 , 123-153 (abstract) (pdf)
Heil, M., Boyle, J. (2010) Self-excited oscillations in three-dimensional collapsible tubes: Simulating their onset and large-amplitude oscillations. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 652 , 405-426 (abstract) (pdf)
Whittaker, R.J., Heil, M., Jensen, O.E., & Waters, S.L. (2010) A rational derivation of a tube law from shell theory. Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics (pdf) (abstract)
Whittaker, R.J., Heil, M., Jensen, O.E., & Waters, S.L. (2010) The onset of high-frequency self-excited oscillations in elastic-walled tubes. Proceedings of the Royal Society A 466 , 3635-3657. (abstract) (pdf)
Stewart, P.S., Heil, M., Waters, S.L. & Jensen, O.E. (2010) Sloshing and slamming oscillations in collapsible channel flow. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 662 , 288-319. (abstract) (pdf) (Supplementary material (movie))
Heil, M., Hazel, A. L. (2011) Fluid-structure interaction in internal physiological flows. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 43 , 141-162. (abstract). (pdf)
Whittaker, R.J., Heil, M., & Waters, S.L. (2011) The energetics of flow through a rapidly oscillating tube with slowly varying amplitude. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 369, 2989-3006. (abstract) (pdf)
Hazel, A. L., Heil, M., Waters, S.L. & Oliver, J.M. (2012) On the liquid lining in fluid-conveying curved tubes. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 705, 213-233. DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2011.346
Pihler-Puzovic, D., Illien, P., Heil, M. & Juel, A. (2012) Suppression of Complex Fingerlike Patterns at the Interface between Air and a Viscous Fluid by Elastic Membranes. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.074502
Heil, M., Kharrat, T., Cotterill, P.A. & Abrahams, I.D. (2012) Quasi-resonances in sound-insulating coatings. Journal of Sound and Vibration 331 4774-4784. DOI: 10.1016/j.sv.2012.05.029
Muddle, R.L., Mihajlovic, M. & Heil, M. (2012) An efficient preconditioner for monolithically-coupled large-displacement fluid-structure interaction problems with pseudo-solid mesh updates. Journal of Computational Physics 231, 7315-7334. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcp.2012.07.001
Pihler-Puzovic, D., Perillat, R., Russell, M., Juel, A. & Heil, M. (2013) Modelling the suppression of viscous fingering in elastic-walled Hele-Shaw cells. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 731, 162-183 DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2013.375
Pihler-Puzovic, D., Juel, A. & Heil, M. (2014) The interaction between viscous fingering and wrinkling in elastic-walled Hele-Shaw cells. Physics of Fluids 26 , 022102. DOI: doi:10.1063/1.4864188.
Shepherd, D., Miles, J., Heil, M., Mihajlovic, M. (2014) Discretisation induced stiffness in micromagnetic simulations. IEEE Trans. Magn., 50(11) 7201304. DOI: 10.1109/TMAG.2014.2325494
Evatt, G.W., Abrahams, I.D., Heil, M., Mayer, C., Kingslake, J., Mitchell, S.L., Fowler, A.C. & Clark, C.D. (2015) Glacial melt under a debris layer: the DADDI model. Journal of Glaciology 61, 825-836. DOI: 10.3189/2015JoG14J235. (pdf)
Cimpeanu, R., Martinsson, A. & Heil, M. (2015) A parameter-free perfectly matched layer formulation for the finite-element-based solution of the Helmholtz equation. Journal of Computational Physics 296 329347. DOI: doi:10.1016/j.jcp.2015.05.006.
Heil, M. & Hazel, A.L. (2015) Flow in flexible/collapsible tubes. In: Fluid-Structure Interactions in Low-Reynolds-Number Flows. Eds: Duprat, C. & Stone, H.A. Royal Society of Chemistry, RSC Publishing. pp. 280-311. See details on the publisher's webpage.
Pihler-Puzovic, D., Juel, A., Peng, G., Lister, J. & Heil, M. (2015) Displacement flows under elastic membranes. Part 1: Experiments and direct numerical simulations. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 784 487- 511. DOI: doi:10.1017/jfm.2015.590. (pdf)
Peng, G., Pihler-Puzovic, D., Juel, A., Heil, M. & Lister, J. (2015) Displacement flows under elastic membranes. Part 2: Analysis of interfacial effects. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 784 512- 547. DOI: doi:10.1017/jfm.2015.589. (pdf)
Pestana, J., Muddle, R., Heil, M., Tisseur, F. & Mihajlovic M. (2016) Efficient block preconditioning for a C1 finite element discretisation of the Dirichlet biharmonic problem. SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing 38(1), A325-A345. DOI: 10.1137/15M1014887 . (pdf)
Heil, M. & Bertram, C. (2016). A poroelastic fluid-structure interaction model of syringomyelia. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 809, 360-389. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2016.669
Bertram, C. & Heil, M. (2017). A Poroelastic Fluid/Structure-Interaction Model of Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics in the Cord with Syringomyelia and Adjacent Subarachnoid-Space Stenosis. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 139(1), 1-10. DOI: 10.1115/1.4034657
Heil, M., Rosso, J., Hazel, A.L., Brons, M. (2017). Topological fluid mechanics of the formation of the Karman-vortex street. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 812 199-221. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2016.792 (Open Access).
Cisonni, J., Lucey, A.D., Elliott, S.J & Heil, M. (2017) The stability of a flexible cantilever in viscous channel flow Journal of Sound and Vibration 369 186-202. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsv.2017.02.045
Walters, M.C., Heil, M., Whittaker, R.J. (2017) The Effect of Wall Inertia on High-Frequency Instabilities of Flow Through an Elastic-Walled Tube The Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, hbx024. Direct electronic access to article. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmam/hbx024
Evatt, G., Mayer, C., Mallinson, A., Abrahams, I., Heil, M., & Nicholson, L. (2017). The secret life of ice sails. Journal of Glaciology, 1-14. doi:10.1017/jog.2017.72
Juel, A., Pihler-Puzovic, D. & Heil, M. (2018) Instabilities in blistering. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 50, 691-714. DOI:10.1146/annurev-fluid-122316-045106.
Bergemann, N., Juel, A. & Heil, M. (2018) Viscous drop spreading on a layer of the same fluid: from sinking, wedging and spreading to their long-time evolution. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 843, 1-28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2018.127.
Pihler-Puzovic, D., Peng, G., Lister, J. R., Heil, M. & Juel, A. (2018) Viscous fingering in a radial elastic-walled Hele-Shaw cell. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 849, 163-191. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2018.404
Bergemann, N., Heil, M., Smith, B. & Juel, A. (2018) From elastic deformation to flow in tempered chocolate. Journal of Rheology 62, 1187. DOI: 10.1122/1.5038253
Pearce, S.P., Heil, M., Jensen, O.E., Jones, G.W., Prokop, A. (2018) Curvature-Sensitive Kinesin Binding Can Explain Microtubule Ring Formation and Reveals Chaotic Dynamics in a Mathematical Model. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 80, 2003-3222. 10.1007/s11538-018-0505-4
Nielsen, A.R., Heil, M., Andersen, M. & Brons, M. (2019) Bifurcation theory for vortices with application to boundary layer eruption. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 865, 831-849. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2019.97
Shepherd, D., Miles, J., Heil, M. & Mihajlovic, M. (2019) An adaptive step implicit midpoint rule for the time integration of Newton's linearisations of non-linear problems with applications in micromagnetics. Journal of Scientific Computing 80, 1058-1082. DOI: 10.1007/s10915-019-00965-8
Vaquero-Stainer, C., Heil, M., Juel, A. & Pihler-Puzovic, D. (2019) Self-similar and disordered front propagation in a radial Hele-Shaw channel with time-varying cell depth. Physical Review Fluids 4, 064002. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.4.064002.
Haner, E., Heil, M. & Juel, A. (2020) Deformation and sorting of capsules in a T-junction. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 885, A4. DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2019.979.
Xu, D., Heil,M., Seeboeck, T. & Avila Marc (2020) Resonances in Pulsatile Channel Flow with an Elastic Wall Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 254501. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.254501
Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.
Cockroach, (order Blattodea), also called roach, any of about 4,600 species of insects that are among the most primitive living winged insects, appearing today much like they do in fossils that are more than 320 million years old. The word cockroach is a corruption of the Spanish cucaracha. The cockroach is characterized by a flattened oval body, long threadlike antennae, and a shining black or brown leathery integument. The head is bent downward, and the mouthparts point backward instead of forward or downward as is the case in most other insects. Male cockroaches usually have two pairs of wings, whereas females, in some species, are wingless or have vestigial wings.
The female produces eggs in egg cases (called oothecae). These are sometimes held protruding from her body or may be glued in protected areas. After the female deposits an egg case, the soft white nymphs emerge. As their exoskeleton hardens, it turns brown in colour. The structure and large size (certain species have a wingspread of more than 12 cm [4.7 inches]) of cockroaches have made them objects of interest in the biological laboratory.
The cockroach prefers a warm, humid, dark environment and is usually found in tropical or other mild climates. Only a few species have become pests. The insect damages more material than it consumes and emits a disagreeable odour. The diet of the roach, which includes both plant and animal products, ranges from food, paper, clothing, and books to dead insects, especially bedbugs. Insecticides are used in roach control.
The American cockroach (species Periplaneta americana), a native of Africa and the Middle East, is 30 to 50 mm (up to about 2 inches) long, is reddish brown, and lives outdoors or in dark heated indoor areas (e.g., basements and furnace rooms). During adult life, a period of about 1.5 years, the female deposits 50 or more oothecae, each containing about 16 eggs that hatch after 45 days. Nymphal life lasts from 11 to 14 months. The American cockroach has well-developed wings. However, most species are not good fliers.
The German cockroach (Blattella germanica), a common household pest, is light brown with two dark stripes on the prothoracic region. The female produces the ootheca 3 days after mating and carries it for about 20 days. Three or more generations may occur yearly. Because it is small (about 12 mm [less than 0.5 inch] long), this cockroach often is carried into homes in grocery bags and boxes. It has spread throughout the world thanks to human transport, including long-distance transport by ship.
The brown-banded cockroach (Supella longipalpa) resembles the German cockroach but is slightly smaller. The male has fully developed wings and is lighter in colour than the female, whose wings are short and nonfunctional. Both sexes have two light-coloured bands across the back. The adult life span is about 200 days, and there may be two generations annually. Eggs may be deposited in clothes, wood molding, or cracks in the floor. With the advent of heated buildings, this cockroach became established in cooler climates.
The Oriental cockroach (Blatta orientalis) is considered one of the filthiest of household pests. It is oval, shiny black or dark brown, and 25 to 30 mm (1 to 1.2 inches) long, with a life cycle similar to that of the American cockroach. The male has short fully developed wings, and the female has vestigial wings. This cockroach has been distributed by vehicles of commerce from its Asiatic origins to all the temperate regions.
Wood roaches are not domestic pests in eastern and central North America, despite their name. The Pennsylvania wood cockroach (Parcoblatta pennsylvanica) is found under logs and stones in northern latitudes. The male and female are so different in appearance that they were once considered separate species. The male, 15 to 25 mm (0.6 to 1 inch) long, has wings that extend past the abdomen. The female is smaller and has much shorter wings. The brown-hooded cockroach (Cryptocercus punctulatus) digests wood with the aid of certain protozoans in its digestive tract.
Some authorities consider cockroaches to be a suborder of either the order Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids) or the order Dictyoptera (mantids and cockroaches).
The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Kara Rogers, Senior Editor.
Boxelder Bugs Prevention
In order to prevent boxelder bugs from invading homes, repair holes in window and door screens, seal cracks and crevices with a good quality silicone or silicone-latex caulk and install door sweeps to all exterior entrances.
When getting rid of boxelder bugs that have already entered a home or building, no attempt should be made to kill them in wall voids because dead insect bodies can attract dermestid beetles (larder beetles, carpet beetles, etc). Experts recommend waiting until summer when all live overwintering adults are out of the wall voids. To provide temporary relief during this time, consider using a vacuum cleaner to get rid of the boxelder bugs. The bag should be removed to prevent the bugs from escaping. Then, seal up any entryways into the living space – window pulleys, window and door frames, baseboards, etc. – to prevent a future infestation. For electrical outlets, switch boxes, heating ducts and return air vents, remove the coverplate, seal and replace. For light fixtures and ceiling fans, remove the fixture to its base plate, seal and replace.
If a boxelder bug infestation is suspected, a licensed pest control professional should be contacted to evaluate and assess the problem.
This video by Andrew Falconer shows boxelder bugs swarming on wood posts in the Vicksburg Recreation Area parking lot.
Find a Pest Control Professional
Online Master's Program Now Accepting Applications: Read More (PDF)
B&G Equipment Company has donated an array of pest control equipment to Zach DeVries Urban Entomology lab. The equipment will be used by the lab to help demonstrate proper application techniques to pest control professionals. Read the whole story in PCT Maganzine.
UK Entomology graduate student Johnalyn Gordon from Dr. DeVries' lab was awarded a scholarship from the Pest Management Foundation. Congratulations Johnalyn! https://www.pctonline.com/article/pest-management-foundation-awards-scho.
More Entomology Department News
List of Recent Departmental Publications
Identification & Management Assistance
For assistance with insect identification and management in Kentucky, bring questions and specimens directly to your local County Extension Office. Your local office can also help you find and print factsheets and other information. These services are provided to Kentuckians at no cost.
Residents of states outside of Kentucky should contact their local or regional extension service.
Our research has real-world impact beyond the lab. We are at the forefront of the search for solutions to some of the most pressing issues in biology, medicine and health.
The Faculty has a global reputation in research spanning from molecules, cells and whole organisms to populations and healthcare.
We are uniquely structured to encourage researchers to work across different areas for a multidisciplinary approach to biomedical and health science discoveries.
This structure incorporates:
We also have strong relationships with the NHS and industry in which we share knowledge and facilities, helping us turn our discoveries into effective new therapies.
Cracking the code
Crick started with the main thing that genes do: they control the production of proteins.
The problem Crick explored was that the DNA in a gene is simply a chemical code - a string of something called bases - A, C, T, G.
Crick had to explain how the cell could get from this one-dimensional sequence of bases in DNA to the complex three-dimensional structures of proteins. Even more puzzling was the fact that proteins can fold themselves into nearly any shape.
Crick's answer was simple: the order of bases in the gene - what he called "genetic information" - corresponded to the order of the amino acids that make up each protein, and nothing more.
There was no structural information about the protein that was encoded in the gene, he claimed. He called this the sequence hypothesis.
Somehow, the cell "read" the information in the gene and assembled the amino acids together like beads on a string. The resulting protein folded itself - spontaneously - into its final 3-D structure. We still cannot easily predict the structure of a protein from the order of its amino acids, but Crick's sequence hypothesis holds good.
Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.
Cricket, (family Gryllidae), any of approximately 2,400 species of leaping insects (order Orthoptera) that are worldwide in distribution and known for the musical chirping of the male. Crickets vary in length from 3 to 50 mm (0.12 to 2 inches). They have thin antennae, hind legs modified for jumping, three-jointed tarsal (foot) segments, and two slender abdominal sensory appendages (called cerci). The two forewings are stiff and leathery, and the two long, membranous hind wings are used in flying.
Male crickets produce musical chirping sounds by rubbing a scraper located on one forewing along a row of about 50 to 250 teeth on the opposite forewing. The frequency of the chirps depends on the number of teeth struck per second and varies from 1,500 cycles per second in the largest cricket species to nearly 10,000 cycles per second in the smallest. The most common cricket songs are the calling song, which attracts the female the courtship, or mating, song, which induces the female to copulate and the fighting chirp, which repels other males. Both sexes have highly sensitive organs on the forelegs for sound reception. There is a direct relationship between the rate of cricket chirps and temperature, with the rate increasing with increasing temperature.
Most female crickets insert eggs into soil or plant stems with their long, slender ovipositors, sometimes causing serious plant damage. In northern latitudes most crickets mature and lay eggs in the fall. The nymphs hatch in the spring and become adults after 6 to 12 molts adults ordinarily live 6 to 8 weeks.
The field cricket (genus Gryllus) and the house cricket (Acheta, formerly Gryllus, domesticus) of the subfamily Gryllinae are stout-bodied and black or brown and often dig shallow burrows. They may feed on plants, animals, clothes, and each other. The field cricket (also called the black cricket) is common in fields and yards and sometimes enters buildings. The house cricket, introduced into North America from Europe, has a light-coloured head with dark cross bands and may be found in buildings and refuse heaps. Widely distributed, house and field crickets chirp day and night. They are used as fish bait in some countries and are also used in biology laboratories. Gryllus is often referred to in poetry and prose.
Ground crickets (subfamily Nemobiinae, or sometimes Gryllinae), approximately 12 mm long, are commonly found in pastures and wooded areas. Their song is a series of soft, high-pitched trills. The striped ground cricket (Nemobius vittatus) has three dark stripes on its abdomen.
Tree crickets (subfamily Oecanthinae) are white or green in colour and have transparent wings. Although tree crickets are beneficial to humans because they prey on aphids, the female injures twigs during egg placement. The song of most tree crickets is a long trill. The snowy tree cricket (Oecanthus fultoni) is popularly known as the thermometer cricket because the approximate temperature (Fahrenheit) can be estimated by counting the number of chirps in 15 seconds and adding 40. Tree- and bush-inhabiting crickets usually sing at night, whereas weed-inhabiting crickets sing both day and night.
Ant-loving crickets (subfamily Myrmecophilinae) are minute (3 to 5 mm long), wingless, and humpbacked. They live in ant nests. Wingless bush crickets (subfamily Mogoplistinae) are generally found on bushes or under debris in sandy tropical areas near water. They are slender crickets, 5 to 13 mm long, wingless or with small wings, and are covered with translucent scales that rub off easily. Sword-bearing, or winged bush, crickets (subfamily Trigonidiinae) are 4 to 9 mm long and brown and possess a sword-shaped ovipositor. They are characteristically found in bushes near a pond.
Crickets play a large role in myth and superstition. Their presence is equated with good fortune and intelligence harming a cricket supposedly causes misfortune. In East Asia male crickets are caged for their songs, and cricket fighting has been a favourite sport in China for hundreds of years.
Insects called crickets but not of the cricket family Gryllidae include the camel cricket, Jerusalem cricket, mole cricket, and pygmy sand cricket.
This article was most recently revised and updated by Alison Eldridge, Digital Content Manager.
University of Manchester
The University of Manchester is a place where research has international impact, where students experience outstanding teaching and learning, transforming into employable graduates, and where all activity is enriched by a commitment to social responsibility and the benefits we bring to society and the environment.
We were the first British university to set social responsibility as a core goal and in 2021 we were named the world’s number one university in the Times Higher Education University Impact Rankings. Manchester topped the table of more than 1,100 universities from 94 countries on action taken towards the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
Manchester was the first and most eminent of England’s civic universities. Our rich heritage of discovery, social change and pioneering spirit remains at the heart of all we do. Today, we’re part of the prestigious Russell Group of UK universities, with a global reputation for the highest level of research and teaching, as demonstrated by our position in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. In 2021 we were placed 51st in the world and eighth in the UK.
Manchester has a rich history of ground-breaking research and 25 Nobel laureates have studied or worked with us. This includes current members of academic staff, Professors Sir Kostya Novoselov and Sir Andre Geim, who shared the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics for the isolation of graphene’s properties.
Other pioneering discoveries include the work of Tom Kilburn, Freddie Williams and Alan Turing on the modern computer – the first stored program was run at Manchester – and the development of modern economics by trailblazers Sir John Richard Hicks and Sir William Arthur Lewis. The latter, on his appointment at Manchester, was Britain’s first Black professor. Manchester also led the way with the appointment of Baroness Jean McFarlane as the first Professor of Nursing in England. McFarlane, a pioneer within the field of healthcare, established the country’s first nursing degree.
Today, nearly half of our academic and research staff work on interdisciplinary research. Our five research beacons – advanced materials, cancer, energy, global inequalities and industrial biotechnology – are examples of how our cross-sector partnerships are helping to find unique solutions to some of the world’s biggest challenges.
Our place as one of the UK’s top research universities was confirmed in the results of the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, the system for assessing the quality of research in UK higher education institutions. 83% of our research activity was judged to be ‘world-leading’ (4*) or ‘internationally excellent’ (3*), and we were ranked fifth in terms of research power. This environment is ideal for PhD students. Those who choose to undertake their project at Manchester can collaborate with academics whose work is having global impact and access a dedicated enterprise centre and doctoral college committed to researcher development.
Through our Innovation Factory, we invest in the commercialisation of research via spin-out companies and partnerships with industry. These commercialisation activities have contributed almost £868 million to the UK economy since 2004 and we’re ranked 8th in the Reuters Top 100 Most Innovative Universities in Europe (2019). We have a host of innovation initiatives designed to engage students, staff and local communities with the potential of research at Manchester. These include the Masood Entrepreneurship Centre and ID Manchester, a new billion-pound innovation district being developed in the heart of Manchester and alongside the University.
Our student community is one of the largest in the UK. At present we have 40,485 students studying at the University and we’re proud to welcome almost 14,000 international students to our community – more than a quarter of the student body.
World-class research forms the foundation of all our teaching and we offer more than 1,000 degree programmes across undergraduate, postgraduate taught and research. These programmes inspire learners with challenging ideas, knowledge and wisdom, and help them develop the capabilities employers need most. So it’s no surprise that we’re University of the year for graduate employment (The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide, 2020).
We’re committed to enhancing the quality of our learning experience and growing global access to a Manchester education. We’re making a multi-million pound investment in flexible, blended learning to create a more inclusive and international environment for learners of all ages and backgrounds. We have four global centres – in Dubai, Hong Kong, Shanghai and Singapore – offering a growing range of online and blended learning courses that combine face-to-face and digital activities.
For students choosing to study on campus, the city of Manchester is within easy reach. It’s a welcoming and diverse place, with up to 200 languages spoken. Manchester is also one of Britain’s most celebrated cities – judged to be the top UK city to live in for 2019 (the Economist’s Global Liveability Index).
The University plays a big part in this, with our own Manchester Museum, The John Rylands Research Institute and Library and the Whitworth – an award-winning art gallery on campus – among the city’s cultural landmarks, and the iconic Lovell Telescope just a short drive away at our Jodrell Bank Discovery Centre, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The University is ideally placed to address many of the world’s major social and environmental challenges. Our interdisciplinary teams are continually collaborating and evolving their research to find solutions to the UN’s 17 Sustainable Development Goals, delivering a healthier, fairer and greener world.
On a local level, we’re committed to social inclusion as one of our priority themes. We break down barriers so that talented, capable students can access higher education, regardless of their background. In 2019/20 we provided more than £12.3 million of funding via the Manchester Bursary to help 6,276 students access our University.
Manchester was the first British university to set social responsibility as a core goal, sitting equally alongside our commitments to world-class research and an outstanding learning and student experience.
Our societal impact has been ranked the best in the UK by Times Higher Education based on the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals framework. The prestigious ranking comes in the 2020 Times Higher Education University Impact Rankings. We competed against more than 500 universities from around the world.
Social inclusion is one of our priority themes. We break down barriers so that talented, capable students can access higher education, regardless of their background. In 2019/20 we provided more than £12.3 million of funding via the Manchester Bursary to help 6,276 students access our University.
Our students are inspired to go beyond their studies to contribute to positive change, improving their lives and those of others. We encourage all our students to participate in Stellify, a programme of transformative activities designed to help students grow and develop into the leaders of tomorrow. Activities include taking on ethical grand challenges relating to equality, sustainability and social justice, making a difference through community volunteering and developing key skills through leadership roles or work experience. Students can even choose to work towards gaining a prestigious University award.
Same gene every time
Prof James Mallet, an expert on butterfly and moth genetics from Harvard University and University College London, was full of praise for the Liverpool team.
"This is an incredible piece of work," he said, adding that the reason it has taken so long to find the culprit gene is because of the sheer difficulty of the experiments.
"These have been incredibly difficult animals to work with. It's not easy as a lab animal, it's hard to breed - it has one generation a year - and it has really limited polymorphism. So it's very hard to use standard genetic techniques to map the genes and locate them on the chromosomes."
The second Nature paper concerned with the cortex gene explores its role in the Heliconius family of tropical butterflies.
Dr Nicola Nadeau from the University of Sheffield was the first author of that study. "It's amazing that the same gene controls such a diversity of different colours and patterns in butterflies and a moth," she said.
Her findings implicate cortex in the Heliconius butterflies' unusual habit of exchanging DNA and mimicking each other's dramatic colouring, which helps ward off predators.
Dr Nadeau's co-author Prof Chris Jiggins, from the University of Cambridge, said it was surprising - and important - to discover a single gene playing such different roles.
"For the moths, the dark colouration developed because they were trying to hide, but the butterflies use bright colours to advertise their toxicity to predators. It raises the question that given the diversity in butterflies and moths, and the hundreds of genes involved in making a wing, why is it this one every time?"