22.6: Desert - Biology

22.6: Desert - Biology

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Learning Objective

Recognize distinguishing characteristics of Deserts & plant adaptations of the biome.

Subtropical deserts exist between 15o and 30o north and south latitude and are centered on the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. Deserts are frequently located on the downwind or lee side of mountain ranges, which create a rain shadow after prevailing winds drop their water content on the mountains Figure dd This is typical of the North American deserts, such as the Mohave and Sonoran deserts. Deserts in other regions, such as the Sahara Desert in northern Africa or the Namib Desert in southwestern Africa are dry because of the high-pressure, dry air descending at those latitudes. Subtropical deserts are very dry; evaporation typically exceeds precipitation. Subtropical hot deserts can have daytime soil surface temperatures above 60oC (140oF) and nighttime temperatures approaching 0oC (32oF). The temperature drops so far because there is little water vapor in the air to prevent radiative cooling of the land surface. Subtropical deserts are characterized by low annual precipitation of fewer than 30 cm (12 in) with little monthly variation and lack of predictability in rainfall. Some years may receive tiny amounts of rainfall, while others receive more. In some cases, the annual rainfall can be as low as 2 cm (0.8 in) in subtropical deserts located in central Australia (“the Outback”) and northern Africa.


The low species diversity of this biome is closely related to its low and unpredictable precipitation. Despite the relatively low diversity, desert species exhibit fascinating adaptations to the harshness of their environment. Very dry deserts lack perennial vegetation that lives from one year to the next; instead, many plants are annuals that grow quickly and reproduce when rainfall does occur, then they die within the year. Perennial plants in deserts are characterized by adaptations that conserve water: deep roots to tap groundwater., reduced foliage to reduce water loss, and large, fleshy, water-storing stems (Figure (PageIndex{2})). Seed plants in the desert produce seeds that can lie dormant for extended periods between rains. The Namib Desert is the oldest on the planet, and has probably been dry for more than 55 million years. It supports a number of endemic species (species found only there) because of this great age. For example, the unusual gymnosperm Welwitschia mirabilis is the only extant species of an entire order of plants.

In addition to subtropical deserts there are cold deserts that experience freezing temperatures during the winter and any precipitation is in the form of snowfall. The largest of these deserts are the Gobi Desert in northern China and southern Mongolia, the Taklimakan Desert in western China, the Turkestan Desert, and the Great Basin Desert of the United States.

Figure (PageIndex{2}): Many desert plants have tiny leaves or no leaves at all to reduce water loss. The leaves of ocotillo, shown here in the Chihuahuan Desert in Big Bend National Park, Texas, appear only after rainfall and then are shed. (credit “bare ocotillo”: "Leaflet"/Wikimedia Commons)

Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory

Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory / photo by Lobsang Wangdu

Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory / Photo by Lobsang Wangdu

With a fully equipped modern laboratory and computing facilities, the Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory (SNARL) serves as a major center for research for the eastern Sierra Nevada and Owens Valley. The site features a human-made experimental stream system consisting of nine meandering channels used for research on stream hydrology and ecology. Convict Creek flows year-round through SNARL, feeding the experimental system and providing a natural stream environment protected from grazing and other human impacts. Non-aquatic research is also supported and encouraged on the reserve’s pristine habitats, which include Great Basin shrubland and grassland, high desert riparian woodland, and riparian meadow. Another nearby NRS site, Valentine Camp, joins with SNARL to comprise the Valentine Eastern Sierra Reserve (VESR).

Geologic Monitoring

U.S. Geological Survey-funded scientists monitor seismic activity in the Long Valley Caldera and carbon dioxide emissions around Mammoth Mountain.

Public Outreach

Environmental education programs for local elementary school students K-12 summer school public tours short courses.

Regional Field Station

The reserve attracts users from all UC campuses, many out-of-state colleges/universities, federal laboratories and research programs reserve manager consults on regional resource management issues.

Field courses

University courses using WMRC include botany, geology, environmental studies, and snow science, among many others.

Selected Research

  • Ecology of Mono Lake: UC research since 1976 on Mono Lake influenced a 1994 decision of the State Water Resources Control Board to raise the lake level, helping to restore its ecosystem ongoing projects there include physical limnology modeling and monitoring of brine shrimp and alkali fly populations.
  • Sierran snowpack: SNARL scientists operate a snow laboratory on Mammoth Mountain the National Science Foundation and NASA Earth Observing System Project fund ongoing studies of snowpack properties and snowmelt runoff.
  • Aquatic biology: Ongoing studies examine impacts of livestock grazing on stream ecology and effects of nonnative trout on Sierra Nevada lake ecosystems.

Special Research of National Significance

Microbial Observatory: Mono Lake, Collaborative Research: Microbial Observatory at an Alkaline, Hypersaline, Meromictic Lake (Mono Lake, California) /Ecology of Viruses in an Alkaline, Hypersaline Lake, Mono Lake, California

22.6: Desert - Biology

Mentoring under-graduate project students

Humor in science

  1. Lev-Yadun, S. 1996. Great Discoveries in Science 2: Why a Double&lrm Helix? Journal of Irreproducible Results 41(4):9.&lrm Ref
  2. Lev-Yadun, S. 1997. Responce &ldquoSiamese twinning in gummy bears&rdquo.&lrm&lrm Journal of Irreproducible Results 42(3):13.&lrm
  3. Lev-Yadun, S. 1998. Penises in the Plant Kingdom. Annals of&lrm Improbable Research 4(2):21-22.&lrm
  4. Lev-Yadun, S. 2000. Bless the cockroaches. Annals of Improbable Research 6(3):3.&lrm
  5. Lev-Yadun, S. 2001. Nano-PornTM: Pendulous Arabadopsis. Annals of Improbable Research 7(3):29.&lrm
  6. Lev-Yadun, S. 2008. Publish and lose hair. Journal of Irreproducible Results 50(5):21 (INCLUDING A COVER PICTURE).&lrm
  7. Lev-Yadun, S. 2009. The ancient and modern ecology of execution.&lrm Annals of Improbable Research 15(4):6-9.&lrm

Refereed Articles in Journals
I. Biology Journals

  1. Liphschitz, N., Y. Waisel & S. Lev-Yadun. 1979. Dendrochronological&lrm investigations in Iran: Juniperus polycarpos of West and Central Iran. Tree Ring Bulletin 39:39-45.&lrm
  2. Liphschitz, N., S. Lev-Yadun & Y. Waisel. 1981. The annual rhythm of activity of the lateral meristems (cambium and phellogen) in&lrm Cupressus sempervirens L. Annals of Botany 47:485-496.&lrm
  3. Liphschitz, N., S. Lev-Yadun, E. Rosen & Y. Waisel. 1984. The annual&lrm rhythm of activity of the lateral meristems (cambium and phellogen)&lrm in Pinus halepensis Mill. and Pinus pinea L. IAWA Bulletin n.s. 5:&lrm 263-274.&lrm
  4. Liphschitz, N., S. Lev-Yadun & Y. Waisel. 1985. The annual rhythm of the lateral meristems (cambium and phellogen) in Pistacia lentiscus L. IAWA Bulletin n.s. 6:239-244.&lrm
  5. Lev-Yadun, S. & N. Liphschitz. 1986. Growth ring terminology - some proposals. IAWA Bulletin n.s. 7:72.&lrm
  6. Liphschitz, N. & S. Lev-Yadun. 1986. Cambial activity of evergreens&lrm and seasonal dimorphics around the Mediterranean. IAWA Bulletin n.s. 7:145-153.&lrm
  7. Lev-Yadun, S. & N. Liphschitz. 1987. The ontogeny of gender in&lrm Cupressus sempervirens L. Botanical Gazette 148:407-412.&lrm Ref
  8. Lev-Yadun, S. & N. Liphschitz. 1989. Sites of first phellogen&lrm initiation in conifers. IAWA Bulletin n.s. 10:43-52.&lrm
  9. Lev-Yadun, S. & R. Aloni. 1990. Vascular differentiation in branch&lrm junctions of trees: circular patterns and functional significance.&lrm Trees Structure and Function 4:49-54.&lrm
  10. Lev-Yadun, S. & R. Aloni. 1990. Polar patterns of periderm ontogeny,&lrm their relationship to leaves and buds, and the control of cork formation. IAWA Bulletin n.s. 11:289-300.&lrm
  11. Lev-Yadun, S. & R. Aloni. 1991. Polycentric vascular rays in Suaeda monoica and the control of ray initiation and spacing. Trees Structure and Function 5:22-29.&lrm
  12. Lev-Yadun, S. & R. Aloni. 1991. Wound-induced periderm tubes in the bark of Melia azedarach, Ficus sycomorus and Platanusacerifolia.&lrm IAWA Bulletin n.s. 12:62-66.&lrm
  13. Lev-Yadun, S. 1991. Terminology used in bark anatomy: additions and&lrm comments. IAWA Bulletin n.s. 12:207-209.&lrm
  14. Lev-Yadun, S. & R. Aloni. 1991. Natural and experimentally induced&lrm dispersion of aggregate rays in shoots of Quercus ithaburensis Decne. and Q. calliprinos Webb. Annals of Botany 68:85-91.&lrm
  15. Lev-Yadun, S. & R. Aloni. 1991. An experimental method of inducing&lrm "hazel" wood in Pinus halepensis (Pinaceae). IAWA Bulletin n.s.&lrm 12:445-451.&lrm
  16. Lev-Yadun, S. 1992. Abnormal cones in Cupressus sempervirens.&lrm&lrm Aliso 13:391-394.&lrm
  17. Lev-Yadun, S. 1992. Aggregated cones in Pinus halepensis.&lrm Aliso 13:475-485.&lrm
  18. Lev-Yadun, S. & R. Aloni. 1992. Experimental induction of dilatation meristem in Melia azedarach. Annals of Botany 70:379-386.&lrm
  19. Lev-Yadun, S. & R. Aloni. 1992. The role of wounding in the&lrm differentiation of vascular rays. International Journal of Plant Sciences 153:348-357.&lrm
  20. Lev-Yadun, S. & R. Aloni. 1993. Bark structure and mode of canopy&lrm regeneration in trees of Melia azedarach L. Trees Structure and Function 7:144-147.&lrm
  21. Lev-Yadun, S. & R. Aloni. 1993. Effect of wounding on the relations&lrm between vascular rays and vessels in Melia azedarach L. New Phytologist 124:339-344.&lrm
  22. Lev-Yadun, S. & R. Aloni. 1993. Variant secondary growth in old&lrm stems of Ephedra campylopoda C. A. Mey. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 112:51-58.&lrm
  23. Eyal, Y., Y. Meller, S. Lev-Yadun & R. Fluhr. 1993. A basic- type PR-1 promoter directs ethylene responsiveness, vascular and&lrm abscission zone-specific expression. Plant Journal 4:225-234.&lrm
  24. Lev-Yadun, S. 1994. Experimental evidence for the autonomy of ray differentiation in Ficus sycomorus L. New Phytologist 126:499-504.&lrm
  25. Lev-Yadun, S. 1994. Radial fibres in aggregate rays of Quercus calliprinos Webb. -- evidence for radial signal flow. New Phytologist 128:45-48 (INCLUDING A COVER PICTURE).&lrm
  26. Lev-Yadun, S. 1994. Induction of sclereid differentiation in the&lrm pith of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Journal of Experimental Botany 45:1845-1849.&lrm
  27. Lev-Yadun, S. 1994. Induction of near-vessellessness in Ephedra campylopoda C. A. Mey. Annals of Botany 75:683-687.&lrm
  28. Lev-Yadun, S. & M. Weinstein-Evron. 1994. Late Epipalaeolithic wood remains from el-Wad Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel. New Phytologist 127:391-396.&lrm
  29. Lev-Yadun, S. 1995. Living serotinous cones in Cupressus sempervirens. International Journal of Plant Sciences 156:50-54.&lrm
  30. Lev-Yadun, S. 1995. Short secondary vessel members in branching&lrm regions in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Australian Journal of Botany 43:435-438.&lrm
  31. Lev-Yadun, S. & R. Aloni. 1995. Differentiation of the ray system&lrm in woody plants. Botanical Review 61:45-88.&lrm
  32. Lev-Yadun, S. 1996. Circular vessels in the secondary xylem of&lrm Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (Brassicaceae). IAWA Journal 17:31-35.&lrm
  33. Lev-Yadun, S. 1996. A developmental variant of indentation in the&lrm scales of female cones of Cupressus sempervirens L. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 121:263-269.&lrm
  34. Lev-Yadun, S. 1996. Patterns of dilatation growth in Ficus pumila and Ficus sycomorus. Aliso 14:171-177.&lrm
  35. Lev-Yadun, S., M. Artzy, E. Marcus & R. Stidsing. 1996. Wood remains&lrm from Tel Nami, a Middle Bronze IIa and Late Bronze IIb port, local exploitation of trees and Levantine cedar trade. Economic Botany 50:310-317.&lrm
  36. Lev-Yadun, S., A. Beharav & S. Abbo. 1996. Evidence for polygenic control of fiber differentiation in spring wheat and its relationship with the GA-insensitivity locus Rht1. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 23:185-189.&lrm
  37. Baum, G., S. Lev-Yadun, Y. Fridmann, T. Arazi, H. Katsnelson, M. Zik&lrm & H. Fromm. 1996. Calmodulin binding to glutamate decarboxylase is required for regulation of glutamate and GABA metabolism and normal development in plants. EMBO Journal 15:2988-2996.&lrm
  38. Fridlender, M., S. Lev-Yadun, I. Baburek, K. Angelis & A. A. Levy.&lrm 1996. Cell divisions in cotyledons after germination: localization,&lrm time course and utilization for a mutagenesis assay. Planta 199:&lrm 307-313 (FIRST TWO AUTHORS CONTRIBUTED EQUALLY TO THIS STUDY).&lrm
  39. Yakir, D., S. Lev-Yadun & A. Zangvil. 1996. El Niño and tree growth near Jerusalem over the last 20 years. Global Change Biology 2:97-101.&lrm Ref
  40. Lev-Yadun, S. 1997. Fibres and fibre-sclereids in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana. Annals of Botany 80:125-129.&lrm
  41. Zhu-Shimoni, J. X., S. Lev-Yadun, B. Matthews & G. Galili. 1997.&lrm Expression of an aspartate kinase homoserine dehydrogenase gene is subject to specific spatial and temporal regulation in vegetative tissues, flowers, and developing seeds. Plant Physiology 113:695-706.&lrm
  42. Yang, T., S. Lev-Yadun, M. Feldman & H. Fromm. 1998.&lrm Developmentally regulated organ-, tissue-, and cell-specific expression of calmodulin genes in common wheat. Plant Molecular
    &lrm Biology 37:109-120.&lrm
  43. Lev-Yadun, S. 1998. The relationship between growth-ring width and ray density and ray height in cell number in the earlywood of Pinus halepensis and Pinus pinea. IAWA Journal 19:131-139.&lrm
  44. Lev-Yadun, S. 1999. Eccentric deposition of secondary xylem in stems of the climber Ephedra campylopoda (Gnetales). IAWA Journal 20:165-170.&lrm
  45. Lev-Yadun, S. 1999. Articulated cork in Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae). Aliso 18:161-163.&lrm
  46. Lev-Yadun, S. & S. Abbo. 1999. Traditional human utilization of A&rsquokub (Gundelia tournefortii L. Asteraceae), in Israel and the Palestinian Authority area. Economic Botany 53:217-219.&lrm Ref
  47. Lev-Yadun, S., A. Beharav, R. Di-nur & S. Abbo. 1999. Gibberellic acid (GA) increases fibre cell differentiation and secondary cell-&lrmwall deposition in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) culms.&lrm Plant Growth Regulation 27:161-165.&lrm Ref
  48. Lev-Yadun, S. 2000. Why are underground flowering and fruiting in Israel much more common than anywhere else in the world? Current Science 79:289.&lrm
  49. Lev-Yadun, S. 2000. Whirled grain in wood and topological defects.&lrm Journal of Theoretical Biology 205:511-514.&lrm
  50. Lev-Yadun, S., N. Atzmon & A. Perevolotsky. 2000. Grafting to save&lrm the forests. Trends in Plant Science 5:94.&lrm Ref
  51. Lev-Yadun, S., A. Gopher & S. Abbo. 2000. The cradle of agriculture.&lrm Science 288:1602-1603.&lrm
  52. Avivi, Y., S. Lev-Yadun, N. Morozova, L. Libs, L. Williams, J. Zhao&lrm & G. Grafi. 2000. Clausa, a tomato mutant with a wide range of phenotypic perturbations, displays a cell type-dependent expression of the homeobox gene Let6/Tkn2. Plant Physiology 124:541-551 (INCLUDING A COVER PICTURE) (FIRST TWO AUTHORS CONTRIBUTED EQUALLY TO THIS STUDY).&lrm
  53. Lev-Yadun, S. & R. Sederoff. 2000. Pines as model gymnosperms to&lrm study evolution, wood formation and perennial growth. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 19:290-305.&lrm
  54. Lev-Yadun, S. 2001. Arabidopsis thaliana - a new crop? Nature Biotechnology 19:95.&lrm Ref
  55. Lev-Yadun, S. 2001. Intrusive growth - the plant analog to dendrite and axon growth in animals. New Phytologist 150:508-512.&lrm
  56. Lev-Yadun, S. 2001. Aposematic (warning) coloration associated with thorns in higher plants. Journal of Theoretical Biology 210:385-388.&lrm Ref
  57. Lev-Yadun, S. 2001. Wound effects arrest wave phenomena in the&lrm secondary xylem of Rhamnus alaternus (Rhamnaceae). IAWA Journal 22:295-300.&lrm
  58. Lev-Yadun, S. & M.A. Flaishman. 2001. The effect of submergence on&lrm ontogeny of cambium and secondary xylem and on fiber lignification in inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis. IAWA Journal 22:159-169.&lrm
  59. Lev-Yadun, S. & R. Sederoff. 2001. Grafting for transgene containment. Nature Biotechnology 19:1104.&lrm Ref
  60. Abbo, S., S. Lev-Yadun & G. Ladizinsky. 2001. Tracing the wild genetic stocks of crop plants. Genome 44:309-310.&lrm Ref
  61. Lev-Yadun, S. 2002. The distance to which wound effects influence the structure of secondary xylem of decapitated Pinus pinea.&lrm Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 21:191-196.&lrm
  62. Lev-Yadun, S., S. Abbo & J. Doebley. 2002. Wheat, rye, and barley&lrm on the cob? Nature Biotechnology 20:337-338.&lrm Ref
  63. Lev-Yadun, S., A. Dafni, M. Inbar, I. Izhaki & G. Ne`eman. 2002.&lrm Colour patterns in vegetative parts of plants deserve more research attention. Trends in Plant Science 7:59-60.&lrm Ref
  64. Lev-Yadun, S. & M. Inbar. 2002. Defensive ant, aphid and caterpillar mimicry in plants. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 77:393-398.&lrm
  65. Abbo, S., S. Lev-Yadun & N. Galwey. 2002. Vernalization response of wild chickpea. New Phytologist 154:695-701.&lrm
  66. Cohen, B.A., Z. Amsellem, S. Lev-Yadun & J. Gressel. 2002. Infection of tubercles of the parasitic weed Orobanche aegyptiaca by mycoherbicidal Fusarium species. Annals of Botany 90:567-578.&lrm
  67. Lev-Yadun, S. 2003. Weapon (thorn) automimicry and mimicry of aposematic colorful thorns in plants. Journal of Theoretical Biology 224:183-188.&lrm Ref
  68. Lev-Yadun, S. 2003. Stem cells in plants are differentiated too.&lrm Current Topics in Plant Biology 4:93-102.&lrm
  69. Lev-Yadun, S. 2003. Why do some thorny plants resemble green zebras?&lrm Journal of Theoretical Biology 244:483-489.&lrm Ref
  70. Abbo, S., D. Shtienberg, J. Lichtenzveig, S. Lev-Yadun & A. Gopher.&lrm 2003. The chickpea, summer cropping, and a new model for pulse&lrm domestication in the ancient Near East. Quarterly Review of Biology 78:435-448.&lrm Ref
  71. Flaishman, M.A., K. Loginovsky & S. Lev-Yadun. 2003. Regenerative xylem in inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis thaliana. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 22:253-258.&lrm Ref
  72. Yancheva, S.D., S. Golubowicz, E. Fisher, S. Lev-Yadun & M.A.&lrm Flaishman. 2003. Auxin type and timing of application determine the activation of the developmental program during in vitro organogenesis in apple. Plant Science 165:299-309.&lrm
  73. Lev-Yadun, S. & G. Ne`eman. 2004. When may green plants be aposematic? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 81:413-416.&lrm Ref
  74. Lev-Yadun, S., M.A. Flaishman & N. Atzmon. 2004. Nonchimeric&lrm variegated mutation in Cupressus sempervirens L. International Journal of Plant Sciences 165:257-261.&lrm
  75. Lev-Yadun, S., A. Dafni, M.A. Flaishman, M. Inbar, I. Izhaki, G.&lrm Katzir & G. Ne`eman. 2004. Plant coloration undermines herbivorous insect camouflage. BioEssays 26:1126-1130.&lrm Ref
  76. Avsian-Kretchmer, O., Y. Gueta-Dahan, S. Lev-Yadun, R. Gollop & G.&lrm Ben-Hayyim. 2004. The salt-stress signal transduction pathway that activates the gpx1 promoter is mediated by intracellular H2O2, different from the pathway induced by extracellular H2O2.&lrm Plant Physiology 135:1685-1696.&lrm
  77. Lev-Yadun, S. 2005. Shade avoidance and Zahavi's handicap principle in dense plant populations. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 84:313-319.&lrm Ref
  78. Lev-Yadun, S., S.E. Wyatt & M.A. Flaishman. 2005. The inflorescence&lrm stem fibers of Arabidopsis thalianarevoluta (ifl1) mutant. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 23:301-306 (INCLUDING A COVER PICTURE).&lrm Ref
  79. Inbar, M. & S. Lev-Yadun. 2005. Conspicuous and aposematic spines in the animal kingdom. Naturwissenschaften 92:170-172 (INCLUDING A COVER PICTURE).&lrm Ref
  80. Rothwell, G.W. & S. Lev-Yadun. 2005. Evidence of polar auxin flow in 375 million-year-old fossil wood. American Journal of Botany 92:903-906.&lrm Ref
  81. Abbo, S., A. Gopher, B. Rubin & S. Lev-Yadun. 2005. On the origin&lrm of Near Eastern founder crops and the "dump-heap hypothesis".&lrm Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 52:491-495.&lrm Ref
  82. Lev-Yadun, S. 2006. Defensive functions of white coloration in coastal and dune plants. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 54:317-325.&lrm
  83. Lev-Yadun, S. 2006. An anatomist and gentleman: Professor Abraham Fahn at 90. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 54:I-II (INCLUDING A COVER PICTURE).&lrm
  84. Lev-Yadun, S. & G. Ne`eman. 2006. Color changes in old aposematic thorns, spines, and prickles. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 54:327-333.&lrm
  85. Lev-Yadun, S., A. Gopher & S. Abbo. 2006. How and when was wild wheat domesticated. Science 313:296.&lrm
  86. Lev-Yadun, S., G. Ne`eman, S. Abbo & M.A. Flaishman. 2006. Comment on "Early Domesticated Fig in the Jordan Valley". Science 314:1683a. or Ref
  87. Abbo, S., A. Gopher, Z. Peleg, Y. Saranga, T. Fahima, F. Salamini & S. Lev-Yadun. 2006. The ripples of "the big (agricultural)&lrm bang": the spread of early wheat cultivation. Genome 49:861-863.&lrm Ref
  88. Ben-David, R., S. Lev-Yadun, C. Can & S. Abbo. 2006. Ecogeography&lrm and demography of Cicer judaicum, a wild annual relative of&lrm domesticated chickpea. Crop Science 46:1360-1370.&lrm Ref
  89. Shargal, A., S. Golobovich, Z. Yablovich, L.A. Shlizerman, R.A.&lrm Stern, G. Grafi, S. Lev-Yadun & M.A. Flaishman. 2006. Synthetic cytokinins extend the phase of division of parenchyma cells in developing pear (Pyrus communis L.) fruits. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 81:915-920.&lrm
  90. Lev-Yadun, S. & K.S. Gould. 2007. What do red and yellow autumn&lrm leaves signal? Botanical Review 73:279-289.&lrm Ref
  91. Lev-Yadun, S. & M. Halpern. 2007. Ergot (Claviceps purpurea) - An aposematic fungus. Symbiosis Journal 43:105-108.&lrm Ref
  92. Lev-Yadun, S. & N. Mirsky. 2007. False satiation: The probable&lrm antiherbivory strategy of Hoodia gordonii. Functional Plant Science and Biotechnology 1:56-57.&lrm Ref
  93. Halpern, M., D. Raats & S. Lev-Yadun. 2007. Plant biological&lrm warfare: Thorns inject pathogenic bacteria into herbivores.&lrm Environmental Microbiology 9:584-592 (INCLUDING A COVER PICTURE).&lrm
  94. Halpern, M., D. Raats & S. Lev-Yadun. 2007. The potential anti-herbivory role of microorganisms on plant thorns. Plant Signaling & Behavior 2:503-504 (INCLUDING A COVER PICTURE).&lrm Ref
  95. Ronel, M., H. Malkiel & S. Lev-Yadun. 2007. Quantitative characterization of the thorn system of the common shrubs Sarcopoterium spinosum and Calicotome villosa. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 55:63-72.&lrm
  96. Lev-Yadun, S. 2008. Bioethics. On the road to absurd land. Plant Signaling & Behavior 3:612.&lrm Ref
  97. Lev-Yadun, S. 2008. Gradual peer reviewing process. Science 322:528.&lrm Ref
  98. Flaishman, M.A., K. Loginovsky, S. Golobowich & S. Lev-Yadun.&lrm 2008. Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system for graft union development in homografts and heterografts. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 27:231-239.&lrm Ref
  99. Rothwell, G.W., H. Sanders, S.E. Wyatt & S. Lev-Yadun. 2008. A fossil record for growth regulation: the role of auxin in wood evolution. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 95:121-134.&lrm
  100. Lev-Yadun, S. 2009. Large-scale species introductions to preserve global biodiversity: Noah's Ark revisited. Ambio 38:174.&lrm Ref
  101. Lev-Yadun, S. 2009. Müllerian and Batesian mimicry rings of white-variegated aposematic spiny and thorny plants: a hypothesis. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 57:107-116.&lrm
  102. Lev-Yadun, S. 2009. Müllerian mimicry in aposematic spiny plants.&lrm Plant Signaling & Behavior 4:482-483.&lrm Ref
  103. Lev-Yadun, S. 2009. Ant mimicry by Passiflora flowers? Israel Journal of Entomology 39:159-163.&lrm Ref
  104. Lev-Yadun, S. & T. Berleth. 2009. Expanding ecological and evolutionary insights from wild Arabidopsis thaliana accessions.&lrm Plant Signaling & Behavior 4:796-797.&lrm Ref
  105. Lev-Yadun, S. & J.K. Holopainen. 2009. Why red-dominated American autumn leaves and yellow-dominated autumn leaves in Northern Europe? New Phytologist 183:506-512. (Selected for Faculty of 1000 Biology).&lrm Ref
  106. Lev-Yadun, S., G. Katzir & G. Ne&rsquoeman. 2009. Rheum palaestinum (desert rhubarb), a self-irrigating desert plant.&lrm &lrm Naturwissenschaften 96:393-397 (INCLUDING A COVER PICTURE).&lrm
  107. Lev-Yadun, S., G. Ne&rsquoeman & I. Izhaki. 2009. Unripe red fruits may&lrm be aposematic. Plant Signaling & Behavior 4:836-841.&lrm Ref
  108. Lev-Yadun, S., G. Ne&rsquoeman & U. Shanas. 2009. A sheep in wolf's clothing: Do carrion and dung odours of flowers not only attract pollinators but also deter herbivores? BioEssays 31:84-88.&lrm Ref
  109. Abbo, S., Y. Saranga, Z. Peleg, Z. Kerem, S. Lev-Yadun & A. Gopher.&lrm 2009. The origin of Near Eastern grain crops: reconsidering&lrm legumes vs. cereals domestication. Quarterly Review of Biology 84:29-50.&lrm
  110. Archetti, M., T.F. Döring, S.B. Hagen, N.M. Hughes, S.R. Leather,&lrm D.W. Lee, S. Lev-Yadun, Y. Manetas, H.J. Ougham, P.G. Schaberg,&lrm & H. Thomas. 2009. Unravelling the evolution of autumn colours:&lrm an interdisciplinary approach. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 24:166-173.&lrm
  111. Archetti, M., T.F. Döring, S.B. Hagen, N.M. Hughes, S.R. Leather,&lrm D.W. Lee, S. Lev-Yadun, Y. Manetas, H.J. Ougham, P.G. Schaberg,&lrm & H. Thomas. 2009. Ultraviolet reflectance in autumn leaves and the un-naming of colours. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 24:237-238.&lrm
  112. Nassar, O. & S. Lev-Yadun. 2009. How prickly is a prickly pear?&lrm Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 57:117-124.&lrm
  113. Ronel, M., S. Khateeb & S. Lev-Yadun. 2009. Protective spiny modules in thistles of the Asteraceae in Israel. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 136:46-56.&lrm Ref
  114. Ronel, M. & S. Lev-Yadun. 2009. Spiny plants in the archaeological record of Israel. Journal of Arid Environments 73:754-761.&lrm Ref
  115. Shanas, U. & S. Lev-Yadun. 2009. Azaria Alon, the voice of&lrm nature, at 90. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 57:I-II.&lrm Ref
  116. Tsahar, E., I. Izhaki, S. Lev-Yadun & G. Bar-Oz. 2009.&lrm Distribution and extinction of ungulates during the Holocene of the southern Levant. PloS ONE 4:e5316.&lrm
  117. Lev-Yadun, S. 2010. Plant fibers: initiation, growth, model plants,&lrm and open questions. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 57:305-315.&lrm Ref
  118. Lev-Yadun, S. 2010. The shared and separate roles of aposematic&lrm (warning) coloration and the co-evolutionary hypothesis in defending autumn leaves. Plant Signaling & Behavior 5:937-939.&lrm Ref
  119. Lev-Yadun, S., D.S. Lucas & M. Evron. 2010. Modeling the demands for wood by the inhabitants of Masada and for the Roman siege.&lrm Journal of Arid Environments 74:777-785.&lrm
  120. Lev-Yadun, S., S.E. Wyatt & M.A. Flaishman. 2010. Unconscious Selection and Domestication in "Wild-type" Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae). International Journal of Plant Breeding 4:76-77.&lrm Ref
  121. Abbo, S., S. Lev-Yadun & A. Gopher. 2010. Yield stability: an agronomic perspective on the origin of Near Esatern agriculture.&lrmVegetation History and Archaeobotany 19:143-150.&lrm
  122. Abbo, S., S. Lev-Yadun & A. Gopher. 2010. Agricultural origins:&lrm centers and noncenters a Near Eastern reappraisal. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 29:317-328.&lrm
  123. Balu&scaronka, F., S. Lev-Yadun & S. Mancuso. 2010. Swarm intelligence in plant roots. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25:682-683.&lrm
  124. Inbar, M., I. Izhaki, I. Lupo, N. Silanikove, T. Glasser, Y.&lrm Gerchman, A. Perevolotsky, S. Lev-Yadun. 2010. Why do many galls have conspicuous colors? A new hypothesis. Arthropod-Plant Interactions 4:1-6 (INCLUDING A COVER PICTURE - Pic).&lrm Ref
  125. Inbar, M., I. Izhaki, I. Lupo, N. Silanikove, T. Glasser, Y.&lrm Gerchman, A. Perevolotsky, S. Lev-Yadun. 2010. Conspicuous gall colors. A response to T.C.R. White. Arthropod-Plant Interactions 4:151-152.&lrm Ref
  126. Ronel, M., G. Ne&rsquoeman & S. Lev-Yadun. 2010. Spiny east-&lrmMediterranean plant species flower later and in a drier season than non-spiny species. Flora 205:276-281.&lrm
  127. Wyatt, S.A., R. Sederoff, M.A. Flaishman & S. Lev-Yadun. 2010.&lrm Arabidopsis thaliana as a model for gelatinous fiber formation.&lrm Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 57:363-367.&lrm Ref
  128. Lev-Yadun, S. 2011. Terminology for plant polarity: progress and difficulties. Plant Signaling & Behavior 6:315.&lrm&lrm Ref
  129. Abbo, S., S. Lev-Yadun & A. Gopher. 2011. The origins of Near Eastern agriculture: Hommage to Claude Levi-Strauss and "La Pensée Sauvage. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 58:175-179.&lrm Ref
  130. Abbo, S., E. Rachamim, Y. Zehavi, I. Zezak, S. Lev-Yadun & A. Gopher.&lrm 2011. Experimental growing of wild pea in Israel and its bearing on Near Eastern plant domestication. Annals of Botany (in press).&lrm Ref
  131. Halpern, M., A. Waissler, A. Dror & S. Lev-Yadun. 2011. Biological&lrm warfare of the spiny plant: introducing pathogenic microorganisms into herbivore's tissues. Advances in Applied Microbiology 74:97-116.&lrm

II. Archaeology or Geology Journals

  1. &lrmLiphschitz, N., S. Lev-Yadun & Y. Waisel. 1981.&lrm Dendroarchaeological investigations in Israel: Masada. Israel
    &lrm Exploration Journal 31:230-234.&lrm
  2. Gophna, R., N. Liphschitz & S. Lev-Yadun. 1986/7. Man's impact on the natural vegetation in the Central Coastal Plain of Israel during the Chalcolithic and the Bronze Ages. Tel Aviv 13:71-84.&lrm
  3. Lev-Yadun, S. 1987. Dendrochronology and related studies - a review.&lrm Mitekufat Haeven, Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society, n.s.&lrm 20:7-36.&lrm
  4. Liphschitz, N., S. Lev-Yadun & R. Gophna. 1987. The dominance of Quercus calliprinos Webb. (Kermes Oak) in the Central Coastal Plain of Israel in antiquity. Israel Exploration Journal 37:43-50.&lrm
  5. Lev-Yadun, S., F. Burian & E. Friedman. 1989. A stone figurine&lrm from the vicinity of Nahal Ruth in the Western Negev. Mitekufat Haeven, Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society, n.s. 22:78-81.&lrm
  6. Liphschitz, N. & S. Lev-Yadun. 1989. The botanical remains from&lrm Masada. Identification of the plant species and the possible origin of the remnants. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 274:27-32.&lrm
  7. Lev-Yadun, S. 1992. The origin of the cedar beams from Al-Aqsa Mosque: Botanical, historical and archaeological evidence.&lrm Levant 24:201-208.&lrm
  8. Lev-Yadun, S. & R. Gophna. 1992. Exportation of plant products&lrm from Canaan to Egypt in the Early Bronze Age I: A rejoinder to William A. Ward. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 287:89-90.&lrm
  9. Lev-Yadun, S. & M. Weinstein-Evron. 1993. Prehistoric wood remains of Cupressus sempervirens L. from the Natufian layers of el-Wad Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel. Tel Aviv 20:125-131.&lrm
  10. Goldberg, P., S. Lev-Yadun & O. Bar-Yosef. 1994. Petrographic thin sections of archaeological sediments: A new method for palaeobotanical studies. Geoarchaeology 9:243-257.&lrm
  11. Schiegl, S., S. Lev-Yadun, O. Bar-Yosef, A. El Goresy & S. Weiner.&lrm 1994. Siliceous aggregates from prehistoric wood ash: A major&lrm component of sediments in Kebara and Hayonim caves (Israel).&lrm Israel Journal of Earth Science 43:267-278.&lrm
  12. Lev-Yadun, S., Z. Herzog & T. Tsuk. 1995. Conifer beams of Juniperus phoenicea found in the well of Tel Beer-sheba. Tel Aviv 22:128-135.&lrm
  13. Lev-Yadun, S., Y. Mizrachi & M. Kochavi. 1996. Lichenometric studies&lrm of cultural formation processes at Rogem Hiri, Golan Heights.&lrm Israel Exploration Journal 46:196-207.&lrm
  14. Mizrachi, Y., M. Zohar, M. Kochavi, P. Beck, V. Murphy & S. Lev-Yadun.&lrm 1996. A report of the 1988-1991 exploration efforts at Rogem Hiri,&lrm Golan Heights. Israel Exploration Journal 46:167-195.&lrm
  15. Albert, R.M., O. Lavi, L. Estroff, S. Weiner, A. Tsatskin, A. Ronen &&lrm S. Lev-Yadun. 1999. Mode of occupation of Tabun Cave, Mt Carmel,&lrm Israel during the Mousterian period: A study of the sediments and phytoliths. Journal of Archaeological Science 26:1249-1260.&lrm
  16. Gopher, A., S. Abbo & S. Lev-Yadun. 2001. The &ldquowhen&rdquo, the &ldquowhere&rdquo&lrm and the &ldquowhy&rdquo of the Neolithic Revolution in the Levant.&lrm Documenta Prehistorica 28:49-62.&lrm
  17. Lev-Yadun, S. & M. Weinstein-Evron. 2002. The role of Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) in the landscape of Early Bronze Age&lrm Megiddo. Tel Aviv 29:332-343.&lrm
  18. Lev-Yadun, S. & M. Weinstein-Evron. 2005. Modeling the influence of wood use by the Natufians of el-Wad on the forest of Mount Carmel.&lrm Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society 35:285-298.&lrm Ref
  19. Elbaum, R., C. Melamed-Bessudo, E. Boaretto, E. Galili, S. Lev-Yadun,&lrm A.A. Levy & S. Weiner. 2006. Ancient olive DNA in pits:&lrm preservation, amplification and sequence analysis. Journal of Archaeological Science 33:77-88.&lrm
  20. Lev-Yadun, S. 2007. Wood remains from archaeological excavations:&lrm a review with a Near Eastern perspective. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences 56:139-162. Ref
  21. &lrmKerem, Z., A. Gopher, S. Lev-Yadun, P. Weinberg & S. Abbo. 2007.&lrm Chickpea domestication in the Neolithic Levant through the nutritional perspective. Journal of Archaeological Science 34:&lrm1289-1293.&lrm Ref
  22. Tsartsidou, G., S. Lev-Yadun, R.-M. Albert, A. Miller-Rosen, N.&lrm Efstratiou & S. Weiner. 2007. The phytolith archaeological record:&lrm strengths and weaknesses evaluated based on a quantitative modern reference collection from Greece. Journal of Archaeological Science 34:1262-1275.&lrm
  23. Abbo, S., I. Zezak, E. Schwartz, S. Lev-Yadun & A. Gopher. 2008.&lrm Experimental harvesting of wild peas in Israel: implications for the origins of Near East farming. Journal of Archaeological Science 35:922-929.&lrm Ref
  24. Abbo, S., I. Zezak, E. Schwartz, S. Lev-Yadun, Z. Kerem & A.&lrm Gopher. 2008. Wild lentil and chickpea harvest in Israel:&lrm bearing on the origins of Near Eastern farming. Journal of Archaeological Science 35:3172-3177.&lrm
  25. Albert, R.-M., R. Shahack-Gross, D. Cabanes, A. Gilboa, S. Lev-Yadun,&lrm M. Portillo, I. Sharon, E. Boaretto & S. Weiner. 2008. Phytolith-&lrmrich layers from the Late Bronze and Iron Ages at Tel Dor (Israel):&lrm&lrm mode of formation and archaeological significance. Journal of Archaeological Science 35:57-75.&lrm
  26. Tsartsidou, G., S. Lev-Yadun, N. Efstratiou & S. Weiner. 2008.&lrm Ethnoarchaeological study of phytolith assemblages from an agro-pastoral village in Northern Greece (Sarakini): development
    &lrm and application of a Phytolith Difference Index. Journal of Archaeological Science 35:600-613.&lrm
  27. Tsartsidou, G., S. Lev-Yadun, N. Efstratiou & S. Weiner. 2009.&lrm Use of space in a Neolithic village in Greece (Makri): Phytolith analysis and comparison of phytolith assemblages from an
    &lrm ethnographic setting in the same area. Journal of Archaeological Science 36:2342-2352.&lrm
  1. Lev-Yadun, S., N. Liphschitz & Y. Waisel. 1984. Ring analysis of Cedrus libani beams from the roof of al-Aqsa mosque. Eretz-Israel 17:92-96, 4*-5* (Hebrew and English* summary), The Israel Exploration Society, Jerusalem.&lrm
  2. Waisel, Y., N. Liphschitz & S. Lev-Yadun. 1984. The vegetation of&lrm Eretz Israel in the near past. In: Plants and animals of the Land of Israel. Volume 8. Vegetation of Israel. Ed. Y. Waisel, pp.&lrm 43-46. Ministry of Defence Publishing House, and the Society for Protection of Nature, Tel Aviv (Hebrew).&lrm
  3. Waisel, Y. N. Liphschitz & S. Lev-Yadun. 1986. Flora in ancient&lrm Eretz-Israel. In: Man and land in Eretz-Israel in antiquity. Eds.&lrm Kasher, A., A. Oppenheimer & U. Rappaport, pp. 231-243, XXII-XXIII.&lrm Yad Izhak Ben Zvi, Jerusalem (Hebrew and English summary).&lrm
  4. Lev-Yadun, S. & N. Liphschitz. 1987. Age determination in Eastern&lrm Mediterranean Conifers. In: Israel - People and Land. Yearbook of Eretz Israel Museum, Tel Aviv, Volume 4. Ed. R. Zeevy, pp. 105-110,&lrm 12*. Eretz Israel Museum, Tel Aviv (Hebrew and English* summary).&lrm
  5. Liphschitz, N., S. Lev-Yadun & Y. Waisel. 1987. A climatic history of the Sinai peninsula in light of dendrochronological studies. In:&lrm Sinai, Volume 1. Eds. Gvirtzman, G., A. Shmueli, Y. Gradus, I.&lrm Beit-Arieh & M. Har-El, pp. 525-531. Tel Aviv University, and&lrm Ministry of Defence Publishing House, Tel Aviv (Hebrew).&lrm
  6. Liphschitz, N., R. Gophna & S. Lev-Yadun. 1989. Man's impact on the&lrm vegetational landscape of Israel in the Early Bronze Age II-III.&lrm In: The urbanization of Palestine in the Early Bronze Age. Ed.&lrm Miroschedgji, P. de. BAR International Series, 527(ii), pp. 263-268.&lrm
  7. Liphschitz, N., S. Lev-Yadun & Y. Waisel. 1989. Analysis of wood and rope. Wood from area Y.Dendroarchaeological analysis. In: The harbours of Caesarea Maritima. Results of the Caesarea ancient harbour excavation project, 1980 - 1985. Ed. Raban, A. BAR International Series, 491 (i), pp. 191-194.&lrm
  8. Lev-Yadun, S. 1994. Impressions of monocotyledon leaves on clay. In:&lrm Le Gisement de Hatoula en Judee Occidentale, Israel. Rapport des fouilles 1980-1988. Eds. Lechevallier, M. & A. Ronen, pp. 257.&lrm Centre de recherche francais de Jerusalem, Paris.&lrm
  9. Lev-Yadun, S. 1997. Flora and climate in Southern Samaria: Past and&lrm &lrm Present. In: Highlands of many cultures I. The sites. Eds.&lrm Finkelstein, I. Lederman, Z. & S. Bunimovitz, pp. 85-102. Monograph&lrm Series of the Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv.&lrm
  10. Lev-Yadun, S. 2000. Cellular patterns in dicotyledonous woods: their&lrm regulation. In: Cell & molecular biology of wood formation. Eds.&lrm Savidge, R., J. Barnett & R. Napier, pp. 315-324. BIOS Scientific&lrm Publishers Ltd., Oxford.&lrm
  11. Lev-Yadun, S. 2000. Wood structure and the ecology of annual growth ring formation in Pinus halepensis and Pinus brutia. In: Ecology, biogeography and management of Pinus halepensis and Pinus brutia forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean Basin. Eds. Ne`eman, G. &&lrm L. Trabaud, pp. 67-78. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. (INCLUDING A COVER PICTURE).&lrm
  12. Weinstein-Evron, M. & S. Lev-Yadun. 2000. Palaeoecology of Pinus halepensis in Israel in the light of archaeobotanical data. In:&lrm Ecology, biogeography and management of Pinus halepensis and Pinus brutia forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean Basin. Eds. Ne`eman,&lrm G. & L. Trabaud, pp. 119-130. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.&lrm (INCLUDING A COVER PICTURE).&lrm
  13. Shmida, A., S. Lev-Yadun, S. Goubitz & G. Ne`eman. 2000. Sexual allocation and gender segregation in Pinus halepensis, P. brutia and P. pinea. In: Ecology, biogeography and management of Pinus halepensis and Pinus brutia forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean Basin. Eds. Ne`eman, G. & L. Trabaud, pp. 91-104. Backhuys&lrm Publishers, Leiden. (INCLUDING A COVER PICTURE).&lrm
  14. Lev-Yadun, S. 2001. Bark. In: Encyclopedia of life sciences.&lrm Nature Publishing Group, London Published in print in: 2007. Handbook of plant science. Ed.&lrm Roberts, K., vol. 1. pp. 153-156. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.,&lrm Chichester.&lrm
  15. Lev-Yadun, S. 2004. Vegetal remains. In: Inscribed in clay.&lrm Provenance study of the Amarna tablets and other ancient Near Eastern texts. Eds. Goren, Y., I. Finkelstein & N. Na'aman.&lrm Monograph Series of the Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv.&lrm
  16. Lev-Yadun, S. 2006. Defensive coloration in plants: a review of current ideas about anti-herbivore coloration strategies. In:&lrm Floriculture, ornamental and plant biotechnology: advances and topical issues. Vol. IV. Ed. Teixeira da Silva, J.A. Global Science Books, London, pp. 292-299.&lrm
  17. Lev-Yadun, S. & K.S. Gould. 2008. Role of anthocyanins in plant defense. In: Gould, K.S., K.M. Davies & C. Winefield (eds.).&lrm Life's colorful solutions: the biosynthesis, functions, and applications of anthocyanins. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 21-48.&lrm Ref
  18. Lev-Yadun, S. & M. Halpern. 2008. External and internal spines in plants insert pathogenic microorganisms into herbivore's tissues for defense. In: Van Dijk, T. (ed.). Microbial ecology research trends. Nova Scientific Publishers, Inc., New York,&lrm pp. 155-168.&lrm
  19. Abbo, S., C. Can, S. Lev-Yadun & M. Ozaslan. 2008. Traditional farming systems in south-eastern Turkey: imperative of in situ conservation of endangered wild annual Cicer species. In:&lrm Maxted, N.,B.V. Ford-Lloyd, S.P. Kell, J.M. Iriondo, E. Dulloo,&lrm J. Turok (eds.). Crop wild relative conservation and use. CAB&lrm International, Wallingford, pp. 243-248.&lrm
  20. Lev-Yadun, S. 2009. Aposematic (warning) coloration in plants.&lrm In: Baluska, F. (ed.). Plant-environment interactions. From sensory plant biology to active plant behavior. Springer-Verlag,&lrm Berlin, pp. 167-202.&lrm Ref
  21. Lev-Yadun, S. 2011. Bark. 2nd Version. In: Encyclopedia of life sciences. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK.&lrm DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0002078.pub2&lrm. Ref
  22. Lev-Yadun, S. 2011. The environmental impact of the Pottery Neolitic&lrm village of Nahal Zehora II in the Menashe Hills, Israel. In:&lrm Village communities of the Pottery Neolithic period in the Menashe Hills, Israel. Archaeological investigations at the Nahal Zehora sites. Ed. Gopher, A. Monograph Series of the Institute of&lrm Archaeology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (in press).&lrm
  23. Lev-Yadun, S. 2011. Ecological aspects of the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age settlements of Tel Hadar. In: Tel Hadar I. The Early Iron Age pillared building complex. Eds. Beck, P., M. Kochavi & E.&lrm Yadin. Monograph Series of the Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (in press).&lrm
  24. Lev-Yadun, S., M. Inbar & E.C.M. van den Brink. 2011. Two 6,000&lrm year old Chalcolithic olive stone hoards from the "deep deposits"&lrm and Cave F3346. In: van den Brink, E.C.M. (ed.). Material aspects of transitional late Chalcolithic to early Early Bronze Age I occupations and landscape exploitation at Modi'in (Buchman South/&lrm
    &lrm Moriah Quarter) in Central Israel. IAA Reports No. XXXX. Israel&lrm Antiquities Authority, Jerusalem.&lrm
  25. Ne&rsquoeman, G. & S. Lev-Yadun. 2011. Current conservation issues in&lrm Pinus halepensis. In: Perevolotsky, A. (ed.). Conserving Mediterranean ecosystems: the Ramat Hanadiv case study and beyond.&lrm (in press).&lrm

Papers in Hebrew Journals

  1. Liphschitz, N., S. Lev-Yadun & Y. Waisel. 1979. Dendrochronological investigations in the Mediterranean basin - Pinus nigra of south Anatolia (Turkey). La-Yaaran 29:3-11, 33-36 (Hebrew and English).&lrm
  2. Lev-Yadun, S., N. Liphschitz & Y. Waisel. 1981. Dendrochronological investigations in Israel: Pinus halepensis Mill. - The oldest living pines in Israel. La-Yaaran 31:1-8, 49-52 (Hebrew and&lrm English).&lrm
  3. Liphschitz, N., S. Lev-Yadun, E. Rozen & Y. Waisel. 1982. On the&lrm origin of some Israeli conifers. La-Yaaran 32:2-5, 72 (Hebrew and&lrm English summary).&lrm
  4. Liphschitz, N., S. Lev-Yadun & R. Gophna. 1985. Dominance of Quercus calliprinos Webb (kermes oak) in the Central Coastal Plain of Israel in antiquity. ROTEM 17:40-48, 86-87 (Hebrew and English summary).&lrm
  5. Lev-Yadun, S. 1986. A population of Chrysanthemum coronarium var.&lrm discolor at Tel Michal. ROTEM 21:83-85, 91 (Hebrew and English&lrm summary).&lrm
  6. Arieli, E., R. Arieli & S. Lev-Yadun. 1986. Male/female ratio of&lrm Salix acmophylla trees growing in the Upper Jordan Valley. ROTEM 21:39-48, 94-95 (Hebrew and English summary).&lrm
  7. Gophna, R., S. Lev-Yadun & N. Liphschitz. 1986. A forgotten stone mask from er-Ram in the Land of Benjamin. Qadmoniot 19(75-76):&lrm82-83 (Hebrew).&lrm
  8. Lev-Yadun, S. 1987. Annual rings in trees as an index to climate&lrm changes intensity in our region in the past. ROTEM 22:6-17&lrm (Hebrew).&lrm
  9. Lev-Yadun, S. 1987. Cupressus sempervirens L. - A native and cultivated tree in the East Mediterranean region. ROTEM 23-24:&lrm30-40, 162 (Hebrew and English summary).&lrm
  10. Lev-Yadun, S. 1987. Cambium and phellogen activity of Cupressus sempervirens L. ROTEM 23-24:41-70, 160-162 (Hebrew and English&lrm summary).&lrm
  11. Lev-Yadun, S. 1988. Natural regeneration of Cupressus sempervirens L. in Israel. ROTEM 28:61-64, 86 (Hebrew and English summary).&lrm
  12. Liphschitz, N., G. Biger & S. Lev-Yadun. 1988. The use of timber in the construction of the first houses in Miqve Israel. ROTEM 26:&lrm62-72, 100 (Hebrew and English summary).&lrm
  13. Liphschitz, N., S. Lev-Yadun & G. Biger. 1988. The origin of the lumber in the houses of the American colony in Jaffa. Kathedra 47:70-78, 193 (Hebrew and English summary).&lrm

Defensive plant coloration is one of my favorite subjects and in the picture white variegation demonstrates various visual effects.

A zebra-like variegated leaf of the spiny annual Silibum marianum.

Pelargonium hortorum a colorful variety photographed in Canada. Such extreme coloration can be used for experiments on defensive plant coloration.

The white flower morph of Silibum marianum.

Caterpillar mimicry by Pisum elatius pods.

Camouflaged seeds of Pisum humile.

The probably aposomatic poisonous and conspicuous mushroom Ammanita muscaria in central Finland.

The origin of agriculture and plant domestication is also a major research subject in my lab. Represented here by domesticated tetraploid durum wheat.

Tree and forest biology where and are one of my scientific loves. Here we see the outcome of a large forest fire in a Pinus halepensis stand on Mount Carmel.

Dense Pinus sylvestris Taiga forest in Russia. I such forests the trees compete above ground but naturally graft their roots below ground in complicated interactions of competition and collaboration.

Traumatic resin ducts of Pinus halepensis from a study of the hormonal regulation of wood formation.

Update: a new estimate of Machimosaurus rex’ size

More recent estimates put Machimosaurus rex along with Machimosaurus hugii (another Machimosaurus species known from the Kimmeridgian of Portugal, Spain, Tunisia, and Switzerland) at about 6.9-7.2 m (22.6-23.6 ft) long (skull length 155 cm or 61 in).

Still larger than all modern crocodiles, but not as large as previously thought.

“Known to have evolved a wide range of body lengths (2-5 m based on complete skeletons), there is currently no way of reliably estimating the size of incomplete specimens. This is surprising, as some teleosaurids have been considered very large (9-10 m in total length), thus making Teleosauridae the largest bodied clade during the first 100 million years of crocodylomorph evolution.”

“Our examination and regression analyses of the best-preserved teleosaurid skeletons demonstrates that: they were smaller than previously thought, with no known specimen exceeding 7.2 m in length and that they had proportionally large skulls, and proportionally short femora when compared to body length. Therefore, while many teleosaurid species evolved a cranial length of ≥1 m, these taxa would not necessarily have been larger than species living today. We advise caution when estimating body length for extinct taxa, especially for those outside of the crown group.”

On the Ground

The information from this study is important for helping promote a more sustainable use of resources, such as grasses and shrubs, and in increasing an understanding of the utilization dynamics and their impact on potential recovery in the study area and beyond.

This study contributes insight toward ensuring the achievement of conservation measures outside protected areas to restore biodiversity in degraded habitats, through comparing the plant characteristics between a protected and unprotected site.

This study substantiates other findings, which suggest that using protected areas is one of several strategies that need to be adopted for recovering lost biodiversity and ensure their effective management.

This study improves our understanding of how shifts in vegetation characteristics resulting from land use change and management can modify the recovery of, in the case of Cholistan, previously grazed vegetation.

Arid Zone Geomorphology: Process, Form and Change in Drylands, 3rd Edition

Once again, recognised world experts in the field have been invited to contribute chapters in order to present a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of current knowledge about the processes shaping the landscape of deserts and arid regions. In order to broaden the appeal of the Third Edition, the book has been reduced in extent by 100 pages and the Regional chapters have been omitted in favour of the inclusion of key regional case studies throughout the book. The Editor is also considering the inclusion of a supplementary website that could include further images, problems and case studies.

Body size and activity times mediate mammalian responses to climate change

Model predictions of extinction risks from anthropogenic climate change are dire, but still overly simplistic. To reliably predict at-risk species we need to know which species are currently responding, which are not, and what traits are mediating the responses. For mammals, we have yet to identify overarching physiological, behavioral, or biogeographic traits determining species' responses to climate change, but they must exist. To date, 73 mammal species in North America and eight additional species worldwide have been assessed for responses to climate change, including local extirpations, range contractions and shifts, decreased abundance, phenological shifts, morphological or genetic changes. Only 52% of those species have responded as expected, 7% responded opposite to expectations, and the remaining 41% have not responded. Which mammals are and are not responding to climate change is mediated predominantly by body size and activity times (phylogenetic multivariate logistic regressions, P < 0.0001). Large mammals respond more, for example, an elk is 27 times more likely to respond to climate change than a shrew. Obligate diurnal and nocturnal mammals are more than twice as likely to respond as mammals with flexible activity times (P < 0.0001). Among the other traits examined, species with higher latitudinal and elevational ranges were more likely to respond to climate change in some analyses, whereas hibernation, heterothermy, burrowing, nesting, and study location did not influence responses. These results indicate that some mammal species can behaviorally escape climate change whereas others cannot, analogous to paleontology's climate sheltering hypothesis. Including body size and activity flexibility traits into future extinction risk forecasts should substantially improve their predictive utility for conservation and management.

Appendix S1. North America (NA) database and literature cited.

Appendix S2. Outside NA data.

Appendix S3. All NA species dataset.

Appendix S4. Best NA subset dataset.

Figure S1. Response categories.

Figure S2. Sample data comparison.

Table S1. Ordinary and phylogenetic logistic regression statistics.

Table S2. Best-fit AIC multivariate models.

Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.


Watson, J. E. M., Dudley, N., Segan, D. B. & Hockings, M. The performance and potential of protected areas. Nature 515, 67–73 (2014).

Dudley, N. Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories (IUCN, 2008).

Dudley, N. et al. The essential role of other effective area-based conservation measures in achieving big bold conservation targets. Glob. Ecol. Conserv. 15, e00424 (2018).

Donald, P. F. et al. The prevalence, characteristics and effectiveness of Aichi Target 11′ s “other effective area-based conservation measures”(OECMs) in Key Biodiversity Areas. Conserv. Lett. 12, 12659 (2019).

UN General Assembly. Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, 21 October 2015. A/RES/70/1 (accessed 11 November 2019).

Convention on Biological Diversity. COP 10 Decision X/2: Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020. (2011).

UNEP-WCMC & IUCN. World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA). (UNEP-WCMC, 2019).

UNEP-WCMC & IUCN. World Database on Other Effective Area-based Conservation Measures (WD-OCEM). (UNEP-WCMC, 2019).

Lewis, E. et al. Dynamics in the global protected-area estate since 2004. Conserv. Biol. 33, 570–579 (2019).

Klein, C. J. et al. Shortfalls in the global protected area network at representing marine biodiversity. Sci. Rep. 5, 17539 (2015).

Venter, O. et al. Bias in protected-area location and its effects on long-term aspirations of biodiversity conventions. Conserv. Biol. 32, 127–134 (2018).

Mouillot, D. et al. Global marine protected areas do not secure the evolutionary history of tropical corals and fishes. Nat. Commun. 7, 10359 (2016).

Butchart, S. H. M. et al. Shortfalls and solutions for meeting national and global conservation area targets. Conserv. Lett. 8, 329–337 (2015).

Christie, P. et al. Why people matter in ocean governance: incorporating human dimensions into large-scale marine protected areas. Mar. Policy 84, 273–284 (2017).

Zafra-Calvo, N. et al. Progress toward equitably managed protected areas in Aichi target 11: a global survey. Bioscience 69, 191–197 (2019). This is the first large review of how well protected areas satisfy social equity metrics.

Juffe-Bignoli, D. et al. Achieving Aichi biodiversity target 11 to improve the performance of protected areas and conserve freshwater biodiversity. Aquat. Conserv. 26, 133–151 (2016).

Maron, M., Simmonds, J. S. & Watson, J. E. M. Bold nature retention targets are essential for the global environment agenda. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 2, 1194–1195 (2018).

Geldmann, J. et al. Changes in protected area management effectiveness over time: a global analysis. Biol. Conserv. 191, 692–699 (2015).

Di Minin, E. & Toivonen, T. Global protected area expansion: creating more than paper parks. Bioscience 65, 637–638 (2015).

Gill, D. A. et al. Capacity shortfalls hinder the performance of marine protected areas globally. Nature 543, 665–669 (2017). This study compiles four years of data to assess capacity shortfalls and biodiversity outcomes from the management of 589 marine protected areas.

Coad, L. et al. Widespread shortfalls in protected area resourcing undermine efforts to conserve biodiversity. Front. Ecol. Environ. 17, 259–264 (2019).

Visconti, P. et al. Protected area targets post-2020. Science 364, 239–241 (2019).

Barnes, M. D., Glew, L., Wyborn, C. & Craigie, I. D. Prevent perverse outcomes from global protected area policy. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 2, 759–762 (2018).

IPBES. Summary for Policymakers of the Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES secretariat, 2019). This report assesses the status of biodiversity and ecosystem services, their impact on human well-being and the effectiveness of conservation interventions.

Dinerstein, E. et al. A global deal for nature: guiding principles, milestones, and targets. Sci. Adv. 5, eaaw2869 (2019).

Noss, R. F. et al. Bolder thinking for conservation. Conserv. Biol. 26, 1–4 (2012).

Wilson, E. O. Half-Earth: Our Planet’s Fight for Life (Liveright, 2016).

O’Leary, B. C. et al. Effective coverage targets for ocean protection. Conserv. Lett. 9, 398–404 (2016).

Bull, J. W. et al. Net positive outcomes for nature. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 4, 4–7 (2020).

Mace, G. M. et al. Aiming higher to bend the curve of biodiversity loss. Nat. Sustain. 1, 448–451 (2018).

Dinerstein, E. et al. An ecoregion-based approach to protecting half the terrestrial realm. Bioscience 67, 534–545 (2017).

Spalding, M. D. et al. Marine ecoregions of the world: a bioregionalization of coastal and shelf areas. Bioscience 57, 573–583 (2007).

UNEP-WCMC, IUCN & NGS. Protected Planet Report 2018 (UNEP-WCMC, IUCN and NGS, 2018). A biennial publication that reviews progress toward protected areas targets and goals.

Rodrigues, A. S. L. et al. Global gap analysis: priority regions for expanding the global protected-area network. Bioscience 54, 1092–1100 (2004).

IUCN. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-2 (accessed 10 September 2019) (2019).

IUCN. A Global Standard for the Identification of Key Biodiversity Areas. Version 1.0 (IUCN, 2016).

BirdLife International. World Database of Key Biodiversity Areas. (accessed 20 June 2019) (2019).

Jones, K. R. et al. The location and protection status of Earth’s diminishing marine wilderness. Curr. Biol. 28, 2506–2512 (2018).

Allan, J. R., Venter, O. & Watson, J. E. M. Temporally inter-comparable maps of terrestrial wilderness and the last of the wild. Sci. Data 4, 170187 (2017).

Watson, J. E. M. et al. The exceptional value of intact forest ecosystems. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 2, 599–610 (2018).

Di Marco, M., Ferrier, S., Harwood, T. D., Hoskins, A. J. & Watson, J. E. M. Wilderness areas halve the extinction risk of terrestrial biodiversity. Nature 573, 582–585 (2019).

Martin, T. G. & Watson, J. E. M. Intact ecosystems provide best defence against climate change. Nat. Clim. Chang. 6, 122–124 (2016).

Griscom, B. W. et al. Natural climate solutions. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 114, 11645–11650 (2017).

Soto-Navarro, C. et al. Mapping co-benefits for carbon storage and biodiversity to inform conservation policy and action. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 375, 20190128 (2020). This study combines multiple datasets to produce a new high-resolution map of global above- and belowground carbon stored in biomass and soil.

Dargie, G. C. et al. Age, extent and carbon storage of the central Congo Basin peatland complex. Nature 542, 86–90 (2017).

DeVries, T. & Weber, T. The export and fate of organic matter in the ocean: new constraints from combining satellite and oceanographic tracer observations. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 31, 535–555 (2017).

Laws, E. A., D’Sa, E. & Naik, P. Simple equations to estimate ratios of new or export production to total production from satellite-derived estimates of sea surface temperature and primary production. Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9, 593–601 (2011).

DeVries, T., Primeau, F. & Deutsch, C. The sequestration efficiency of the biological pump. Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L13601 (2012).

Henson, S. A., Sanders, R. & Madsen, E. Global patterns in efficiency of particulate organic carbon export and transfer to the deep ocean. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 26, GB1028 (2012).

Roshan, S. & DeVries, T. Efficient dissolved organic carbon production and export in the oligotrophic ocean. Nat. Commun. 8, 2036 (2017).

Lutz, M. J., Caldeira, K., Dunbar, R. B. & Behrenfeld, M. J. Seasonal rhythms of net primary production and particulate organic carbon flux to depth describe the efficiency of biological pump in the global ocean. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 112, C10011 (2007).

Magris, R. A. et al. Biologically representative and well-connected marine reserves enhance biodiversity persistence in conservation planning. Conserv. Lett. 11, e12439 (2018).

Mendenhall, C. D., Karp, D. S., Meyer, C. F. J., Hadly, E. A. & Daily, G. C. Predicting biodiversity change and averting collapse in agricultural landscapes. Nature 509, 213–217 (2014).

Harrison, H. B. et al. Larval export from marine reserves and the recruitment benefit for fish and fisheries. Curr. Biol. 22, 1023–1028 (2012).

Johnson, D. W., Christie, M. R., Pusack, T. J., Stallings, C. D. & Hixon, M. A. Integrating larval connectivity with local demography reveals regional dynamics of a marine metapopulation. Ecology 99, 1419–1429 (2018).

Saura, S., Bastin, L., Battistella, L., Mandrici, A. & Dubois, G. Protected areas in the world’s ecoregions: how well connected are they? Ecol. Indic. 76, 144–158 (2017).

Saura, S. et al. Global trends in protected area connectivity from 2010 to 2018. Biol. Conserv. 238, 108183 (2019).

Endo, C. A. K., Gherardi, D. F. M., Pezzi, L. P. & Lima, L. N. Low connectivity compromises the conservation of reef fishes by marine protected areas in the tropical South Atlantic. Sci. Rep. 9, 8634 (2019).

Bergseth, B. J., Gurney, G. G., Barnes, M. L., Arias, A. & Cinner, J. E. Addressing poaching in marine protected areas through voluntary surveillance and enforcement. Nat. Sustain. 1, 421–426 (2018). This study uses a citizen science approach to estimate poaching rates inside 55 marine protected areas spanning seven countries.

Jones, K. R. et al. One-third of global protected land is under intense human pressure. Science 360, 788–791 (2018).

Costello, M. J. & Ballantine, B. Biodiversity conservation should focus on no-take marine reserves: 94% of marine protected areas allow fishing. Trends Ecol. Evol. 30, 507–509 (2015).

Zupan, M. et al. Marine partially protected areas: drivers of ecological effectiveness. Front. Ecol. Environ. 16, 381–387 (2018).

Spracklen, B. D., Kalamandeen, M., Galbraith, D., Gloor, E. & Spracklen, D. V. A global analysis of deforestation in moist tropical forest protected areas. PLoS ONE 10, e0143886 (2015).

Herrera, D., Pfaff, A. & Robalino, J. Impacts of protected areas vary with the level of government: comparing avoided deforestation across agencies in the Brazilian Amazon. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 116, 14916–14925 (2019).

Negret, P. J. et al. Effects of spatial autocorrelation and sampling design on estimates of protected area effectiveness. Conserv. Biol. (2020).

White, T. D. et al. Assessing the effectiveness of a large marine protected area for reef shark conservation. Biol. Conserv. 207, 64–71 (2017).

Giakoumi, S. & Pey, A. Assessing the effects of marine protected areas on biological invasions: a global review. Front. Mar. Sci. 4, 49 (2017).

Geldmann, J., Manica, A., Burgess, N. D., Coad, L. & Balmford, A. A global-level assessment of the effectiveness of protected areas at resisting anthropogenic pressures. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 116, 23209–23215 (2019).

Gray, C. L. et al. Local biodiversity is higher inside than outside terrestrial protected areas worldwide. Nat. Commun. 7, 12306 (2016). This controlled study shows how biodiversity outcomes from protected area management are mediated by different classes of land use.

Kerwath, S. E., Winker, H., Götz, A. & Attwood, C. G. Marine protected area improves yield without disadvantaging fishers. Nat. Commun. 4, 2347 (2013).

Speed, C. W., Cappo, M. & Meekan, M. G. Evidence for rapid recovery of shark populations within a coral reef marine protected area. Biol. Conserv. 220, 308–319 (2018).

Caselle, J. E., Rassweiler, A., Hamilton, S. L. & Warner, R. R. Recovery trajectories of kelp forest animals are rapid yet spatially variable across a network of temperate marine protected areas. Sci. Rep. 5, 14102 (2015).

Emslie, M. J. et al. Expectations and outcomes of reserve network performance following re-zoning of the Great Barrier Reef marine park. Curr. Biol. 25, 983–992 (2015).

Campbell, S. J., Edgar, G. J., Stuart-Smith, R. D., Soler, G. & Bates, A. E. Fishing-gear restrictions and biomass gains for coral reef fishes in marine protected areas. Conserv. Biol. 32, 401–410 (2018).

Mumby, P. J. et al. Trophic cascade facilitates coral recruitment in a marine reserve. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 104, 8362–8367 (2007).

Boaden, A. E. & Kingsford, M. J. Predators drive community structure in coral reef fish assemblages. Ecosphere 6, art46 (2015).

Lamb, J. B., Williamson, D. H., Russ, G. R. & Willis, B. L. Protected areas mitigate diseases of reef-building corals by reducing damage from fishing. Ecology 96, 2555–2567 (2015).

Naidoo, R. et al. Evaluating the impacts of protected areas on human well-being across the developing world. Sci. Adv. 5, eaav3006 (2019).

Zafra-Calvo, N. et al. Towards an indicator system to assess equitable management in protected areas. Biol. Conserv. 211, 134–141 (2017).

Oldekop, J. A., Holmes, G., Harris, W. E. & Evans, K. L. A global assessment of the social and conservation outcomes of protected areas. Conserv. Biol. 30, 133–141 (2016).

Giakoumi, S. et al. Revisiting “success” and “failure” of marine protected areas: a conservation scientist perspective. Front. Mar. Sci. 5, 223 (2018).

Edgar, G. J. et al. Global conservation outcomes depend on marine protected areas with five key features. Nature 506, 216–220 (2014).

Ban, N. C. et al. Well-being outcomes of marine protected areas. Nat. Sustain. 2, 524–532 (2019).

Corrigan, C. et al. Quantifying the contribution to biodiversity conservation of protected areas governed by indigenous peoples and local communities. Biol. Conserv. 227, 403–412 (2018).

Schleicher, J., Peres, C. A., Amano, T., Llactayo, W. & Leader-Williams, N. Conservation performance of different conservation governance regimes in the Peruvian Amazon. Sci. Rep. 7, 11318 (2017).

Hoffmann, M. et al. The difference conservation makes to extinction risk of the world’s ungulates. Conserv. Biol. 29, 1303–1313 (2015).

Watson, J. E. M. et al. Set a global target for ecosystems. Nature 578, 360–362 (2020).

Stolton, S., Redford, K. H. & Dudley, N. The Futures of Privately Protected Areas (IUCN, 2014).

IUCN WCPA. Guidelines for Recognising and Reporting Other Effective Area-based Conservation Measures (IUCN, 2019).

Shabtay, A., Portman, M. E., Manea, E. & Gissi, E. Promoting ancillary conservation through marine spatial planning. Sci. Total Environ. 651, 1753–1763 (2019).

Banks-Leite, C. et al. Using ecological thresholds to evaluate the costs and benefits of set-asides in a biodiversity hotspot. Science 345, 1041–1045 (2014).

Schuster, R., Germain, R. R., Bennett, J. R., Reo, N. J. & Arcese, P. Vertebrate biodiversity on indigenous-managed lands in Australia, Brazil, and Canada equals that in protected areas. Environ. Sci. Policy 101, 1–6 (2019).

Bennett, N. J. & Dearden, P. From measuring outcomes to providing inputs: governance, management, and local development for more effective marine protected areas. Mar. Policy 50, 96–110 (2014).

Suchley, A. & Alvarez-Filip, L. Local human activities limit marine protection efficacy on Caribbean coral reefs. Conserv. Lett. 11, e12571 (2018).

Cook, C. N., Valkan, R. S., Mascia, M. B. & McGeoch, M. A. Quantifying the extent of protected-area downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement in Australia. Conserv. Biol. 31, 1039–1052 (2017).

Qin, S. et al. Protected area downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement as a threat to iconic protected areas. Conserv. Biol. 33, 1275–1285 (2019).

Forrest, J. L. et al. Tropical deforestation and carbon emissions from protected area downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD). Conserv. Lett. 8, 153–161 (2015).

Golden Kroner, R. E. et al. The uncertain future of protected lands and waters. Science 364, 881–886 (2019). This study compiled data that are available globally on PADDD events.

Roberts, K. E., Valkan, R. S. & Cook, C. N. Measuring progress in marine protection: a new set of metrics to evaluate the strength of marine protected area networks. Biol. Conserv. 219, 20–27 (2018).

De Vos, A., Clements, H. S., Biggs, D. & Cumming, G. S. The dynamics of proclaimed privately protected areas in South Africa over 83 years. Conserv. Lett. 12, e12644 (2019).

Costelloe, B. et al. Global biodiversity indicators reflect the modeled impacts of protected area policy change. Conserv. Lett. 9, 14–20 (2016).

Pringle, R. M. Upgrading protected areas to conserve wild biodiversity. Nature 546, 91–99 (2017).

Kuempel, C. D., Adams, V. M., Possingham, H. P. & Bode, M. Bigger or better: the relative benefits of protected area network expansion and enforcement for the conservation of an exploited species. Conserv. Lett. 11, e12433 (2018).

Adams, V. M., Barnes, M. & Pressey, R. L. Shortfalls in conservation evidence: moving from ecological effects of interventions to policy evaluation. One Earth 1, 62–75 (2019).

Coad, L. et al. Measuring impact of protected area management interventions: current and future use of the global database of protected area management effectiveness. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 370, 20140281 (2015).

Hansen, M. C. et al. High-resolution global maps of 21st-century forest cover change. Science 342, 850–853 (2013).

Venter, O. et al. Sixteen years of change in the global terrestrial human footprint and implications for biodiversity conservation. Nat. Commun. 7, 12558 (2016).

Geldmann, J., Joppa, L. N. & Burgess, N. D. Mapping change in human pressure globally on land and within protected areas. Conserv. Biol. 28, 1604–1616 (2014).

Wilkie, D. S., Bennett, E. L., Peres, C. A. & Cunningham, A. A. The empty forest revisited. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1223, 120–128 (2011).

Volenec, Z. M. & Dobson, A. P. Conservation value of small reserves. Conserv. Biol. 34, 66–79 (2020).

Nicholson, E. et al. Scenarios and models to support global conservation targets. Trends Ecol. Evol. 34, 57–68 (2019).

Maron, M., Rhodes, J. R. & Gibbons, P. Calculating the benefit of conservation actions. Conserv. Lett. 6, 359–367 (2013).

Schleicher, J. et al. Statistical matching for conservation science. Conserv. Biol. 34, 538–549 (2019).

Ferraro, P. J. Counterfactual thinking and impact evaluation in environmental policy. New Dir. Eval. 2009, 75–84 (2009).

Chandler, M. et al. Contribution of citizen science towards international biodiversity monitoring. Biol. Conserv. 213, 280–294 (2017).

Convention on Biological Diversity. Long-Term Strategic Directions to the 2050 Vision for Biodiversity, Approaches to Living in Harmony with Nature and Preparation for the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework. (2018).

Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Global Biodiversity Outlook 4 (Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2014).

McCarthy, D. P. et al. Financial costs of meeting global biodiversity conservation targets: current spending and unmet needs. Science 338, 946–949 (2012).

Balmford, A. et al. Walk on the wild side: estimating the global magnitude of visits to protected areas. PLoS Biol. 13, e1002074 (2015).

Waldron, A. et al. Reductions in global biodiversity loss predicted from conservation spending. Nature 551, 364–367 (2017).

Murray, K. A., Allen, T., Loh, E., Machalaba, C. & Daszak, P. Emerging Viral Zoonoses from Wildlife Associated with Animal-Based Food Systems: Risks and Opportunities (Springer, 2016).

Dobson, A.P. et al. Ecology and economics for pandemic prevention. Science 369, 379–381 (2020).

Burmester, B. Upgrading or unhelpful? Defiant corporate support for a marine protected area. Mar. Policy 63, 206–212 (2016).

Larson, E. R., Howell, S., Kareiva, P. & Armsworth, P. R. Constraints of philanthropy on determining the distribution of biodiversity conservation funding. Conserv. Biol. 30, 206–215 (2016).

Smith, T. et al. Biodiversity means business: reframing global biodiversity goals for the private sector. Conserv. Lett. 13, e12690 (2019).

Elsen, P. R., Monahan, W. B., Dougherty, E. R. & Merenlender, A. M. Keeping pace with climate change in global terrestrial protected areas. Sci. Adv. 6, eaay0814 (2020).

Poloczanska, E. S. et al. Global imprint of climate change on marine life. Nat. Clim. Chang. 3, 919–925 (2013).

Bruno, J. F. et al. Climate change threatens the world’s marine protected areas. Nat. Clim. Chang. 8, 499–503 (2018).

Schleuning, M. et al. Ecological networks are more sensitive to plant than to animal extinction under climate change. Nat. Commun. 7, 13965 (2016).

Bonnot, T. W., Cox, W. A., Thompson, F. R. & Millspaugh, J. J. Threat of climate change on a songbird population through its impacts on breeding. Nat. Clim. Chang. 8, 718–722 (2018).

Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Poloczanska, E. S., Skirving, W. & Dove, S. Coral reef ecosystems under climate change and ocean acidification. Front. Mar. Sci. 4, 158 (2017).

Jones, K. R., Watson, J. E. M., Possingham, H. P. & Klein, C. J. Incorporating climate change into spatial conservation prioritisation: a review. Biol. Conserv. 194, 121–130 (2016).

Green, A. L. et al. Larval dispersal and movement patterns of coral reef fishes, and implications for marine reserve network design. Biol. Rev. Camb. Philos. Soc. 90, 1215–1247 (2015).

Krueck, N. C. et al. Incorporating larval dispersal into MPA design for both conservation and fisheries. Ecol. Appl. 27, 925–941 (2017).

van Kerkhoff, L. et al. Towards future-oriented conservation: managing protected areas in an era of climate change. Ambio 48, 699–713 (2019).

Ling, S. D. & Johnson, C. R. Marine reserves reduce risk of climate-driven phase shift by reinstating size- and habitat-specific trophic interactions. Ecol. Appl. 22, 1232–1245 (2012).

Maxwell, S. L., Venter, O., Jones, K. R. & Watson, J. E. M. Integrating human responses to climate change into conservation vulnerability assessments and adaptation planning. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1355, 98–116 (2015).

Bennett, J. R. et al. When to monitor and when to act: value of information theory for multiple management units and limited budgets. J. Appl. Ecol. 55, 2102–2113 (2018).

Burgass, M. J., Halpern, B. S., Nicholson, E. & Milner-Gulland, E. J. Navigating uncertainty in environmental composite indicators. Ecol. Indic. 75, 268–278 (2017).

Bennett, J. R. et al. Polar lessons learned: long-term management based on shared threats in Arctic and Antarctic environments. Front. Ecol. Environ. 13, 316–324 (2015).

Hughes, T. P. et al. Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals. Nature 543, 373–377 (2017).

Bai, Y. et al. Developing China’s ecological redline policy using ecosystem services assessments for land use planning. Nat. Commun. 9, 3034 (2018).

Hughes, A. C. Understanding and minimizing environmental impacts of the belt and road initiative. Conserv. Biol. 33, 883–894 (2019).

Alamgir, M. et al. High-risk infrastructure projects pose imminent threats to forests in Indonesian Borneo. Sci. Rep. 9, 140 (2019).

Azevedo, A. A. et al. Limits of Brazil’s forest code as a means to end illegal deforestation. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 114, 7653–7658 (2017).

Simmonds, J. S. et al. Moving from biodiversity offsets to a target-based approach for ecological compensation. Conserv. Lett. 13, e12695 (2020).

Spalding, M. D., Agostini, V. N., Rice, J. & Grant, S. M. Pelagic provinces of the world: a biogeographic classification of the world’s surface pelagic waters. Ocean Coast. Manage. 60, 19–30 (2012).

NatureServe. Bird Species Distribution Maps of the World (BirdLife International, 2018).

Hijmans, R. J., Cameron, S. E., Parra, J. L., Jones, P. G. & Jarvis, A. Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. Int. J. Climatol. 25, 1965–1978 (2005).

Pauly, D. et al. Sea Around Us Concepts, Design and Data. (2020).

Ferraro, P. J. & Pressey, R. L. Measuring the difference made by conservation initiatives: protected areas and their environmental and social impacts. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 370, 20140270 (2015).

Díaz, S. et al. Pervasive human-driven decline of life on Earth points to the need for transformative change. Science 366, eaax3100 (2019).

Researchers narrow birth estimate for the Takliman Desert

Taklamakan desert in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Credit: Wikipedia

The second largest sand sea in the world, the Takliman Desert in central Asia influences geology, the global climate, and has even shaped the development of global human culture—the two branches of the Silk Road along its southern boundary were shaped by the need to avoid its vast, arid wastes.

It is an extreme inland desert, bounded on the south by the Kunlun mountains, the Gobi Desert to the east, and by the Pamir mountains and the Tian Shan mountain ranges on the west and north. Situated in the rainfall shadow of these mountain ranges, the Takliman is utterly deprived of precipitation. Because of its geographic proximity to Siberia, it registers some of the planet's record cold temperatures during the winter months, and cold nighttime lows in the summer.

The Takliman is a potent source of the dust in the global aerosol system. Therefore, the development of the desert during Earth's geologic history was a significant event, and understanding precisely when this arid land formed is key to understanding how the global climate developed into the system we know today. Unfortunately, the area is characterized by a lack of datable geologic sources, and the dominant view, still controversial, is that the desert formed between 3.4 million and 7 million years ago.

A group of researchers has narrowed the previous estimates, thanks to the recent discovery of a volcanic tuff, identified from two sedimentary sections in the southwestern margin of the Tarim Basin. They have published the results of their study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The Tarim Basin and the initial desertification

The Tarim basin, in which the Takliman is the dominant feature, was influenced by a shallow sea from the late Cretaceous to the early Paleogene. This sea was connected to an epicontinental marine seaway called the Paratethys, which receded around 41 million years ago. Regional aridification and increased erosion in the mountain fronts contributed to a climactic tipping point that resulted in the formation of the Takliman. Massive siltstone lenses sourced from the desert intercalcated in many regions, and are preserved in a system of alluvial fan formations.

Today, the Takliman is surrounded by diluvial fan systems linking the uplifting mountain chains and the Tarim Basin. The mountains shed sediments, which are eroded by a variety of processes and are delivered to the basin through the fan systems, eventually sorted into silt and sand fractions which contribute to the desert.

The researchers identified volcanic ash, ideal for radioisotropic dating, intercalcated in some Tarim Basin sections that have been previously dated via magnetostratigraphy to the Plio-Pleistocene age. The dating of the volcanic ash constrains the previous estimates of the age of desertification, which the authors conclude occurred in the late Oligocene to the early Miocene, between

26.7 million years and 22.6 million years ago.

The authors write, "We therefore argue that, by the late Oligocene to early Miocene time, the Tarim Basin, surrounded by a rising Tibetan-Pamir Plateau and Tian Shan, had become fully arid and desertified, supplying dust to the mountain fronts, where it accumulated as loess."

2 Model and Observations

2.1 Model Description

CAS FGOALS-f3-L is the latest-generation global climate model (GCM), which is developed by the LASG, IAP, and CAS. Replaced with the former Spectral Atmosphere Model (SAMIL Bao et al., 2010 , 2013 Wu et al., 1996 ), version 2 of the Finite-volume Atmospheric Model (FAMIL2 Bao et al., 2019 He et al., 2019 J. Li et al., 2019 Zhou et al., 2015 ), as the latest generation the atmospheric component, it is used in the atmospheric model of LASG. The dynamical core of FAMIL2 uses a finite volume on a cubed-sphere grid (S. J. Lin, 2004 Putman & Lin, 2007 ) that covers the globe with six tiles each tile can contain a minimum of number of grid cells (C48, about 200 km) to a maximum of number of grid cells (C1536, about 6.25 km) (J. X. Li et al., 2017 Zhou et al., 2012 ). Compared with the previous spectral longitude-latitude grid (Bao et al., 2013 ), the unique design of the cubed-sphere grid of FAMIL2 resulted in a higher resolution simulation to be performed. Hybrid coordinates over 32 layers are used in the model, which extend from the surface to 1 hPa. A new turbulence parameterization scheme with a nonlocal high-order closure (Bretherton & Park, 2009 ) replaced the previous “nonlocal” first-order closure scheme. The single-moment microphysical parameterization used in FAMIL2 can explicitly treat the mass mixing ratio of six hydrometeor species (water vapor, cloud water, cloud ice, rain, snow, and graupel) (Harris & Lin, 2014 Y. L. Lin et al., 1983 Zhou et al., 2019 ). More precise cloud fractions can be diagnosed by the scheme of diagnosing the cloud fractions, which consider both relative humidity (RH) and cloud mixing ratio (Xu & Randall, 1996 ) as used in FAMIL2. A convection-resolving precipitation parameterization (Bao et al., 2019 ) is used in FAMIL2, which can calculate the microphysical processes in the cumulous scheme for both deep and shallow convection explicitly. In addition, a new radiation transfer scheme Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for GCMs (RRTMG), which used the correlated-k approach (Clough et al., 2005 ) to calculate the irradiance and heating rates are introduced into FAMIL2. The land and sea ice models adopt version 4.0 of the Community Land Model (CLM4 Oleson et al., 2010 ) and version 4 of the Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE4 Hunke & Lipscomb, 2010 ), respectively. The coupled module used the version 7 coupler (CPL7) from the NCAR ( to exchange the flux among these components.

The aerosol module called SPRINTARS (Goto et al., 2011 Takemura et al., 2000 , 2002 , 2005 , 2009 ) has been online coupled with the FAMIL2 in this study. A single-moment scheme is used to calculate the mass mixing ratios of the main tropospheric aerosol components (soil dust, sea salt, sulfate, and carbonaceous aerosols) and the precursor gases of sulfate. The main aerosol processes are treated, including emission, advection, convection, diffusion, sulfur chemistry, dry deposition, wet deposition, and gravitational settling.


Watch the video: Βιολογία Γ Γυμνασίου. Το γενετικό υλικό οργανώνεται σε χρωμοσώματα (September 2022).


  1. Ziv

    Tired of the critical days - change sex !!!!! Figure caption: “Ass. Front view ”Seven nannies have ... fourteen boobs No matter how much vodka you take, you still run twice! (wisdom). He put on a slight fright. Drink seven times - drink once! The place of the enema cannot be changed. Girls lack femininity, and women lack virginity. Sculptural group: Hercules tearing the mouth of a peeing boy. Badge on a 150-kilogram man: Progress made sockets inaccessible to most children - the most gifted die.

  2. Kigar

    Unmatched message, I'm very interested :)

  3. Tayt


  4. Ozzi

    I accept it with pleasure. An interesting topic, I will take part. I know that together we can come to the right answer.

Write a message