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Why does our eyes got wet when we feel emotional or whenever we are hurt?

Why does our eyes got wet when we feel emotional or whenever we are hurt?


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I was thinking like whenever when we feel emotional or whenever we got hurt we got tears from our eyes but why is that happen ? Why our eyes got wet ?


The lacrimal gland, the major source for tear production, is situated just above the eye. It sends it's secretions to the eye via the lacrimal duct. Tears secreted collect in the conjunctiva of the upper lid. There is also a nasolacrimal duct which drains the tears from the eye into the nasal cavity. Hence the sniffles when we cry.

How is it controlled? The lacrimal nucleus in the brain is the major source for innervating the lacrimal gland, is a subnucleus of the superior salivary nucleus in the tegmentum of the pons (part of the brain stem). The lacrimal nucleus is connected to the lacrimal gland by the facial nerve (more specifically the greater petrosal nerve). This is parasympathetic (meaning it is part of the autonomic nervous sytem) and the neurotransmitter transmitting the signal from nerve to gland is acetylcholine (the receptor is muscarinic subtype of the cholinergic… though strangely wikipedia says nicotinic subtype is involved as well, but maybe this is simply poorly worded and is just refering to the ganglia stopover between pre/post ganglionic parasympathetic neurons), this information helps explain how some drugs affect lacrimation (tearing up).

Taken from source (1) [I do not know how reliable this website is]: How is the lacrimal nucleus told to start lacrimation? The lacrimal nucleus receives projections from the autonomic nervous system as well as from various brain structures, including the frontal lobe, globus pallidus, thalamus, and hypothalamus. The projections from the frontal lobe are thought to be important in human psychic lacrimation (crying because of emotions).

What I know: Another brain area called the limbic system is involved in production of basic emotional drives, such as anger, fear, etc. The limbic system [in the case of sympathetic nervous system it would be the hypothalamus specifically, but this is irrelevant here since parasympathetic nerves cause lacrimation] also has a degree of control over the autonomic system. As I under stand it, the frontal lobe usually inhibits the limbic system.

Again from source (1): While humans across the world produce psychic tears in response to both positive and negative emotions, and while similar emotions have been identified in other animal species, no reports exist of other animals showing psychic lacrimation.

according to wiki (3): Compared to tearing for physical reasons, tears for emotional reasons have s different chemical composition. They are composed of more protein-based hormones, such as prolactin, adrenocorticotropic, and leucine enkephalin (a natural pain killer), which is suggested to be the mechanism behind the experience of crying from emotion making an individual feel better.

sources:

(1) http://carta.anthropogeny.org/moca/topics/lacrimation-tearing

(2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lacrimal_gland#Innervation

(3) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tears


6 Real Physical Signs Someone Is Thinking About You

What are the signs someone is thinking about you? Is there a definite way of finding out that someone likes you?

Of course there is. The universe has a unique (and often funny) way of letting us know when someone is thinking of us. If you experience a sudden change of emotional state, random hiccups, repeated sneezing, or similar, these are legit signs someone is thinking about you! (We’ll talk about these signs in detail later, so stay tuned!)

There’s also a way to unleash all his emotions and make him come running to you. CLICK HERE if you’re ready to make him choose you, now and always.

Have you ever been in a situation where you cannot understand how and why it happened?


All You Need To Know About Prolonged Eye Contact From A Guy

But if a guy is not shy, he will want to show off his confidence by staring into your eyes for as long as he can.

He is sending a message that he feels good about himself and that he is courageous enough to use direct eye contact as a sign of his interest in you.

When a man is making prolonged eye contact with you, it’s the ultimate display of his confidence. And confidence is sexy. Confidence is what keeps a woman interested, nine times out of ten.

So if you are dealing with a confident guy and he is sending you some hidden signals by using eye contact, you would like to get to the bottom of his intentions.

Get your confidence too with The Woman Men Adore and get on top of his game right now.


10 Sensory Symptoms and Red Flags

Before we dive into these behaviors, I want to make it VERY clear that just because your child may have one or several of these red flags, it doesn’t mean that they have sensory problems, autism, or any other diagnosis. We ALL have sensory processing needs and differences. Seeing your child’s behavior through the sensory lens will allow you to understand them and support their needs, which means less confusion and frustration for everybody!

And, if you’re concerned that your child’s sensory issues need addressed by a professional, then check out sensory integration therapy. You’ll find a guide to walk you through figuring that all out so you have peace of mind! If you are concerned your child has autism, or already know they do, check out the link between autism and sensory processing.

1. Avoids Movement – If your child gets scared at climbing playground equipment, roughhousing, or riding a swing, they are likely avoiding vestibular and possibly proprioceptive input. Those are our sixth and seventh senses that give us our sense of balance and body awareness.

2. Gagging at the Sight, Taste, and Smell of Foods – Although not always sensory, gagging immediately when confronted with foods is often because the oral system is being overwhelmed. Read more about sensory issues with food.

3. Frequently Walking on Toes – Children often do this because they are sensitive to the sensations they are feeling on their feet and prefer as little of their foot to be touching the surface as possible. Sometime children toe-walk because they like the pressure it puts on their ankle, which is more proprioceptive feedback. Or, it can also be the result of a vestibular system that isn’t processing properly, read more about that here.

4. Clumsy – There are a variety of reasons that a child may seem to fall or bump into objects more than other children, and one of the most overlooked reasons is because the child’s proprioception and possibly vestibular systems aren’t working too well.

5. Hides at Parties or Avoids Them – If your child hates going to parties or other public places, it is possible that they may be overstimulated by the noise, lights, and/or people accidentally touching them. For kids that have this response due to a sensory processing difficulty, a party can be downright torture as the sounds, sights, and unexpected touches can just be painful to them, literally. Head to sensory sensitivity in kids to learn more.

6. Prefers Tight Clothing – Sometimes kids will want to layer clothes or wear really tight fitting clothing to give themselves more proprioceptive input. It may seem strange, but the sensation they receive is calming to them and may even help them focus better. Or, your child may be extremely particluar about some sort of fabric. This all relates back to sensory. Head over to sensory issues with clothing to learn more.

7. Wild Child– There are a variety of reasons that kids seem to bounce off the walls at times, but kids that always seem to be jumping, climbing, running, pushing, and roughhousing are typically seeking out proprioceptive input, and sometimes vestibular as well. Unfortunately, these kids are often described as “bad” or wild, but really, they are just trying to get their needs met. Click here to read more about sensory strategies for wild kids, and a three part plan for “dealing with” hyperactive kids.

8. Likes Bright, Fast Paced TV Shows – I know a lot of kids like these types of shows, but if your child only wants to watch fast, bright shows, then it may be an indication that they want more visual stimulation. If that is the case, your child may also like looking at lights and brightly colored or high contrast books.

9. Bites Toys or People When Unprovoked – If your child seems to bite others or their toys often, usually for no reason, they are probably looking for some deep, intense proprioceptive input.

10. Doesn’t seem to notice when being talked to or needs directions repeated – Yes, sometimes kids ignore, and sometimes this is normal, but if it is a frequent recurring issue than it is a sign that your child’s auditory or hearing system is not processing information well.


Why Do Guys Like BJ Reason #2: A Symbol of Vulnerability

In order to give a man oral sex, a woman has to be vulnerable to him. In fact, she has to opento him and be comfortable with being vulnerable to him. Of course, some women engage in oral sex out of obligation, or feel that they have to in order to please their man, so they do it.

In other words, their heart is not in it. If a woman’s heart is not in it, and she’s doing it on autopilot, then obviously the blowjob will feel different to a guy. If she is not fully vulnerable to him, the man will sense this, although he may not want to accept that she is doing it out of obligation.

The concept of vulnerability goes hand-in-hand with the idea of trust. The masculine energy/men has a real need to be trusted.

And of course, if you are comfortable being fully vulnerable to him, then this indicates that you are trusting of him.


10 WAYS WOMEN ACT WHEN THEY DON’T LOVE YOU ANYMORE

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When a woman has stopped loving you, it could feel like the world is coming to an end. There are certain signs she lets out when she has lost interest in you and having a relationship with you.

When a woman no longer loves you, the signs she shows doesn’t go beyond these:

1. SHE DOESN’T BOTHER ANYMORE

When a woman stops loving a man, her caring and inquisitive nature dies off she no longer bothers about what goes on in her man’s life, she doesn’t bother and she hardly cares.

2. SHE NO LONGER FINDS HIM ATTRACTIVE

When a woman is in love, she finds her man super attractive and charming. However, the same cannot be said when she stops loving him no matter how good-looking he is, she wouldn’t find him attractive once she has lost that desire for him.

3. SHE NO LONGER PUTS IN EFFORTS

A woman in love would put in all efforts for her man and the relationship, but when this isn’t the case, she wouldn’t care about the relationship anymore — so she wouldn’t put efforts to make the relationship better or show her man that she cares.

4. COMMUNICATION DIES OFF

Even though she might still linger in the relationship with you, if she’s stopped loving you then her communication with you would die off. Those moments where you both get to talk and laugh for hours would die off and she wouldn’t let you in on what’s going on in her life you would be like a complete stranger to her.

5. SHE DOESN’T CARE ABOUT HOW YOU FEEL

This is also a given if a woman has fallen out of love with you. She would do things without minding the repercussions she no longer cares about how you feel and never bothers to make you happy.

6. SHE’S RARELY MOVED BY YOUR ANTICS

Also, when a woman no longer loves a man, she no longer gets moved by the things he does for her if she loves him, she would appreciate the little things he does for her and if she doesn’t love him, she wouldn’t appreciate the things he does for her.

7. THE COMMUNICATION WOULD COME FROM YOU

Like I mentioned in the 4th tip, her communication with you would die off when she no longer loves you, but it doesn’t just end there. She wouldn’t start the communication or make any move to every form of communication would be from the man and she might never respond.

8. SHE DOESN’T DO ANYTHING SPECIAL ANYMORE

When a woman stops loving a man, she wouldn’t have the desire to do special things for him anymore. She wouldn’t treat him nice, she wouldn’t make him feel loved and she just wouldn’t care.

You know how everyone craves attention in a relationship? Everyone loves getting attention from their partners but when a woman stops loving a man, her attention dies off with the love.

10. PHYSICAL INTIMACY DIES OFF

When a woman loses interest in her man, the physical intimacy between them would die off too. She wouldn’t want any form of intimacy from him and she would ward off all intimate advances from her man. These are the common signs a woman show when she’s no longer in love with her man.


Here's How Your Dog Really Feels About You, According To Science

Let’s talk about puppy love. Not youthful romance, but the love between a person and his or her pooch. As every dog lover knows, canine companions make for some of the best friends we could wish for. They play with us, cuddle with us, listen to us and make us feel like the most special people on the planet the moment we walk through the front door. We love them, and they love us -- or so we assume. Since our furry, floppy-eared friends aren’t able to tell us how they really feel, we’re stuck staring into their puppy-dog eyes, wondering what kinds of thoughts are flying around behind them.

The more we know as owners, the better we can promote our pets’ emotional wellness. To learn more about the doggy mind and how to nourish it, we partnered with Purina and the Purina Better With Pets Summit in search of answers to dog owners’ most pressing questions about canine psychology. And, thanks to science, we now know a lot more about what Fido and Fifi are really thinking and feeling.

“Does my dog feel guilty after he does something bad?”

We all know what it looks like: the head hanging low, ears drooping and gaze averted. It’s the look our dogs get after they’ve pooped on the living room carpet or swiped half of our breakfast while our backs were turned. But even though man’s best friend is showing all the same signs of guilt that we see in humans, that doesn’t mean he’s actually sorry. Sandra Lyn, Ph.D., a behaviorist at Nestlé Purina, says we assume that dogs feel guilty about misbehaving because we tend to anthropomorphize them, meaning we think about them as if they were human. We assume that they share our cognitive and emotional abilities, which leads us to read their behaviors the same way we would read a human’s. But, as much as we may want to deny it, dogs are not like humans -- and they don’t feel guilty like humans do, either.

According to Dr. Gregory Berns, a leading neuroscientist in the field of canine cognition and author of How Dogs Love Us: A Neuroscientist and His Adopted Dog Decode the Canine Brain, the simple explanation for your dog’s guilty-seeming behavior is that he has learned to anticipate you yelling at him, and that’s why he hangs his head. And since nearly 60 percent of dog owners say their dogs’ guilty behavior causes them to scold them less, that bowed head might be your pooch’s way of reducing conflict.

“Guilt is not just an emotion,” explains Berns. “It’s also a complex cognitive process. To experience guilt you have to have reference to yourself, you have to have reference to the past, you have to remember what you did, [and you have to] know that it was something that you weren’t supposed to do. It’s not clear that dogs have all of those capabilities.” So the next time your pup tries to pull the guilt act, remember that he’s probably not sorry that he peed on your bathrobe -- but he is sorry to be called out on his faux pas.

“Does my dog get jealous?”

Ah, the green-eyed monster. You’ve probably gotten the feeling that your furry friend experiences envy whenever you’re focusing on someone else because he nuzzles you or barks until he regains your attention. The truth is that while we can’t say definitively that dogs get jealous, research supports the theory. A 2014 study published in PLOS ONE showed that dogs tended to display significantly more jealous behaviors (such as getting between their owner and an object, pushing or touching their owner and snapping) when their owners showed affection for a stuffed toy dog. By contrast, they showed fewer jealous behaviors when the owners were interacting with a plastic jack-o-lantern and a children’s book. They possibly perceived more competition in the toy that they thought could be real. As anyone with more than one canine companion has likely witnessed firsthand, pups don’t take kindly to their owners doling out affection to another dog. According to the authors of the study, the findings support the view that dogs do, indeed, get jealous. Green-eyed monster, thy name is Sparky.

“Does my dog care about me?”

It should come as no surprise to pet lovers that dogs do indeed care about their owners, but what is surprising is how perceptive they are of the little things that impact you and your well-being. Research shows that dogs may be able to tell when their owners are being snubbed by someone else, and they in turn act coldly toward the people doing the dissing. In the experiment, dogs watched as their owners asked for help and either were rudely ignored or received aid. The overwhelming majority of the dogs whose owners didn’t receive help ignored food offered to them by the person who had snubbed their human. Scientists say this is likely a form of social eavesdropping, or the use of information collected by observing interactions between others, and it shows that your dog has your back.

Canine companions are also skilled at sensing our emotions. “Dogs are so good at reading [human] emotions that they will often pick up on subtle changes in voice intonation associated with affective state and respond accordingly,” explains Ragen T.S. McGowan, Ph.D., a senior behavior scientist at Nestlé Purina. “For example, [they offer] comfort when an owner is feeling down or [get] excited when their owner is in a joyous mood.” It’s a lot like the kind of care your best friend might show you during your ups and downs (no surprise, then, that dogs have earned the title of “man’s best friend”). According to a 2015 study published in Current Biology, dogs can also read emotions in our faces, perceiving through our expressions whether we’re happy, sad or angry. That explains why your pup may be more playful with you when you’re in good spirits or cuddle with you when you’re sad they sense your emotional state and respond accordingly.

Just as dogs can sense how we’re feeling, owners can usually identify their pets’ moods based on their behaviors, too. Berns notes that dogs may actually experience emotions even more purely than humans do. “Humans have language and the capacity to almost cognitively separate themselves from experiences,” he explains, “so [we] can view [ourselves] from different perspectives and evaluate things that cause [us] to feel certain ways. That’s a uniquely human capacity.” This ability to self-analyze can blunt the sharpness of our feelings, Berns suggests, and it’s unlikely that any other animal can do the same. So while your dog undoubtedly has your back when you’re feeling down, you can bet he could use a friend when he’s feeling down, too: he may be experiencing that emotion even more intensely than we can imagine.

“What is my dog thinking when I FaceTime or Skype with her?”

So you’ve missed your dog so much while you’re away that you asked someone to help you video chat with her. (Hey, we’ve all been there, and we don’t blame you.) While getting a glimpse of your pup and saying hello over the airwaves may make you feel better and strengthen your bond, you probably can’t help but ask yourself: “Does she even know that it’s me?”

The short answer is: maybe. While dogs are experts at recognizing people by their scents, smell isn’t a factor in video chatting dogs would instead need to rely on facial and voice recognition in order to know that it’s you. A recent study in PeerJ conducted by Berns’ team found that, like primates, dogs have a specific part of the brain that processes faces, and it’s active when dogs are viewing images of people. Still, it hasn’t been proven yet whether dogs can recognize their owners by face alone. Whatever the case, it can’t hurt to Skype -- especially because it at least makes you feel closer to your canine friend, even if she can’t tell you’re on the other end.

“Does my dog love me?”

And here it is: the million-dollar question every dog owner is dying to have answered (but let’s face it, you already have your suspicions). To those who share special bonds with their pups, it may seem like a no-brainer of course dogs love us. But others have their doubts about that bond -- specifically, they wonder whether dogs have the capacity to feel love as we know it, and whether their affectionate behaviors have more to do with the fact that we provide them with food and shelter rather than with the L word.

Berns suggests that the question of whether dogs truly love their humans depends on the dog and on the person. Just as some human relationships are transactional in nature -- for instance, you can love someone because they make you feel a certain way -- part of dogs’ affection for humans does stem from the fact that we feed them and take care of them. In some cases, though, he believes that it goes “beyond that” for dogs.

“I’ve seen many dogs who just like being around their person,” Berns says. “They crave the attention, they crave the contact and they will choose that over food. Is that love? I would call it that, yes. We call it that in humans.” It’s also possible that some breeds of dogs may be more likely than others to develop that strong bond with their humans. Researchers, including Berns, are exploring that very question in order to determine if some furry friends may make better service dogs than others.

Studies support the theory that dogs do feel the warm-and-fuzzies for their humans -- even more so than for their animal friends. In a study published in ScienceDirect in 2015, Berns and his colleagues presented dogs with the scents of their owner, a human they didn’t know, a familiar dog (usually one that lived in the same home), an unfamiliar dog and the subject dogs’ own scent. They used fMRI technology to monitor the dogs’ brain activity, and they found that of all the scents, only the familiar human scent activated the dogs’ caudate nucleus -- the part of the brain that, in humans, becomes activated when we anticipate things we like or enjoy. This suggests that dogs have a positive association with the human scent, and may in fact be experiencing feelings of love as we do.

While we can’t interpret canine behaviors the same way we interpret human ones, we can use physiological clues to guess how pups might be feeling when they’re around their owners. McGowan notes that when people come in close contact with their loved ones, they experience physiological changes, including an increase in circulating oxytocin, a hormone that plays a role in pair bonding. “The same is true for dogs being pet and cuddled by their owners,” says McGowan. “Recent work with fMRI demonstrates that dogs show increases in brain activity when their owners step back into view after having stepped out, highlighting the close connection that they share.”

They say there’s no bond quite like the one between man and his best friend, after all, and while science can’t yet say for sure whether puppy love is real, it certainly looks a lot like love, both in the behavior and in the brain.

Purina is committed to providing pet owners with the tools they need to promote their pet’s physical and mental health. The Purina Better With Pets Summit addresses all the ways pets and people are better together, shining a spotlight on the emotional wellness of pets and the people who love them. Discover how to nourish your pet’s mind by providing even better nutrition, helping them achieve a sense of purpose, maintaining a healthy environment and learning to assess your pet’s mental state. Share your experiences and tell us how your life is #BetterWithPets.


3. Keep Track of Dosages

As with any medication, it’s important that eyedrops be taken as directed. Missing doses or overusing drops can affect treatment. Marioneaux suggests timing doses to an existing routine, such as when you take other medications, or setting an alarm on a smartphone or other device as a reminder.

You may want to move an eyedrop bottle from one location to another once it's been used. If you prefer, keep a log or draw up a chart and check off the dose whenever a drop is applied.

If a patient with a potentially serious condition like glaucoma can’t remember whether they used their eye medicine, Marioneaux advises putting in a drop to be safe. “If they’re not sure and their pressure is really poorly controlled, I’d rather have them do an extra one if they haven’t done it than to not do it,” she says. But Marioneaux emphasizes, "I do not routinely want them putting an extra drop in.”


4. You feel super-connected.

Sometimes, there are no words for how deeply connected you feel to your partner. Instead, there are tears, Nasserzadeh says. &ldquoIf sex is a way of deep connection with a partner, your body might choose this form of release to communicate your emotions,&rdquo she says.

That&rsquos pretty typical, Wright adds, since sex releases oxytocin, and oxytocin promotes bonding, trust, and empathy. &ldquoIt&rsquos easy to feel safe to release emotions that may have been bottled up for whatever reason,&rdquo she says.


What would Sigmund Freud say?

Sometimes working out whether a guy likes you seems like an impossible task. Is he into you or just playing games?

Now, I know a thing or two about relationships and in this article I’m giving you the main signs to look out for.

But why not take things to the next level and get a love diagnosis from Sigmund Freud himself?

Yes, Freud himself can tell you whether he likes you.

I’ve just created a fun new quiz where Sigmund Freud will answer the one question all women ask about a guy at least once in their lives. All based on his most famous theories.

Sigmund Freud was the grandmaster at understanding sex and attraction. In my quiz, we’ll dig into the deeper layers of your man’s subconscious to reveal what’s really motivating him in your relationship.

Simply answer a few personal questions and Freud will give you the answer you need.



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