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Insect identification request - Is this a bed bug?

Insect identification request - Is this a bed bug?


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I live in Spain and today I found several of these in my son's jacket. I am afraid they are bed bugs nymphs because last year we had a bedbug epidemic in some neighborhood houses.

The insect in the photo is about 1mm and has green spots in his body. Maybe they are just aphids that have been brought from the park.


I got curious and after some image search I got two candidates:

  1. Plagiognathus repetitus

  1. Mullein Bug


Health District

Human bed bugs are found all over the world in all kinds of neighborhoods and settings. During the last decade there has been a significant increase in the reported number of infestations. The good news is that this insect in not known to transmit any type of human disease. However, some individuals experience intense itching from the bites that can lead to nervous and digestive disorders. The challenge is to prevent the spread of this pest by correctly identifying it and eliminating it.

Infestation Origins

Bed bugs may hitch a ride on luggage, furniture, clothing, shoes, backpacks, pillows, boxes, and other objects when these are moved between apartments, homes and hotels where there is an infestation. Used furniture, especially bed frames and mattresses, are of greatest risk in harboring bed bugs and their eggs. Because they readily survive for many months without feeding, bed bugs may already be present in apparently "vacant" and "clean" apartments. Bed bugs can wander between adjoining apartments through voids in walls and holes through which wires and pipes pass. They have also been seen crawling across hallways in hotels from one unit to another.

Biology

Bed bugs are active at night when they leave their daytime resting place deep inside cracks and crevices to seek out a blood meal. Adult male and female bed bugs, as well as nymphs (young), feed on blood and then retreat to daytime hiding places where they lay their eggs. A person doesn't feel the bite taking place. It is the saliva that causes the intense itching and welts the next day. People often think the bites are caused by mosquitos or spiders. Some people don't have a bite reaction for 4-5 days. Others may show no reaction to the bites at all.

Identification

Other insects such as spiders can cause bites on humans, so it's important to correctly identify bed bugs if they are present. Checking the bed linen in the middle of the night offers a good opportunity to find bed bugs on the move. Look for bed bugs under folds in mattresses, along seams, and behind headboards. A sweet, pungent odor and fecal (black) or bloody spots left on bedding are indications of a large bed bug infestation.

Live or dead bed bugs, cast skins, and eggs from an infested room or residence can be submitted to the Health District for identification. Other insects may be confused with the bed bugs so proper identification is important.

Treatment and Control

A licensed pest control professional (PCP) should be hired to effectively eradicate bed bugs. Once a careful inspection has been conducted within infested and adjoining rooms, an approved insecticide that has some long-lasting activity should be applied. A follow-up pest control evaluation is advised as a second insecticide application may be necessary.

Mattresses and box springs can be vacuumed, steam cleaned and treated by a PCP. They should then be encased in a zippered cover that is bed bug proof. If the PCP requests disposal of the mattress and box spring, it should first be treated, then wrapped in plastic before removal and placement in a locked dumpster or transport to landfill.

A strong vacuum can be used to remove bugs and eggs from cracks and crevices. A steam cleaner is useful for killing nymphs and eggs on all surfaces. Clothes can be washed in hot water and dried on the hot cycle. Putting non-washable items such as tennis shoes in a dryer for 5 minutes at moderate heat will kill bugs and eggs.

Particular attention should be given to beds with head boards fastened to the wall or boxed-in mattress frames as these offer excellent hiding places. Bed bug infestations in these areas can evade detection and insecticide treatment.

Prevention

Good house-keeping practices including regular vacuuming and washing of bedding are helpful to discourage bed bugs. Eliminating hiding places by caulking cracks and crevices is also a good idea. Do not buy used mattresses or stuffed furniture because of the current epidemic of bed bug infestations.

Since bat and bird bugs can also take a blood meal from humans, eliminate them and their nests from chimneys, attics, and eaves. Nest removal should include insecticide treatment to control any bat or bird bugs that are left behind.

References and Resources

Potter, Michael F., (2006) Bed Bugs. University of Kentucky, Cooperative Extension Service.
http://www.ca.uky.edu/entomology/entfacts/ef636.asp

Cooper, Richard, (2004) Bed Bug Central, Your Online Resource from the Bed Bug Experts .
http://www.bedbugcentral.com/bedbugs101

Knight, Jeff, State Entomologist, Nevada State Department of Agriculture. From unpublished interview regarding bed bugs and their control in the State.


CalPCG Q&A Series: New Bed Bug Disclosure Requirements

No one wants bed bugs in their properties, but for some rental property owners and tenants they are a fact of life. Because owners are under a duty to ensure their properties are safe and habitable, they are required to address bed bug problems when they arise.

Recently enacted bed bug laws now require California rental property owners and managers (hereafter referred to as just “owners” or “property owners”) to take on additional duties and responsibilities. The new laws, which go into effect in 2017 and 2018, require owners to make new bed bug disclosures, while prohibiting owners from retaliating and renting units known to be infested with bed bugs. Tenants, under the new law, must cooperate with inspections and treatment of bed bugs.

This CalPCG Q&A Series article will help owners understand the new bed bug duties and responsibilities.

Overview of California’s New Bed Bug Laws

Under the new California laws that become effective in 2017 and 2018, owners will have the following new duties and responsibilities:

Bed Bug Disclosure: Starting July 1, 2017 an owner shall provide to all new tenants with written notice* in at least 10-point font containing the following information:

  • Educational information about bed bugs
  • The procedure to report suspected infestations to the owner and
  • A statement that the tenant shall cooperate with the inspection and facilitate the detection and treatment of bed bugs.

The written notice must also be provided to existing tenants by January 1, 2018.

The educational information must include the following: a) general information about bed bug identification b) behavior and biology c) importance of cooperation for prevention and treatment d) importance of and for prompt written reporting of suspected infestations to the landlord and e) procedure to report suspected infestations to the owner/ manager.

*Fortunately, the new law provides owners with the language that is necessary to comply with this requirement and is set forth on the last page of this Q&A.

Written notice to tenants after inspection: Whenever a dwelling unit is inspected for bed bugs by a pest control operator (PCO) (licensed by the State Structural Pest Control Board), owners are required to provide the tenants of those units with a report containing the PCO’s findings. The notification must be in writing and made within two business days of receipt of the PCO’s findings. This provision is effective January 1, 2017.

Common area infestations: When a PCO confirms a bed bug infestation in a common area (including building hallways, shared laundry rooms and staircases, elevators, designated garbage areas and laundry rooms), all tenants must be provided notice of the PCO’s findings. This provision is effective January 1, 2017.

Vacant dwelling units with infestations: Rental property owners may not show, rent, or lease to a prospective tenant any vacant dwelling unit that the owner knows has a current bed bug infestation.

NOTE: Owners are not under a duty to inspect a dwelling unit or the common areas of the premises for bed bugs if the owner has no notice of a suspected or actual bed bug infestation. “If a bed bug infestation is evident on visual inspection, the landlord shall be considered to be on notice about the infestation. (Civil Code Section 1954.603.) This provision is effective January 1, 2017.

Retaliation is prohibited: The new bed big law reiterates longstanding law prohibiting owners from retaliating against tenants who make tenantability complaints to the owner or an agency of government (local health department). The law was amended merely to state that retaliation protections include complaints about bed bugs. Generally speaking this is a clarification of law. Retaliation includes the following: an increase in rent, a decrease in services, an act that would cause a lessee to quit involuntarily, or bring an action to recover possession. The amendment to the retaliatory eviction law becomes effective January 1, 2017.

How and when should rental property owners provide the written notice* to tenants?

Remember, there are two different compliance dates for providing the written notice. By July 1, 2017, new tenants must be provided the written notice before they begin their tenancy. The written notice should be included in the lease documents, and provided directly to the prospective tenant.

By January 1, 2018, all existing tenants must be provided the written notice. The easiest method for providing the notice is by posting the notice in a conspicuous place in a common area, for example at an entrance to and from the property. Other methods to disclose the written notice includes: personal delivery, posting at the door of every tenant, USPS mail or email.

What is the proper way to inform tenants about a PCO’s findings from a bed bug inspection of the premises?

When a tenant reports to an owner of a suspected bed bug problem, the owner should act promptly, conduct an inspection and hire a PCO to inspect the premises. Whether an infestation does or does not exist according to the PCO’s findings, owners are under a duty to report the PCO’s written findings to the tenants of the unit that was inspected within two business days. The PCO’s written findings may be left by the PCO upon completion of the inspection. As an alternative of the PCO leaving the written findings in the unit that was inspected, the owner may provide the PCO’s finding by mail, email, personal delivery, or posting on the front door of the premises.

To ensure the PCO leaves a report of his or her findings in the unit, the owner should require as part of the contract to perform the inspection the PCO to do so. The best approach is to require a PCO to provide the tenant with a report as part of his or her contract term for service. Owners should also require the PCO’s to be given a copy of the written findings and the date the written findings were delivered. Should the PCO find evidence of bed bugs, a cost estimate should only be provided to the owner. The PCO should also be required to provide the owner samples of written findings prior to being retained.

Tenants are required by state law to cooperate with the inspection to “facilitate the detection and treatments of bed bugs, including providing requested information that is necessary to facilitate the detection and treatment of bed bugs to the PCO.” Failure to cooperate should constitute a material breach of contract.

Ultimately, it is the owner’s responsibility to ensure that tenants have received the inspection report.

What is the best way to notify tenants of common area infestations?

When a bed bug infestation is discovered in a common area and confirmed by a PCO, notice regarding the PCO’s findings must be provided to “all tenants”. The notice can be: posted in a conspicuous place in the area in which the bed bugs were found mailed or emailed to the tenants, posted on the door of each tenant or personally delivered. The notice should state where and when the bed bugs were found, and the PCO’s findings. Once again, the cost of treatment is not required to be disclosed to tenants.

The information provided herein is intended to give general guidance and awareness on California’s new bed bug laws and shall not be construed in any way as a substitute for individual legal advice. Those that require specific advice should consult an attorney.

Copyright © 2016 California Political Consulting Group

Bed Bugs Fact Sheet and Reporting Procedures

Bed Bug Appearance: Bed bugs have six legs. Adult bed bugs have flat bodies about 1/4 of an inch in length. Their color can vary from red and brown to copper colored. Young bed bugs are very small. Their bodies are about 1/16 of an inch in length. They have almost no color. When a bed bug feeds, its body swells, may lengthen, and becomes bright red, sometimes making it appear to be a different insect. Bed bugs do not fly. They can either crawl or be carried from place to place on objects, people, or animals. Bed bugs can be hard to find and identify because they are tiny and try to stay hidden.

Life Cycle and Reproduction: An average bed bug lives for about 10 months. Female bed bugs lay one to five eggs per day. Bed bugs grow to full adulthood in about 21 days. Bed bugs can survive for months without feeding.

Bed Bug Bites: Because bed bugs usually feed at night, most people are bitten in their sleep and do not realize they were bitten. A person’s reaction to insect bites is an immune response and so varies from person to person. Sometimes the red welts caused by the bites will not be noticed until many days after a person was bitten, if at all.

Common Signs and Symptoms of a Possible Bed Bug Infestation:

  • Small red to reddish brown fecal spots on mattresses, box springs, bed frames, mattresses, linens, upholstery, or walls.
  • Molted bed bug skins, white, sticky eggs, or empty eggshells.
  • Very heavily infested areas may have a characteristically sweet odor.
  • Red, itchy bite marks, especially on the legs, arms, and other body parts exposed while sleeping. However, some people do not show bed bug lesions on their bodies even though bed bugs may have fed on them.

Importance of Cooperation for Prevention and Treatment: To prevent and treat bed bug infestations, it is important for owner(s) and tenant(s) to work together.

Procedure to Report Suspected Infestations: If you suspect that your unit has a bed bug problem, promptly provide the rental property owner with a written notice containing the following information: 1) description of what was discovered 2) date/time infestation was discovered 3) location of infestation 4) name, unit number, and contact information.

For more information about bed bugs, see the Internet Web sites of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the National Pest Management Association.


Pest . or snack? June bugs are the 'croutons of the sky'

June bugs can be serious pests of ornamental and agricultural plants, lawns and golf courses, or they can be a crunchy snack for a bird — or human. Credit: Shutterstock

Many people grit their teeth in anticipation of the arrival of June bugs. You might already have had your first run-in with one. Perhaps you heard one clumsily bounce off your window? Maybe you saw one loop around the porch light? Possibly, you felt one tangle its six sticky legs into your hair?

June bugs, also known as May bugs or June beetles, are a group of scarab beetles that are distributed across North America. For a brief period each summer, the adults are common and abundant across many parts of their range.

June bugs are attracted to light, which means we often encounter them at windows and streetlamps in early summer. Due to their large size and distinctive appearance, they are rather conspicuous among the millions of other insect species we share our world with.

Whether you consider them friend, foe or a neutral party, here are some insights into these misunderstood creatures to celebrate the advent of June bug season.

Hundreds of different species of June bugs

June bugs are found within the genus Phyllophaga, derived from the Greek phyllon (leaf) and phaga (eat). This name is a literal description of the adult's habit of feeding on plant leaves.

There are more than 800 species of June bugs known to science and more are discovered every year. Adult beetles are usually blackish or reddish brown in color, and tend to be very hairy on their fronts. While June bug species have many external similarities, their genitalia are very distinctive—with the male organs resembling a scoop, a claw or a fork. Taxonomists often confirm the identity of the species, or describe new species, by carefully examining the genitalia.

A June bug (Phyllophaga sp) resting on a paved surface in Guelph, Ont. Credit: Ryan_Hodnett/Wikimedia Commons

June bug grubs live below ground for years

When you encounter a June bug flying or crawling about, you are looking at a full-grown adult. Just like butterflies and moths, June bugs grow through a process known as "holometabolous development." They pass through several stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult. Just as with butterflies, adult June bugs look and behave completely different from the larvae.

Each June bug starts as a pearl-like egg laid in the soil. Each egg hatches into a c-shaped larva known commonly as a white grub. White grubs feed on the roots of plants, disrupting the uptake and transport of water and nutrients.

In high densities, June bugs can be serious pests of ornamental and agricultural plants, lawns and golf courses. Larvae spend at least a year in the soil, and in some cases take as much as four to five years to reach maturity.

In late spring, the larva metamorphoses into a pupa, and then into the adult beetle. Armed with wings and developed gonads for mating, the June bugs will emerge from the soil and take to the night sky with the goal of feeding, finding a mate and reproducing, thus beginning the cycle anew.

Four species of Polyphaga showing the similar external morphology and distinctive male genitalia. Credit: University of Nebraska State Museum, entomology division

June bugs are food for many wild animals

Although many people find June bugs unsettling, they play an important role in helping nutrients cycle through ecosystems. By chowing down on grass roots, June bugs concentrate nutrients into juicy (larva) and crunchy (adult) calorie-rich packages that are consumed by a variety of other organisms.

June bugs are a rich source of protein (40 to 50 percent) and fat (seven to 18 percent). Many wild animals such as skunks, raccoon and several bird species consume June bugs across all stages of their life cycle. In the process of foraging for June bug larvae, animals often dig up soil, damaging crops, gardens, lawns and golf greens in the process.

Aside from vertebrate predators, June bugs are an important food source for many other insects. A study based in southern Québec found that 29 species of insect used the June bug (Phyllophaga anxia) as a source of food.

One of the remarkable species that feeds on June bugs is Pelecinus polyturator. It is a large wasp (about seven centimeters long) that primarily reproduces asexually, and is found from northern Argentina to southern Canada. Pelecinus polyturator uses its long ovipositor to lay its eggs into white grubs, which eat and kill their host after hatching.

An Eastern Bluebird chows down on a June bug at Thomson’s Lake State Park, N.Y. Credit: olitimm/flickr

Some people eat June bugs too

Much of the discussion around entomophagy (eating insects) in North America is centered on industrially reared insects like crickets and mealworms. Wild-foraging insects can also play an important role in supplying insects for human consumption, as is the case with June bugs.

Historically, the Bear River people in northwestern California ate fire-roasted June bugs. Today, many people collect adult June bugs from lights or dig larvae from the soil for recipes. They crush them and bake them into biscuits, sprinkle them onto salads as "croutons of the sky," a term coined by Jonathan Bobryk of Nova Scotia, or even fill cooked larvae with cheese and wrap them in bacon

If you come across an adult June bug this spring, maybe give it a closer look. This chunky insect could very well be older than any of the babies and toddlers in your life.

If you squish it under your foot, you might be saving your lawn from the wrath of hungry white grubs, but you also might be robbing a barred owl, a pelecinid wasp, or your neighbor of a protein-rich morsel.

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.


Conclusions and Future Directions

This is the first nationwide study to survey attitudes of travelers with respect to bed bugs. The findings should be especially useful to the hotel and lodging industry, and will help them better understand people's apprehensions about bed bugs when staying in their establishments. While the majority of consumers have limited understanding of or experience with bed bugs, the pests evoke fervent responses by both business and leisure travelers. Compared to other hotel room issues, such as odor or lack of cleanliness, evidence of bed bugs is far more likely to cause guests to switch hotels, seek compensation, or even switch to a different hotel brand. When booking accommodations online, the majority of business and leisure travelers stated that a single report of bed bugs would cause them to choose another hotel. More than half of all respondents wanted to know if their assigned room had a previous bed bug issue, even if it occurred long ago. Demographic and travel‐related characteristics of respondents generally provided little indication of which segments of the population are particularly attuned to bed bugs. Rather, attitudes and awareness appeared to be more determined by individual factors.

When it comes to bed bugs, the hotel and lodging industry is caught “between a rock and a hard place.” With the continual turnover of guests, periodic introductions of the bugs are inevitable, just as they are in apartments, college dormitories, patient care facilities, etc. ( Fig. 16). Widespread reliance on social media and online reviews when booking accommodations makes hotels especially vulnerable to reports of infestation. Our findings indicate that a single online report of bed bugs adversely impacts future bookings, irrespective of whether the review is accurate. Hotels and others in the hospitality sector should develop a reputation management plan to prudently respond to such comments. Hotels should also train their housekeeping and engineering staffs to recognize and report bed bugs in the earliest possible stages, when infestations are more manageable. Similarly important is training front desk/customer service employees to respond promptly and empathetically when incidents arise within the hotel. Most travelers favor hotels with a bed bug protective service plan in place. While some properties are already engaged in early detection and prevention of bed bugs, others react only when problems arise. Fifteen years into their resurgence, bed bugs remain a serious pest issue. Sub‐optimal treatment tools, less tolerant consumers, and ubiquitous reporting of incidents via social media have made bed bugs especially challenging for hotels. The pests are a reminder to those in this country that it is not a birthright to live free of parasitic vermin.

Bed bug incidents in hotels are inevitable, given the perpetual turnover of guests and their belongings.

Bed bug incidents in hotels are inevitable, given the perpetual turnover of guests and their belongings.


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How to Treat Bed Bug Bites

This article was co-authored by Corey Fish, MD. Dr. Corey Fish is a practicing Pediatrician and the Chief Medical Officer at Brave Care, a pediatric healthcare company based in Portland, Oregon. Dr. Fish has over 10 years of experience in pediatric care and is a member of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Dr. Fish received a BS in Biology from Pacific Lutheran University in 2005, an MD from the University of Washington School of Medicine in 2009, and completed his Pediatric Residency at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School in 2012.

There are 19 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.

wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article received 18 testimonials and 93% of readers who voted found it helpful, earning it our reader-approved status.

This article has been viewed 3,093,484 times.

Bed bugs are annoying insects that hide in soft, warm places like beds, couches, and clothing. These bugs feed on their hosts at night, leaving small bite marks that, though rarely dangerous, should be treated right away to prevent unwanted symptoms and potential allergic reactions. To prevent more bites in the future, you’ll need to get rid of your bed bug infestation completely.


Some bed bugs show early signs of resistance to 2 common insecticides

Annapolis, MD April 7, 2017--Pest management professionals battling the ongoing resurgence of bed bugs are wise to employ a well-rounded set of measures that reduces reliance on chemical control, as new research shows the early signs of resistance developing among bed bugs to two commonly used insecticides.

In a study to be published next week in the Entomological Society of America's Journal of Economic Entomology, researchers at Purdue University found significantly reduced susceptibility to chlorfenapyr among three out of 10 bed bug populations collected in the field, and they found reduced susceptibility to bifenthrin among five of the populations.

The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) already shows significant resistance to deltamethrin and some other pyrethroid-class insecticides, which is viewed as a main cause of its resurgence as an urban pest. In fact, 68 percent of pest management professionals identify bed bugs as the most difficult pest to control, according to a 2015 Bugs Without Borders survey of pest management professionals conducted by the National Pest Management Association and the University of Kentucky. Little research had yet been done, however, to examine potential resistance to bifenthrin (also a pyrethroid) or chlorfenapyr, a pyrrole-class insecticide, which led the Purdue researchers to investigate.

"In the past, bed bugs have repeatedly shown the ability to develop resistance to products overly relied upon for their control. The findings of the current study also show similar trends in regard to chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin resistance development in bed bugs," says Ameya D. Gondhalekar, Ph.D., research assistant professor at Purdue's Center for Urban and Industrial Pest Management. "With these findings in mind and from an insecticide resistance management perspective, both bifenthrin and chlorfenapyr should be integrated with other methods used for bed bug elimination in order to preserve their efficacy in the long term."

They tested 10 populations of bed bugs that were collected and contributed by pest management professionals and university researchers in Indiana, New Jersey, Ohio, Tennessee, Virginia, and Washington, DC, measuring the percent of bed bugs killed within seven days of exposure to the insecticides. Generally, populations in which more than 25 percent of the beg bugs survived were deemed to have reduced susceptibility to the insecticide based on statistical analysis performed in comparison to the susceptible laboratory population.

Interestingly, the researchers found a correlation between chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin susceptibility among the bed bug populations, which was unexpected because the two insecticides work in different ways. Gondhalekar says further research is needed to understand why the bed bugs that are less susceptible can withstand exposure to these insecticides, especially chlorfenapyr. In any case, adherence to integrated pest management practices will slow the further development of resistance.

"There is a plethora of research that has shown that if insecticides are integrated with additional control measures such as vacuuming, steam or heat, mattress encasements, traps, and desiccant dusts, effective bed bug control can be accomplished and theoretically this should reduce the risk of resistance build-up in populations," Gondhalekar says.

"Detection of Reduced Susceptibility to Chlorfenapyr- and Bifenthrin-Containing Products in Field Populations of the Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)," by Aaron R. Ashbrook, Michael E. Scharf, Gary W. Bennett, and Ameya D. Gondhalekar, will be published online on April 10 in the Journal of Economic Entomology. Journalists may request advance copies of the study via the contact below.

CONTACT: Joe Rominiecki, [email protected], 301-731-4535 x3009

ABOUT: ESA is the largest organization in the world serving the professional and scientific needs of entomologists and people in related disciplines. Founded in 1889, ESA today has over 6,000 members affiliated with educational institutions, health agencies, private industry, and government. Headquartered in Annapolis, Maryland, the Society stands ready as a non-partisan scientific and educational resource for all insect-related topics. For more information, visit http://www. entsoc. org.

Journal of Economic Entomology publishes research on the economic significance of insects and is the highest-cited journal in entomology. It includes sections on apiculture and social insects, insecticides, biological control, household and structural insects, crop protection, forest entomology, and more. For more information, visit https:/ / academic. oup. com/ jee, or visit https:/ / academic. oup. com/ insect-science to view the full portfolio of ESA journals and publications.

Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.


How to Apply/Forms

Application Deadlines

See the Graduate School website at https://grad.umn.edu/prospective-student-toolkit for information and fellowship funding opportunities for the upcoming Academic year.

To be eligible for certain recruiting fellowships, applications should be received by December 1. However, applications will be generally accepted through May 15 for admission to graduate school starting in fall semester, and through October 15 for admission to graduate school starting in spring semester. Under certain circumstances, these deadlines may be extended, so feel free to contact us.

Minimum Admission Requirements

In addition to the requirements of the Graduate School, students should have a firm background in biology, with fundamentals of mathematics, physics, and chemistry. Opportunities exist early in a student's program to take background courses, if some undergraduate course work is lacking.

A 3.0 grade point average (on a 4.0 scale) for undergraduate work, and 3.5 for prior graduate work are the preferred performance levels for admission. Graduate Record Exams (GRE's) are not required for admission. We consider all credentials provided in the application packet, to reach an individual admission decision for each applicant.

For non-English speaking students, a minimum score on the TOEFL exam of 550 (or 213 on the computer-based exam), 80 on the MELAB, or 6.5 on the IELTS is the preferred performance level for admission. For more information on language proficiency tests visit https://grad.umn.edu/admissions/international-student-resources/english-language-proficiency

Admission to our department is contingent on academic potential and the ability of a potential advisor to provide multi-year funding.

Materials

All application materials should be submitted directly to the online admissions system. We cannot review your application until all of the required materials listed below are submitted successfully.

Submission of the following indicates a complete application file:

Optional fields: All other fields or application materials are optional, but will be taken into consideration if submitted.

If you are admitted, the University will then request official copies of this material.

If you have additional questions, please contact the Director of Graduate Studies or Tammi Pekkala-Matthews (Graduate Program Coordinator).


Entomology Address:
Director of Graduate Studies
University of Minnesota
Department of Entomology
219 Hodson Hall
1980 Folwell Ave.
St Paul, Minnesota 55108


Insect identification request - Is this a bed bug? - Biology

In this session, attendees will learn to recognize all the stages of the bed bug, their shed skins and fecal specking. Bed bug biology, bite response and inability to transmit human pathogens will be discussed. Bed bugs are managed through proper identification, education, inspections and monitoring, non-chemical (heat, cold, vacuuming and other mechanical removal such as lint rolling, and encasing mattresses and box springs) and chemical control and follow up evaluations. Attendees will understand how to implement these strategies to prevent bringing bed bugs home.

About the Speaker:Karen Vail has been diagnosing and working with bed bugs for a decade and a half. She has conducted research on early detection of bed bugs in low-income high rises for the elderly and disabled since 2013. In 2018, she gave 23 bed bug face-to-face or webinar presentations to more than 1524 housing managers, service providers, residents, public health professionals, entomologists, graduate students, camp personnel and pest management professionals to share their research results, to help assuage concerns about bed bugs and to inform them of their pest management role.


Insects in the City

Identification

Emergence holes for adult powderpost beetles are round and 1/16-1/32 inch across.

The adult lyctid powderpost beetle is a small (3/32 to 1/4 inch-long), cylindrical, brown beetle that attacks hardwood. Damage caused by the powderpost beetle is usually first detected with the appearance of holes in wood, 1/32 – 1/16 inch-diameter, from which a very fine sawdust may fall. Larvae of the powderpost beetle feed on many of the various hardwoods used in furniture, baskets, hardwood trim and flooring. Infestations in homes are almost always due to infestation of the wood prior to construction.

Life cycle

Powderpost beetles pass through four distinct life stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult. The first three of these stages are found only in the infested wood. The larva is a creamy white, C-shaped grub with an enlarged thorax. The larval stage of the beetle is responsible for most of the actual feeding damage to the wood.

Adult lyctid powderpost beetles are dark, cylindrical beetles with spherical eyes, 3/32 – 1/4 inch long.

Outdoors, the life cycle of a powderpost beetle normally requires about a year however indoors, powderpost beetles may require two or more (possibly up to five) years to complete their development and emerge from the wood. For this reason, infestations may not be detected for several months, or even years, after completion of a new home.

Damage

The most commonly infested woods include ash, oak, hickory and walnut. Although powderpost beetles pose little threat to the structural integrity of most homes (which are framed with softwood lumber, thus not susceptible to attack), it is a reportable wood destroying beetle and can affect property resale value. It is also possible, though unlikely, that such an infestation could spread to hardwood furniture, trim, paneling, or flooring if left untreated.

Female beetles emerging from infested wood search for a mate, and then lay their eggs on a suitable piece of wood. Powderpost beetles usually require unfinished wood (no paint or varnish coating the wood pores) in which to lay their eggs. However, the most common site for egg-laying indoors appears to be exit holes from which the females have emerged. In this way beetles can re-infest finished wood. Infestations can also spread internally to adjacent wood as larvae chew their way from one piece to another.

Control

The most economical control method is removal and replacement of all known-to-be infested wood pieces. Where damage is limited to a few pieces of wood, this is the simplest and most practical solution. Removing infested wood and replacing it with uninfested (preferably treated) wood will eliminate the problem in most cases. It can be difficult, however, to know whether all infested wood has been removed. For this reason it may be best to wait a period of time (say, 1-2 months) after an infestation is first noticed to allow time for all beetles in the wood to emerge and reveal the extent of the infestation.

Painting infested wood surfaces with a pesticide labeled for such use may be an option in some cases where wood can not easily be removed. However before insecticide can be applied, the wood to be treated must first be stripped of paint or other finishes. Treatment is then applied to the surface of the bare wood, and the wood refinished. This sort of treatment does not kill beetles that are deep in the wood–rather it kills adult beetles as they emerge. Applying borate salt solutions to unfinished wood rarely obtains good penetration of dry wood. Surface applications of these salts rarely penetrate more than fractions of an inch, offering little guarantee of eradication of a problem. Injection of liquid or foam formulations of borate salts into existing, or drilled, holes in the wood may be worth trying in situations where wood cannot be removed and replaced but little research exists to support the effectiveness of such treatments.

Fumigation may be an option for treating individual pieces of furniture or, in extreme cases, entire homes. Fumigation of the whole home is a costly and inconvenient procedure that involves placing a gas-tight tent over the entire structure and injecting a gas that is capable of penetrating wood and killing beetles. Two or more days are generally required to air the home adequately before it can be re-occupied. Treatment costs can easily reach ten thousand dollars or more for a moderately sized home. For a property owner who requires a guarantee of complete elimination, or where infestations are widespread and untreatable by other methods, this is sometimes the only viable option.

For more information

For more information on lyctid beetles and other structural infesting wood beetles, request publication E-394, Structure Infesting Wood Beetles.



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