15.13: Introduction to Amniotes - Biology

15.13: Introduction to Amniotes - Biology

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What you’ll learn to do: Identify characteristics of amniotes

Amniotes are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals. Amniotes are characterized by having an egg equipped with an amnion, an adaptation to lay eggs on land or retain the fertilized egg within the mother.

Amniote embryos, whether laid as eggs or carried by the female, are protected and aided by several extensive membranes. In eutherian mammals (such as humans), these membranes include the amniotic sac that surrounds the fetus. These embryonic membranes and the lack of a larval stage distinguish amniotes from tetrapod amphibians.

Morphological research on amniote eggs and embryos: An introduction and historical retrospective

Daniel G. Blackburn, Department of Biology, Trinity College, Hartford, CT 06106 USA.

Contribution: Conceptualization, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing

Department of Biological Sciences, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee, USA

Contribution: Conceptualization, Writing - review & editing

Department of Biology and Electron Microscopy Center, Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut, USA

Daniel G. Blackburn, Department of Biology, Trinity College, Hartford, CT 06106 USA.

Contribution: Conceptualization, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing

Department of Biological Sciences, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee, USA

Contribution: Conceptualization, Writing - review & editing


Evolution of the terrestrial egg of amniotes (reptiles, birds, and mammals) is often considered to be one of the most significant events in vertebrate history. Presence of an eggshell, fetal membranes, and a sizeable yolk allowed this egg to develop on land and hatch out well-developed, terrestrial offspring. For centuries, morphologically-based studies have provided valuable information about the eggs of amniotes and the embryos that develop from them. This review explores the history of such investigations, as a contribution to this special issue of Journal of Morphology, titled Developmental Morphology and Evolution of Amniote Eggs and Embryos. Anatomically-based investigations are surveyed from the ancient Greeks through the Scientific Revolution, followed by the 19th and early 20th centuries, with a focus on major findings of historical figures who have contributed significantly to our knowledge. Recent research on various aspects of amniote eggs is summarized, including gastrulation, egg shape and eggshell morphology, eggs of Mesozoic dinosaurs, sauropsid yolk sacs, squamate placentation, embryogenesis, and the phylotypic phase of embryonic development. As documented in this review, studies on amniote eggs and embryos have relied heavily on morphological approaches in order to answer functional and evolutionary questions.


The autonomic nervous system is often associated with the “fight-or-flight response,” which refers to the preparation of the body to either run away from a threat or to stand and fight in the face of that threat. To suggest what this means, consider the (very unlikely) situation of seeing a lioness hunting out on the savannah. Though this is not a common threat that humans deal with in the modern world, it represents the type of environment in which the human species thrived and adapted. The spread of humans around the world to the present state of the modern age occurred much more quickly than any species would adapt to environmental pressures such as predators. However, the reactions modern humans have in the modern world are based on these prehistoric situations. If your boss is walking down the hallway on Friday afternoon looking for “volunteers” to come in on the weekend, your response is the same as the prehistoric human seeing the lioness running across the savannah: fight or flight.

Most likely, your response to your boss—not to mention the lioness—would be flight. Run away! The autonomic system is responsible for the physiological response to make that possible, and hopefully successful. Adrenaline starts to flood your circulatory system. Your heart rate increases. Sweat glands become active. The bronchi of the lungs dilate to allow more air exchange. Pupils dilate to increase visual information. Blood pressure increases in general, and blood vessels dilate in skeletal muscles. Time to run. Similar physiological responses would occur in preparation for fighting off the threat.

This response should sound a bit familiar. The autonomic nervous system is tied into emotional responses as well, and the fight-or-flight response probably sounds like a panic attack. In the modern world, these sorts of reactions are associated with anxiety as much as with response to a threat. It is engrained in the nervous system to respond like this. In fact, the adaptations of the autonomic nervous system probably predate the human species and are likely to be common to all mammals, and perhaps shared by many animals. That lioness might herself be threatened in some other situation.

However, the autonomic nervous system is not just about responding to threats. Besides the fight-or-flight response, there are the responses referred to as “rest and digest.” If that lioness is successful in her hunting, then she is going to rest from the exertion. Her heart rate will slow. Breathing will return to normal. The digestive system has a big job to do. Much of the function of the autonomic system is based on the connections within an autonomic, or visceral, reflex.


Identify, Label, and Color the following structures on Squalus head skeleton (Chapter 16):

(You may use squalus chondro labeling picture on Canvas or create your own drawing. 13 points)

Rostrum, Nasal or Olfactory capsule, Preorbital process, Postorbital process, Precerebral cavity, Rostral fenestrae, Epiphyseal foramen, Superficial ophthalmic foramina, Foramen magnum, Vagus foramen, Glossopharyngeal foramen, Basitrabecular process, Optic foramen.

(You may use squalus splanchno labeling picture on Canvas or create your own drawing. 14 points)

Seven visceral arches, Five branchial arches, Pharyngobranchial, Epibranchial, Ceratobranchial, Hypobranchial, Basibranchial, Mandibular arch, Palatoquadrate cartilage, Meckel’s = Mandibular Cartilage, Hyoid arch, Hyomandibular cartilage, Ceratohyal, Basihyal.

Identify, Label, and Color the following on an Amia skull (or other bony fish) (Use handout provided and Chapter 24. I have the handout posted under Discussions on Canvas):

(You may use bird/turtle labeling picture on Canvas or create your own drawing. 3 points)

Orbit, Maxilla. These are the same in Amia as in the Perch on page 203.

Quadrate. Use the Amia handout for these.

Identify, Label, and Color the following on a Necturus skull (Chapter 26):

(You may use necturus skull labeling picture on Canvas or create your own drawing. 12 points)


Ethmoid plate, Quadrate, Exoccipital bone with its Occipital condyle, Premaxilla, Frontal, Parietal, Squamosal, Parasphenoid, Vomer, Dentary, Angular, Splenial.

Identify, Label, and Color the following on a Chelydra skull (Use handout provided):

(You may use bird/turtle labeling picture on Canvas or create your own drawing. 7 points)

Orbits, Premaxilla, Maxilla, Frontal, Parietal, Squamosal.

Identify, Label, and Color the following on a cat skull (Chapter 53):

(You may use cat skull and cat jaw labeling picture on Canvas or create your own drawing. 28 points)


Premaxilla, Maxilla, Palatine, Frontal, Orbit, Zygomatic (= Malar =Jugal), Zygomatic arch, Parietal, Occipital, Basioccipital, Occipital condyle, Foramen magnum, Basisphenoid, Presphenoid, Nasal, Optic foramen, Orbital fissure, Foramen rotundum, Foramen ovale, Anterior palatine foramen, Jugular foramen, External auditory meatus, Tympanic bulla, Mandible made of two Dentary bones, Condyloid process, Mental foramina, Coronoid process, Angular process.

Median: Methods, Merits and Demerits

When the values of all items of a series are arranged in increasing (ascending) or decreasing (descending) order it is usually called an array and the middle item of an array is called median. The median divides the series into two groups one group in which the values of items are less than the middle value and the other group in which the values of the items are greater than the middle item. Median is denoted by Me or Mdn.

The methods of calculating the median are comparatively simple. The value of median is not affected by change in extreme values. If the number of data in a series is odd, the median is the middle value. But if the number of data in a series is even, the median is the average of the two middle values.

Methods of Determining Median:

1. For unclassified and un-tabulated data:

In order to calculate the median, the data are first arranged in increasing or decreasing order and then the following formula is used:

Me = n+1/2, where n = number of items or data.

The heights (in cm) for 9 plants are given below. Find out the Media Height — 67, 65, 70, 68, 62, 63, 64, 63, 66.

The height measurements can be arranged in ascending order as follows:

(ii) For even number of data in the series:

The median is calculated as follows:

The number of flowers recorded on 10 plants are:

15,10,8,12,13,7,11,14,9,16. Find out the median value of flowers per plant.

The given numbers of flowers on 10 plants can be arranged in ascending order as under:

Calculate the median of the following series of data obtained by measuring the heights of 16 plants: 9, 10, 10, 8, 9, 7, 8, 11,7, 12, 14, 12, 11, 14, 15, 13.

The given data of plant heights are arranged in ascending order as follows:

7, 7, 8, 8, 9, 9, 10, 10, 11,11, 12, 12, 13, 13, 14, 14, 15

(i) Discontinuous or Discrete series of data. To calculate the median for discrete grouped data, first of all the cumulative frequency of whole series is obtained. The value of data against n+1/2 the cumulative frequency will be the median for odd number of data and the mean of values against n/2+n/2+1th cumulative frequencies will be median for series containing even number of data.

Calculate the median of the following data obtained by counting the number of flowers on 19 plants.

Calculate the median for the following data recorded for height (in cm) of 80 plants.

The class values for cumulative frequencies 40 and 41 are included in the class value of cumulative frequency 45 which is 122. Therefore, Median (Me) = 122+122/2 = 122.

(ii) For classified grouped date:

The median is determined in the following way:

(a) First, the cumulative frequency of all the classes are obtained from the given frequencies.

(b) Median class value is determined which is N/2th class.

(c) The n that class is ascertained whose cumulative frequency precedes that of median class (c.f).

(d) The median is calculated by the following formula.

The number of seeds produced by 55 plants of a plot are given in the following table.

Calculate the median seed number of a plant.

While calculating the median for classified grouped data the following facts must be kept in mind:

(i) Class intervals must be equal for all classes. If not equal, they should be rearranged allowing equal interval as shown below:

(ii) The classes should be presented by exclusive method (for example 10 – 20,20 – 30, 30 – 40 – —and so on).

If the classes are presented in inclusive manner then they should be changed to exclusive one by subtracting 0.5 from the lower limit and adding 0.5 to the upper limit as exemplified below:

Inclusive presentation of classes:

Merits of Median:

1. It is calculated easily and located exactly.

2. It is not affected by abnormally large or small values.

3. Its size cannot be changed much by adding a few more items.

4. Median can be used in quantitative measurements.

Demerits of Median:

1. The median of two or more series cannot be calculated by using the median of the component series.

15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes

By the end of this section, you will be able to do the following:

  • Describe the different steps in RNA processing
  • Understand the significance of exons, introns, and splicing for mRNAs
  • Explain how tRNAs and rRNAs are processed

After transcription, eukaryotic pre-mRNAs must undergo several processing steps before they can be translated. Eukaryotic (and prokaryotic) tRNAs and rRNAs also undergo processing before they can function as components in the protein-synthesis machinery.

MRNA Processing

The eukaryotic pre-mRNA undergoes extensive processing before it is ready to be translated. Eukaryotic protein-coding sequences are not continuous, as they are in prokaryotes. The coding sequences (exons) are interrupted by noncoding introns, which must be removed to make a translatable mRNA. The additional steps involved in eukaryotic mRNA maturation also create a molecule with a much longer half-life than a prokaryotic mRNA. Eukaryotic mRNAs last for several hours, whereas the typical E. coli mRNA lasts no more than five seconds.

Pre-mRNAs are first coated in RNA-stabilizing proteins these protect the pre-mRNA from degradation while it is processed and exported out of the nucleus. The three most important steps of pre-mRNA processing are the addition of stabilizing and signaling factors at the 5' and 3' ends of the molecule, and the removal of the introns (Figure 15.11). In rare cases, the mRNA transcript can be “edited” after it is transcribed.

Evolution Connection

RNA Editing in Trypanosomes

The trypanosomes are a group of protozoa that include the pathogen Trypanosoma brucei, which causes nagana in cattle and sleeping sickness in humans throughout great areas of Africa (Figure 15.12). The trypanosome is carried by biting flies in the genus Glossina (commonly called tsetse flies). Trypanosomes, and virtually all other eukaryotes, have organelles called mitochondria that supply the cell with chemical energy. Mitochondria are organelles that express their own DNA and are believed to be the remnants of a symbiotic relationship between a eukaryote and an engulfed prokaryote. The mitochondrial DNA of trypanosomes exhibit an interesting exception to the central dogma: their pre-mRNAs do not have the correct information to specify a functional protein. Usually, this is because the mRNA is missing several U nucleotides. The cell performs an additional RNA processing step called RNA editing to remedy this.

Other genes in the mitochondrial genome encode 40- to 80-nucleotide guide RNAs. One or more of these molecules interacts by complementary base pairing with some of the nucleotides in the pre-mRNA transcript. However, the guide RNA has more A nucleotides than the pre-mRNA has U nucleotides with which to bind. In these regions, the guide RNA loops out. The 3' ends of guide RNAs have a long poly-U tail, and these U bases are inserted in regions of the pre-mRNA transcript at which the guide RNAs are looped. This process is entirely mediated by RNA molecules. That is, guide RNAs—rather than proteins—serve as the catalysts in RNA editing.

RNA editing is not just a phenomenon of trypanosomes. In the mitochondria of some plants, almost all pre-mRNAs are edited. RNA editing has also been identified in mammals such as rats, rabbits, and even humans. What could be the evolutionary reason for this additional step in pre-mRNA processing? One possibility is that the mitochondria, being remnants of ancient prokaryotes, have an equally ancient RNA-based method for regulating gene expression. In support of this hypothesis, edits made to pre-mRNAs differ depending on cellular conditions. Although speculative, the process of RNA editing may be a holdover from a primordial time when RNA molecules, instead of proteins, were responsible for catalyzing reactions.

5' Capping

While the pre-mRNA is still being synthesized, a 7-methylguanosine cap is added to the 5' end of the growing transcript by a phosphate linkage. This functional group protects the nascent mRNA from degradation. In addition, factors involved in protein synthesis recognize the cap to help initiate translation by ribosomes.

3' Poly-A Tail

Once elongation is complete, the pre-mRNA is cleaved by an endonuclease between an AAUAAA consensus sequence and a GU-rich sequence, leaving the AAUAAA sequence on the pre-mRNA. An enzyme called poly-A polymerase then adds a string of approximately 200 A residues, called the poly-A tail . This modification further protects the pre-mRNA from degradation and is also the binding site for a protein necessary for exporting the processed mRNA to the cytoplasm.

Pre-mRNA Splicing

Eukaryotic genes are composed of exons , which correspond to protein-coding sequences (ex-on signifies that they are expressed), and intervening sequences called introns (int-ron denotes their intervening role), which may be involved in gene regulation but are removed from the pre-mRNA during processing. Intron sequences in mRNA do not encode functional proteins.

The discovery of introns came as a surprise to researchers in the 1970s who expected that pre-mRNAs would specify protein sequences without further processing, as they had observed in prokaryotes. The genes of higher eukaryotes very often contain one or more introns. These regions may correspond to regulatory sequences however, the biological significance of having many introns or having very long introns in a gene is unclear. It is possible that introns slow down gene expression because it takes longer to transcribe pre-mRNAs with lots of introns. Alternatively, introns may be nonfunctional sequence remnants left over from the fusion of ancient genes throughout the course of evolution. This is supported by the fact that separate exons often encode separate protein subunits or domains. For the most part, the sequences of introns can be mutated without ultimately affecting the protein product.

All of a pre-mRNA’s introns must be completely and precisely removed before protein synthesis. If the process errs by even a single nucleotide, the reading frame of the rejoined exons would shift, and the resulting protein would be dysfunctional. The process of removing introns and reconnecting exons is called splicing (Figure 15.13). Introns are removed and degraded while the pre-mRNA is still in the nucleus. Splicing occurs by a sequence-specific mechanism that ensures introns will be removed and exons rejoined with the accuracy and precision of a single nucleotide. Although the intron itself is noncoding, the beginning and end of each intron is marked with specific nucleotides: GU at the 5' end and AG at the 3' end of the intron. The splicing of pre-mRNAs is conducted by complexes of proteins and RNA molecules called spliceosomes.

Visual Connection

Errors in splicing are implicated in cancers and other human diseases. What kinds of mutations might lead to splicing errors? Think of different possible outcomes if splicing errors occur.

Note that more than 70 individual introns can be present, and each has to undergo the process of splicing—in addition to 5' capping and the addition of a poly-A tail—just to generate a single, translatable mRNA molecule.

Link to Learning

See how introns are removed during RNA splicing at this website.

Processing of tRNAs and rRNAs

The tRNAs and rRNAs are structural molecules that have roles in protein synthesis however, these RNAs are not themselves translated. Pre-rRNAs are transcribed, processed, and assembled into ribosomes in the nucleolus. Pre-tRNAs are transcribed and processed in the nucleus and then released into the cytoplasm where they are linked to free amino acids for protein synthesis.

Most of the tRNAs and rRNAs in eukaryotes and prokaryotes are first transcribed as a long precursor molecule that spans multiple rRNAs or tRNAs. Enzymes then cleave the precursors into subunits corresponding to each structural RNA. Some of the bases of pre-rRNAs are methylated that is, a –CH3 methyl functional group is added for stability. Pre-tRNA molecules also undergo methylation. As with pre-mRNAs, subunit excision occurs in eukaryotic pre-RNAs destined to become tRNAs or rRNAs.

Mature rRNAs make up approximately 50 percent of each ribosome. Some of a ribosome’s RNA molecules are purely structural, whereas others have catalytic or binding activities. Mature tRNAs take on a three-dimensional structure through local regions of base pairing stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The tRNA folds to position the amino acid binding site at one end and the anticodon at the other end (Figure 15.14). The anticodon is a three-nucleotide sequence in a tRNA that interacts with an mRNA codon through complementary base pairing.

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    Characteristics of Reptiles

    Reptiles are ectothermic tetrapods that lay shelled eggs on land and possess scaly skin and lungs.

    Learning Objectives

    Summarize the key adaptations of reptiles

    Key Takeaways

    Key Points

    • All reptiles, including aquatic ones, lay their eggs on land.
    • Reptiles reproduce sexually through internal fertilization some species are ovoviviparous (lay eggs) and others are viviparous (live birth).
    • Because of the development of impermeable, scaly skin, reptiles were able to move onto land since their skin could not be used for respiration in water.
    • Reptiles are ectotherms: they depend on their surrounding environment to control their body temperature this leads to advantages, such as not being dependent on metabolic energy from food for body heat.
    • Reptiles are also poikilotherms: animals whose body temperatures vary rather than remain stable.
    • Some reptiles go into brumation: a long period during cold weather that consists of no eating and a decreased metabolism.

    Key Terms

    • viviparous: being born alive, as are most mammals, some reptiles, and a few fish (as opposed to being laid as an egg)
    • ovoviviparous: a mode of reproduction in animals in which embryos develop inside eggs that are retained within the mother’s body until they are ready to hatch
    • ectotherm: a cold-blooded animal that regulates its body temperature by exchanging heat with its surroundings

    Characteristics of Reptiles

    Reptiles are tetrapods. Limbless reptiles (snakes and other squamates) have vestigial limbs and, as with caecilians, are classified as tetrapods because they are descended from four-limbed ancestors. Reptiles lay on land eggs enclosed in shells. Even aquatic reptiles return to the land to lay eggs. They usually reproduce sexually with internal fertilization. Some species are ovoviviparous, with the eggs remaining in the mother’s body until they are ready to hatch. Other species are viviparous, with the offspring born alive.

    One of the key adaptations that permitted reptiles to live on land was the development of their scaly skin which contains the protein keratin and waxy lipids, reducing water loss from the skin. Due to this occlusive skin, reptiles cannot use their skin for respiration, as do amphibians all breathe with lungs.

    Reptiles are ectotherms: animals whose main source of body heat comes from the environment. This is in contrast to endotherms, which use heat produced by metabolism to regulate body temperature. In addition to being ectothermic, reptiles are categorized as poikilotherms: animals whose body temperatures vary rather than remain stable. Reptiles have behavioral adaptations to help regulate body temperature, such as basking in sunny places to warm up and finding shady spots or going underground to cool down. The advantage of ectothermy is that metabolic energy from food is not required to heat the body therefore, reptiles can survive on about 10 percent of the calories required by a similarly-sized endotherm. In cold weather, some reptiles, such as the garter snake, brumate. Brumation is similar to hibernation in that the animal becomes less active and can go for long periods without eating, but differs from hibernation in that brumating reptiles are not asleep or living off fat reserves. Rather, their metabolism is slowed in response to cold temperatures the animal becomes very sluggish.

    Ectotherms: Reptiles, such as these sunbathing Florida redbelly turtles, are ectotherms: they rely on their environment for body heat.

    An Introduction to Solving Biological Problems with Python

    This course provides a practical introduction to the writing of Python programs for the complete novice. Participants are lead through the core aspects of Python illustrated by a series of example programs. Upon completion of the course, attentive participants will be able to write simple Python programs and customize more complex code to fit their needs.

    Course materials are available here.

    Please note that the content of this course has recently been updated. This course now mostly focuses on core concepts including Python syntax, data structures and reading/writing files. Concepts and strategies for working more effectively with Python are now the focus of a new 2-days course, Data Science in Python.

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    This course covers the complete NCERT / CBSE course based syllabus with all chapters of Class 11th Accounts which has been taught topic wise.

    1.1 What Is Goods and Services Tax? 1.2 GST - Illustrations (Part 1) 1.3 GST - Illustrations (Part 2) 1.4 GST - Illustrations (Part 3) 1.5 GST in Cash Book Illustrations (Part 4) 12.1 Bank Reconciliation Statement Concept 12.2 Bank Reconciliation Statement Illustrations 1 to 6 12.3 Bank Reconciliation Statement Illustrations 7 to 10 12.4 Bank Reconciliation Statement Illustrations 11 to 15 12.5 Bank Reconciliation Statement Illustrations 16 to 20 13.1 Trial Balance Concept 13.2 Trial Balance Illustration 1 (Without GST) 13.3 Trial Balance Illustration 2 (With GST) 13.4 Trial Balance Illustration 3 to 5 13.5 Illustrations 6 to 10 14.1 Depreciation Concept (Part 1) 14.2 Depreciation Concept (Part 2) 14.3 Depreciation -SLM and WDV Method 14.4 SLM Method of Depreciation - Illustrations 1 to 3 14.5 SLM Method of Depreciation - Illustrations 4 15.1 Provision and Reserves Full Concept 15.2 HOTs, MCQs Very Short Answer Type Questions 16.1 Concept of Drawing and Acceptance of Bills with Illustrations 16.2 Concept of Discounting of Bill with Illustrations 16.3 Concept of Endorsement of Bill with Illustrations 16.4 Concept of Bill Sent to Bank for Collection With Illustrations 16.5 Bills of Exchange - Illustrations 6 and 7 17.1 Rectification of Errors - Concept (Part 1) 17.2 Concept (Part 2) Rectification of One sided errors with Illustrations 1 & 2 17.3 Concept (Part 3) Rectification of Two sided errors 17.4 Rectification of Errors - Illustration 3 and 4 17.5 Rectification of Errors - Illustration 5 to 9 18.2 Concepts & Format of Trading A/c (Part 2) 18.3 Trading Account Illustrations 1 to 6 18.4 Adjusted Purchases and COGS with Illustrations 7and 8 18.5 Trading Account Illustrations 9 to 16 19.1 Basic Concept (Part 1) 19.2 Basic Concept (Part 2) 19.3 Basic Concept (Part 3) 19.4 Adjustments in Financial Statements - Illustrations 3 to 6 19.5 Adjustments in Financial Statements - Illustrations 7 to 10 20.1 Basic Concept (Part 1) - Net Worth Method 20.2 Single Entry System - Illustrations 1 to 4 20.3 Single Entry System - Illustrations 5 to 8 20.4 Single Entry System - Illustrations 9 to 11 20.5 Single Entry System - Practical Problems 1 to 5 21.1 Concepts - Computers in Accounting

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    Introduction to multiomics data integration and visualisation

    Identify the challenges, strategies and resources for multiomics data integration using biological examples.

    The virtual course will focus on the use of public data resources and open access tools for enabling integrated working, with an emphasis on data visualisation. Working with public domain data can provide added value to data derived through a researcher’s own work and additionally inform experimental design. This course is highly relevant in the current research scenario, where an increased volume of data across the whole spectrum of biology has created both more opportunities and challenges to identifying novel perspectives and answering questions in the life sciences. This course will focus on issues around data integration, but will not include systems biology modelling or machine learning approaches.

    A major element of this course is a group project, where participants will be organised in small groups to work together on a challenge set by trainers from EMBL-EBI data resource and research teams. These will allow participants to explore the bioinformatics tools and resources introduced in the course and to apply these to a set problem, providing hands-on experience of relevance to their own research. The group work will culminate in a presentation session involving all participants on the final day of the course, giving an opportunity for wider discussion on the benefits and challenges of integrating data.

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    The course will involve participants learning via pre-recorded lectures, live presentations, and trainer Q&A sessions. The content will be delivered over Zoom , with additional text communication over Slack .

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    Watch the video: An Introduction to the amniotes (February 2023).