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9.2: Readings and Resources - Biology

9.2: Readings and Resources - Biology


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9.2: Readings and Resources

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Here you will find general information on the science behind tsunami generation, computer animations of tsunamis, and summaries of past field studies.

The scope of tsunami research within the USGS, however, is broader than the topics covered here. USGS researchers have also provided critical research toward understanding how sediments are transported during tsunami runup and deciphering the geologic record of prehistoric tsunamis. The USGS collaborates closely with the NOAA Center for Tsunami Research.

As part of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, the USGS has also upgraded the seismograph network and communication functions of the U.S. Tsunami Warning Center.

Soon after the devastating tsunami in the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004 many people have asked, “Could such a tsunami happen in the United States?” As a starting point, read “Could It Happen Here?”

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Sunday Connection

God speaks to us in many ways, including through the Sunday Scripture readings. The Sunday Connection provides useful background and activities to better understand the upcoming Sunday's Scripture readings, helping you to connect the Scripture to daily life in a meaningful way.

Second Sunday of Lent, Cycle B

First Reading
Genesis 22:1-2,9a,10-13,15-18
Abraham obeyed God and prepared to offer his son, Isaac, as a sacrifice.

Responsorial Psalm
Psalm 116:10,15,16-17,18-19
A prayer of faithfulness to God

Second Reading
Romans 8:31b-34
God’s faithfulness is shown in his offering of his own Son for our salvation.

Gospel Reading
Mark 9:2-10
Jesus is transfigured in the presence of Peter, James, and John.

Background on the Gospel Reading

On the second Sunday of Lent in each Lectionary cycle, the Gospel reading proclaims the story of Jesus’ Transfiguration. This event is reported in each of the Synoptic Gospels—Matthew, Mark, and Luke. This year, in Lectionary Cycle B, we hear Mark’s report of this event.

The context for Mark’s Transfiguration story is similar to that found in both Matthew’s and Luke’s Gospel. The Transfiguration occurs after Peter’s confession that Jesus is the Messiah and Jesus’ prediction about his passion. After this, in each of these Gospels, there is also a discussion of the cost of discipleship.

In each case, Jesus takes three of his disciples—Peter, James, and John—to a high mountain. While they are there, Elijah and Moses appear with Jesus. In Matthew’s and Mark’s Gospel, there is reference to a conversation among Jesus, Elijah, and Moses, but only Luke’s Gospel includes the detail that this conversation is about what Jesus will accomplish in Jerusalem.

Elijah and Moses are significant figures in the history of Israel. Moses led the Israelites from slavery in Egypt and received from Yahweh the Ten Commandments. In appearing with Jesus at his Transfiguration, Moses represents the Law that guides the lives of the Jewish people. Elijah is remembered as one of the most important prophets of Israel who helped the Israelites stay faithful to Yahweh. Some Jews believed that Elijah’s return would signal the coming of the Messiah for the Jewish people. This belief is evidenced in the question posed by Jesus’ disciples after they have witnessed the Transfiguration. The appearance of these two important figures from Israel’s history with Jesus signifies Jesus’ continuity with the Law and with the prophets and that Jesus is the fulfillment of all that was promised to the people of Israel.

On seeing Jesus with Elijah and Moses and having witnessed his Transfiguration, Peter offers to construct three tents for them. Mark reports that the disciples are terrified by what they have witnessed and that Peter’s offer is made out of confusion. We also notice that Peter has reverted from his earlier confession that Jesus is the Messiah, calling Jesus rabbi instead. As if in reply to Peter’s confusion, a voice from heaven speaks, affirming Jesus as God's Son and commanding the disciples to obey him. This voice from heaven recalls the voice that was heard at Jesus’ baptism.

In his Transfiguration, we see an anticipation of the glory of Jesus’ Resurrection. In each of the reports of the Transfiguration, Jesus instructs the disciples to keep secret what they have seen until after the Son of Man has risen from the dead. The disciples’ confusion continues as they wonder what Jesus means by rising from the dead. The disciples cannot possibly understand Jesus’ Transfiguration until they also witness his passion and death. We hear the story of Jesus’ Transfiguration early in Lent, but we have the benefit of hindsight. In our hearing of it, we anticipate Jesus’ Resurrection, even as we prepare to remember Jesus’ passion and death.

Gospel Reading
Mark 9:2-10
Jesus is transfigured in the presence of Peter, James, and John.

Making the Connection (Grades 1, 2, and 3)

Young children love to share stories about events in their lives. We can lead them to appreciate the Bible as stories told by Jesus' followers so that we might believe that Jesus is God.

Materials Needed

Preparation for Sunday Scripture Readings

Bring a scrapbook or photo album and show it to the class. Ask the children what memories they have tried to preserve through photos or newspaper clippings. Say: When something special happens, we try to make it last by recording it. If Jesus walked into our room this very moment, what would you remember about him to tell your family? (what Jesus looked like and what he said) What questions would you ask him?

Say: In the Gospel this week, Jesus was with his friends on top of a high mountain when suddenly his clothes began to glow and two great men appeared with him— Moses and Elijah, who had died long before Jesus was born. Moses led the people of Israel out of slavery in Egypt and gave them the Ten Commandments. Elijah was a great prophet who taught the people to be faithful to God. Let's listen to this story from our Gospel.

Read aloud today's Gospel, Mark 9:2-10.

Say: This was a special moment for Jesus' friends because they saw that Jesus is God. Peter wanted to preserve this memory by making three houses on the mountain—one for Jesus, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. Jesus' friends were probably anxious to tell everyone at home what had happened on the mountain. But Jesus asked them to wait until after his death when he could prove to everyone that he is God by coming back to life.

Say: After Jesus died and rose, his friends shared this special memory. It was written in the Bible so that we too could know for sure that Jesus is God. Show the children the Bible and allow time for the children to look through it. Invite them to name other things that they have learned about Jesus from the Bible.

Conclude in prayer together, thanking God for all the memories of Jesus that have been shared with us in the Bible. Pray together the Lord's Prayer.

Gospel Reading
Mark 9:2-10
Jesus is transfigured in the presence of Peter, James, and John.

Making the Connection (Grades 4, 5, and 6)

All of us seek affirmation in our lives, words and experiences that help us to know that we are on the right track. In Jesus’ Transfiguration we see God’s affirmation of Jesus and an affirmation of our faith that Jesus is God’s own Son.

Materials Needed

Preparation for Sunday Scripture Readings

Photos of a memorable event you witnessed (for example, a wedding ceremony, a graduation, or a spectacular scene in nature)Ask: How do you know if you are dong the right thing, if you are on the right track in learning a new skill? What things do your teachers, parents, or coaches do to let you know that you are on the right track? (e.g., in words of praise and encouragement)

Say: When we hear words of praise or encouragement, we sometimes say that we have been affirmed. To affirm something is to say yes to it. In today’s Gospel we learn about an importation affirmation experience in the life of Jesus and his disciples. It is called the Transfiguration. Let’s listen carefully to this Gospel so that we can identify how Jesus is affirmed by this event and who offered this affirmation.

Invite one or more volunteers to read aloud today’s Gospel, Mark 9:2-10.

Ask: What do the disciples see happening in today’s Gospel? (Elijah and Moses appear with Jesus Jesus appearance is transformed into dazzling white a voice from heaven speaks about Jesus) Who are Elijah and Moses? (important people from Israel’s history Moses led the Israelites from slavery in Egypt and received the Ten Commandments Elijah was a prophet of Israel who helped the Israelites stay faithful to Yahweh.) What are some of the things this event affirms about Jesus? (Jesus is the fulfillment of the promises that God made to Israel Jesus will be glorified by God Jesus is the Son of God.) Do the disciples understand what they have witnessed? (No.) When will they understand what they have seen? (after Jesus rises from the dead)

Say: During Lent we seek to change our lives for the better, looking for ways in which we can be more faithful to Jesus. But we might also identify those aspects of our lives that we want to affirm and to continue. We want to recommit ourselves to the good things in our lives, for example, prayer and service to others. In our prayer today, let’s each try to identify one thing in our life that we should be affirming during Lent and one thing that God might affirm in our lives.

Conclude in prayer together, thanking God for helping us to follow Jesus. Allow time for reflection on the things in our lives that we ought to be affirming. Pray together the Prayer of Saint Richard of Chichester.

Gospel Reading
Mark 9:2-10
Jesus is transfigured in the presence of Peter, James, and John.

Making the Connection (Grades 7 and 8)

In photographs, scrapbooks, and journals, we record memorable experiences and reflect on the significance of these events in our lives. Events in the life of Jesus, such as the Transfiguration, are recorded in the Gospels to deepen our understanding of Jesus.

Materials Needed

  • Photos of a memorable event you witnessed (for example, a wedding ceremony, a graduation, or a spectacular scene in nature)

Preparation for Sunday Scripture Readings

Show one or more photos as you describe an event that you were especially glad to have witnessed. Invite the young people to describe specific events that they have been glad to witness.

Ask the young people what they might do to preserve these memories in addition to taking photos (for example, describe the event in a letter, write about it in a journal, keep mementos of it in a scrapbook).

Say: In this Sunday’s Gospel, three of Jesus’ disciples witness a spectacular event that leads one of them to say, “It is good that we are here!” Listen carefully to this Gospel.

Invite one or more volunteers to read aloud this Sunday’s Gospel, Mark 9:2–10.

Ask: What do the disciples witness in today’s Gospel? (Elijah and Moses appear with Jesus Jesus’ clothes become dazzling white a voice from heaven speaks about Jesus.) Who are Elijah and Moses? (Elijah was a prophet of Israel who helped the Israelites stay faithful to Yahweh. Moses led the Israelites from slavery in Egypt and delivered the Ten Commandments.) Why do you think Peter says, “It is good that we are here!”?(Accept all reasonable answers.) What does Peter want to do?(make tents for Moses, Elijah, and Jesus)

Say: It was good that Peter was present at the Transfiguration, but not for the reason he thinks. What instruction does Jesus give to his disciples after the Transfiguration? (not to tell anyone until after Jesus has risen from the dead)

Say: Peter and the other disciples were privileged to witness the Transfiguration so that they would later understand the meaning of Jesus’ passion, death, and Resurrection. What do they learn about Jesus at the Transfiguration that will help them understand Jesus better? (Jesus is the fulfillment of the promises that God made to Israel. Jesus will be glorified by God. Jesus is the Son of God.)

Say: In the Transfiguration, we glimpse the glory of Jesus’ Resurrection, which we celebrate at Easter. During Lent, we take time to seek greater appreciation for the mystery of Jesus’ Resurrection by learning more about him. What are some things you can do this Lent to learn more about Jesus?(Accept all reasonable answers, such as reading the Bible, spending time in prayer, paying close attention at Mass.) Encourage the young people to choose one of these practices to focus on during Lent.

Conclude by praying together that we will grow in appreciation for the mystery of Jesus’ Resurrection as we learn more about Jesus during Lent. Pray together the psalm for this Sunday, Psalm 116.

Gospel Reading
Mark 9:2-10
Jesus is transfigured in the presence of Peter, James, and John.

Family Connection

Every family has special moments that they remember and share again and again. In sharing these stories, the meaning and importance of these events develop and deepen over time. This is how it was with the disciples’ remembrance of Jesus’ Transfiguration. The full significance of what they had seen and experienced could only be understood after Jesus’ death and Resurrection. As they told other believers about this event and recorded the story for us in the Bible, our understanding of what it means to call Jesus God's own Son has also deepened.

As you gather as a family, think about some special family memories that your family tells over and over again. Talk about why these memories are important to you. Recall that in the Bible we find many important memories about Jesus that have been recorded for us so that we can believe that Jesus is God’s Son. Read today’s Gospel, Mark 9:2-10. What do we learn about Jesus from this Gospel? (He fulfills the promises God made to Israel through the Law and the prophets. God glorified Jesus in his Resurrection. Jesus is God’s Son.) Conclude in prayer together that as we continue to read the Bible, we will deepen our understanding of and our love for Jesus. Pray together the Lord’s Prayer.


Path Goal Model for Leadership

The path goal theory says that the role of a leader is to define goals and lay down the path for the employees to meet those goals. Aspects include clarification of the task and scope of the process. Clarification of the employee’s role and clarification around how the success of the task will be measured are key aspects in this model. The leader also is involved in guidance and coaching surrounding the goal and removes obstacles for employees that might affect the completion of the task. The path goal theory says that if employees are satisfied by the leadership style, they will be motivated toward the goals of leadership. Part of the model also stresses that the skills, experience, and environmental contingencies of the job play a role in the success of the leader.

Figure 9.4 Path Goal Model for Leadership


9.2: Readings and Resources - Biology

New International Version
After six days Jesus took Peter, James and John with him and led them up a high mountain, where they were all alone. There he was transfigured before them.

New Living Translation
Six days later Jesus took Peter, James, and John, and led them up a high mountain to be alone. As the men watched, Jesus’ appearance was transformed,

English Standard Version
And after six days Jesus took with him Peter and James and John, and led them up a high mountain by themselves. And he was transfigured before them,

Berean Study Bible
After six days Jesus took with Him Peter, James, and John, and led them up a high mountain by themselves. There He was transfigured before them.

Berean Literal Bible
And after six days, Jesus takes with Him Peter and James and John, and brings them up into a high mountain by themselves alone. And He was transfigured before them,

King James Bible
And after six days Jesus taketh with him Peter, and James, and John, and leadeth them up into an high mountain apart by themselves: and he was transfigured before them.

New King James Version
Now after six days Jesus took Peter, James, and John, and led them up on a high mountain apart by themselves and He was transfigured before them.

New American Standard Bible
And six days later Jesus took with Him Peter, James, and John, and brought them up on a high mountain by themselves. And He was transfigured before them

NASB 1995
Six days later, Jesus took with Him Peter and James and John, and brought them up on a high mountain by themselves. And He was transfigured before them

NASB 1977
And six days later, Jesus took with Him Peter and James and John, and brought them up to a high mountain by themselves. And He was transfigured before them

Amplified Bible
Six days later, Jesus took with Him Peter and James and John, and led them up on a high mountain by themselves. And He was transfigured (changed in form) before them [and began to shine brightly with divine and regal glory]

Christian Standard Bible
After six days Jesus took Peter, James, and John and led them up a high mountain by themselves to be alone. He was transfigured in front of them,

Holman Christian Standard Bible
After six days Jesus took Peter, James, and John and led them up on a high mountain by themselves to be alone. He was transformed in front of them,

American Standard Version
And after six days Jesus taketh with him Peter, and James, and John, and bringeth them up into a high mountain apart by themselves: and he was transfigured before them

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And after six days Yeshua led Kaypha, Yaqob and Yohannan and took them up to a high mountain by themselves and he was transfigured before their eyes.

Contemporary English Version
Six days later Jesus took Peter, James, and John with him. They went up on a high mountain, where they could be alone. There in front of the disciples, Jesus was completely changed.

Douay-Rheims Bible
AND after six days Jesus taketh with him Peter and James and John, and leadeth them up into an high mountain apart by themselves, and was transfigured before them.

English Revised Version
And after six days Jesus taketh with him Peter, and James, and John, and bringeth them up into a high mountain apart by themselves: and he was transfigured before them:

Good News Translation
Six days later Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John, and led them up a high mountain, where they were alone. As they looked on, a change came over Jesus,

GOD'S WORD® Translation
After six days Jesus took only Peter, James, and John and led them up a high mountain where they could be alone. Jesus' appearance changed in front of them.

International Standard Version
Six days later, Jesus took Peter, James, and John and led them up a high mountain to be alone with him. His appearance was changed in front of them,

Literal Standard Version
And after six days Jesus takes Peter, and James, and John, and brings them up to a high mountain by themselves, alone, and He was transfigured before them,

NET Bible
Six days later Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John and led them alone up a high mountain privately. And he was transfigured before them,

New Heart English Bible
After six days Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John, and brought them up onto a high mountain privately by themselves, and he was changed into another form in front of them.

Weymouth New Testament
Six days later, Jesus took with Him Peter, James, and John, and brought them alone, apart from the rest, up a high mountain and in their presence His appearance underwent a change.

World English Bible
After six days Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John, and brought them up onto a high mountain privately by themselves, and he was changed into another form in front of them.

Young's Literal Translation
And after six days doth Jesus take Peter, and James, and John, and bringeth them up to a high mount by themselves, alone, and he was transfigured before them,

Matthew 17:1
After six days Jesus took with Him Peter, James, and John the brother of James, and led them up a high mountain by themselves.

Mark 5:37
And He did not allow anyone to accompany Him except Peter, James, and John the brother of James.

Luke 9:28
About eight days after Jesus had said these things, He took with Him Peter, John, and James, and went up on a mountain to pray.

2 Peter 1:16
For we did not follow cleverly devised fables when we made known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we were eyewitnesses of His majesty.

And after six days Jesus takes with him Peter, and James, and John, and leads them up into an high mountain apart by themselves: and he was transfigured before them.

Matthew 17:11 And Jesus answered and said unto them, Elias truly shall first come, and restore all things.

Luke 9:28 And it came to pass about an eight days after these sayings, he took Peter and John and James, and went up into a mountain to pray.

Mark 5:37 And he suffered no man to follow him, save Peter, and James, and John the brother of James.

Mark 14:33 And he taketh with him Peter and James and John, and began to be sore amazed, and to be very heavy

2 Corinthians 13:1 This is the third time I am coming to you. In the mouth of two or three witnesses shall every word be established.

Exodus 24:13 And Moses rose up, and his minister Joshua: and Moses went up into the mount of God.

1 Kings 18:42,33 So Ahab went up to eat and to drink. And Elijah went up to the top of Carmel and he cast himself down upon the earth, and put his face between his knees, …

Matthew 14:13 When Jesus heard of it, he departed thence by ship into a desert place apart: and when the people had heard thereof, they followed him on foot out of the cities.

Mark 16:12 After that he appeared in another form unto two of them, as they walked, and went into the country.

Exodus 34:29-35 And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of testimony in Moses' hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses wist not that the skin of his face shone while he talked with him…

Isaiah 33:17 Thine eyes shall see the king in his beauty: they shall behold the land that is very far off.

(1) that our Lord was at this time in the neighborhood of Caesarea Philippi, a considerable distance from Tabor, and

(2) that there is strong reason for believing that Tabor had at this time a fortress on its summit. It must be remembered that Caesarea Philippi was at the foot of Libanus and the spurs of Libanus would present several eminences answering to the description, "a high mountain ( ὄρος ὑψηλὸν )." The Mount of Transfiguration was in all probability Hermon, a position of extreme grandeur and beauty, its snowy peaks overlooking the whole extent of Palestine. "High up," says Dean Stanley, "on its southern slopes there must be many a point where the disciples could be taken 'apart by themselves.' Even the transient comparison of the celestial splendor with the snow, where alone it could be seen in Palestine, should not, perhaps, be wholly overlooked. At any rate, the remote heights above the sources of the Jordan witnessed the moment when, his work in his own peculiar sphere being ended, he set his face for the last time to go up to Jerusalem." Although compelled to dismiss from our minds the old tradition of Tabor as the scene of the Transfiguration, we still think of that mountain as near to Nazareth, where our Lord was brought up and of Hermon, where he was transfigured, as we rejoice in the fulfillment of the old prophecy, "Tabor and Hermon shall rejoice in thy Name." And he was transfigured ( μετεμορφώθη ) before them. The fashion of his appearance was changed. It was no illusion, no imaginary appearance, but a real transformation. It was the Divine glory within him manifesting itself through his humanity and yet not that glory of Deity which no man hath seen or can see but such a manifestation that the disciples might in some degree behold the glory and majesty, of Deity through the veil of his flesh. Nor, we may believe, did our Lord in his transfiguration change the essence or form of his countenance. But he assumed a mighty splendor, so that, as St. Matthew 17:2 tells us, "his face did shine as the sun." This splendor was not in the air, nor in the eyes of the disciples, but in the person of the Son of God - a splendor which communicated itself to his raiment, so that his garments became glistering ( στίλβοντα ), exceeding white so as no fuller on earth can whiten them . This figure is taken from natural things. The first idea of "fuller" from the Latin fullo , is that of one who cleanses by "stamping with the feet." His business is to restore the soiled cloth to its natural whiteness. The evangelist uses an earthly thing to represent the heavenly. The heavenly Fuller gives a purity and a brightness infinitely exceeding the power of any "fuller on earth." It would almost seem as if the figure was one specially supplied by St. Peter.

After
μετὰ (meta)
Preposition
Strong's 3326: (a) gen: with, in company with, (b) acc: (1) behind, beyond, after, of place, (2) after, of time, with nouns, neut. of adjectives.

six
ἓξ (hex)
Adjective - Accusative Feminine Plural
Strong's 1803: Six. A primary numeral six.

days,
ἡμέρας (hēmeras)
Noun - Accusative Feminine Plural
Strong's 2250: A day, the period from sunrise to sunset.

Jesus
Ἰησοῦς (Iēsous)
Noun - Nominative Masculine Singular
Strong's 2424: Of Hebrew origin Jesus, the name of our Lord and two other Israelites.

took with [Him]
παραλαμβάνει (paralambanei)
Verb - Present Indicative Active - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's 3880: From para and lambano to receive near, i.e. Associate with oneself by analogy, to assume an office figuratively, to learn.

Peter,
Πέτρον (Petron)
Noun - Accusative Masculine Singular
Strong's 4074: Peter, a Greek name meaning rock. Apparently a primary word a rock as a name, Petrus, an apostle.

James,
Ἰάκωβον (Iakōbon)
Noun - Accusative Masculine Singular
Strong's 2385: The same as Iakob Graecized Jacobus, the name of three Israelites.

John,
Ἰωάννην (Iōannēn)
Noun - Accusative Masculine Singular
Strong's 2491: Of Hebrew origin Joannes, the name of four Israelites.

led them up
ἀναφέρει (anapherei)
Verb - Present Indicative Active - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's 399: From ana and phero to take up.

a high
ὑψηλὸν (hypsēlon)
Adjective - Accusative Neuter Singular
Strong's 5308: High, lofty. From hupsos lofty.

mountain
ὄρος (oros)
Noun - Accusative Neuter Singular
Strong's 3735: A mountain, hill. Probably from an obsolete oro a mountain: -hill, mount(-ain).

[by] themselves.
ἰδίαν (idian)
Adjective - Accusative Feminine Singular
Strong's 2398: Pertaining to self, i.e. One's own by implication, private or separate.

He was transfigured
μετεμορφώθη (metemorphōthē)
Verb - Aorist Indicative Passive - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's 3339: To transform, transfigure. From meta and morphoo to transform.

before
ἔμπροσθεν (emprosthen)
Preposition
Strong's 1715: From en and pros in front of (literally or figuratively) or time).

them.
αὐτῶν (autōn)
Personal / Possessive Pronoun - Genitive Masculine 3rd Person Plural
Strong's 846: He, she, it, they, them, same. From the particle au the reflexive pronoun self, used of the third person, and of the other persons.


Websites

We already know that utilizing library resources can help you automatically filter out content that may not be scholarly or credible, since the content in research databases is selected and restricted. However, some information may be better retrieved from websites. Even though both research databases and websites are electronic sources, there are two key differences between them that may impact their credibility. First, most of the content in research databases is or was printed but has been converted to digital formats for easier and broader access. In contrast, most of the content on websites has not been printed. Although not always the case, an exception to this is documents in PDF form found on web pages. You may want to do additional research or consult with your instructor to determine if that can count as a printed source. Second, most of the content on research databases has gone through editorial review, which means a professional editor or a peer editor has reviewed the material to make sure it is credible and worthy of publication. Most content on websites is not subjected to the same review process, as just about anyone with Internet access can self-publish information on a personal website, blog, wiki, or social media page. So what sort of information may be better retrieved from websites, and how can we evaluate the credibility of a website?

Most well-known organizations have official websites where they publish information related to their mission. If you know there is an organization related to your topic, you may want to see if they have an official website. It is almost always better to get information from an official website, because it is then more likely to be considered primary source information. Keep in mind, though, that organizations may have a bias or a political agenda that affects the information they put out. If you do get information from an official website, make sure to include that in your verbal citation to help establish your credibility. Official reports are also often best found on websites, as they rarely appear in their full form in periodicals, books, or newspapers. Government agencies, nonprofits, and other public service organizations often compose detailed and credible reports on a wide variety of topics.

The US Census Bureau’s official website is a great place to find current and credible statistics related to population numbers and demographic statistics.

U.S. Census Bureau – public domain.

A key way to evaluate the credibility of a website is to determine the site’s accountability. By accountability, I mean determining who is ultimately responsible for the content put out and whose interests the content meets. The more information that is included on a website, the better able you will be to determine its accountability. Ideally all or most of the following information would be included: organization/agency name, author’s name and contact information, date the information was posted or published, name and contact information for person in charge of web content (i.e., web editor or webmaster), and a link to information about the organization/agency/business mission. While all this information doesn’t have to be present to warrant the use of the material, the less accountability information is available, the more you should scrutinize the information. You can also begin to judge the credibility of a website by its domain name. Some common domain names are .com, .net, .org, .edu, .mil, and .gov. For each type of domain, there are questions you may ask that will help you evaluate the site’s credibility. You can see a summary of these questions in Table 9.2 “Website Domain Names and Credibility”. Note that some domain names are marked as “restricted” and others aren’t. When a domain is restricted, .mil for example, a person or group wanting to register that domain name has to prove that their content is appropriate for the guidelines of the domain name. Essentially, this limits access to the information published on those domain names, which increases the overall credibility.

Table 9.2 Website Domain Names and Credibility

Domain Name Purpose Restricted? Questions to Ask
.com, .net Commercial No Is the information posted for profit? Is the information posted influenced by advertisers?
.org Mostly noncommercial organizations No What is the mission of the organization? Who is responsible for the content? Is the information published to enhance public knowledge or to solicit donations?
.edu Higher education Yes Who published the information? (the institution or an administrator, faculty member, staff member, or student)
.mil US military Yes Most information on .mil sites will be credible, since it is not published for profit and only limited people have access to post information.
.gov US government Yes Most information on .gov sites will be credible, since it is not published for profit and only limited people have access to post information.


9.2: Readings and Resources - Biology

3. With no tube in the holder, adjust the meter needle to read infinite absorbance (= 0% transmittance) using the left front knob (= power switch).

4. Using a Kimwipe, wipe off/polish the outside of the BLANK cuvette to remove greasy finger smudges etc. (Fig. 3 you might want to wear gloves). If not etched in to the cuvette, use a wax pencil or Sharpie to make a small vertical mark at the top of each cuvette for alignment in the sample holder (Fig. 4).

5 . Raise the sample holder trapdoor and insert the cuvette such that the line on the cuvette lines up with the line on the sample holder (Fig. 5). Close the lid.

Figure 5. Loading the blank.

6. Using the right front knob (Fig. 6), adjust the meter needle to read absorbance = 0.0 (= 100 % transmittance). This step is called setting the "full scale".

Figure 6. Use right knob to set full scale against the blank.

The spectrophotometer is now calibrated to this BLANK. If your experiment involves multiple reaction tube formulations, each one may need its own blank and the Spec 20 must be rezeroed for each.

7. Remove BLANK and insert cuvette containing your sample. Close lid.

8. Read the absorbance (lower scale) OR transmittance (upper scale) as appropriate for your sample (Fig. 7).

Figure 7. Meter for reading percent transmittance (upper scale) or absorbance (lower scale).

9. Repeat for subsequent samples which use the same BLANK. (SEE NOTE BELOW)

NOTE: When taking several measurements at the same wavelength over a short time period, you do not need to reblank for each. Over longer times, however, the unit may drift and recalibration to the BLANK will be necessary. IF, however, you change the wavelength, you must re-zero the instrument. If you are taking readings over an extended period or sharing the instrument, re-zero for each measurement.

The Beer-Lambert law describes an important relationship that exists between absorbance (A) and two sample parameters - solute concentration (c) and length of the light path (l) . Simply put, the law states that absorbance, A , is directly proportional to c and l , and is represented by the following equation:

where, µ is a constant, the absorbance coefficient.

In biological research, concentration (c) is usually expressed on a mass/volume basis, e.g., ug/ml, length of light path (l) in centimeters (usually l=1 cm), and µ, the absorbance coefficient, is also expressed on the basis of weight. For practical purposes, the light path is the interior diameter of the cuvette and is the same for all samples. Therefore, a plot of absorbance vs concentration yields a straight line with slope µ. Such a curve using known concentrations of a pure substance is called a standard curve. A standard curve is then useful for determining the concentration of the same substance in solutions of unknown concentration. By algebraic rearrangement of the above equation to,

it is clear that concentration can be determined from absorbance alone. Absorption coefficients for biological molecules can be determined experimentally or can be found in the literature.


Biology

Hey kids, now learn biology in an all new fun and interactive way with our cool videos, interactive media articles and fun projects. With our huge.

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