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Today after cutting open a papaya , a plant was found in it:
How is it possible for a plant to grow in a fruit? How does it gets $CO_2$ and light for photosynthesis?
That is a papaya seed showing vivipary, or premature sprouting. The plant is getting all the sugar it needs from the nutrients stored in the seed so it does not photosynthesize. If it were to run out, the plant would die.
How to Grow Mint Indoors
This article was co-authored by Maggie Moran. Maggie Moran is a Professional Gardener in Pennsylvania.
This article has been viewed 46,750 times.
Mint is a lovely, low-maintenance plant with a wide variety of applications in food, drinks, and household products. Mint grows best as a potted plant, so it is a lovely plant to grow indoors. If you'd enjoy growing mint in your home,all you need to do is acquire a mint seedling, re-pot it, and perform some routine care. Then you can harvest your mint as needed to make mojitos or mint tea.
- Some varieties of mint include sweet mint, chocolate mint, spearmint, lemon mint, apple mint, and peppermint.
- Spearmint and peppermint are the most common. Spearmint is often used in baking and cooking. Peppermint is used more often for drinks, like mojitos and hot chocolate.
- Add water to the glass as necessary.
- Change the water every 4-5 days to keeping your trimming healthy.
- Ceramic planters are porous and lose moisture easily. Your mint might be happier in a plastic container.
- You can repurpose a plastic container by drilling a hole in the bottom for drainage.
- To lower the pH of your soil, add some compost, composted manure, or acidic mulch.
- To raise the pH of your soil, add pelletized lime or wood ash.
- Some good options include:
- A windowsill that faces north.
- A shelf across the room from a south-facing window.
- Add around 1–2 cups (240–470 ml) to your mint plant at each watering.
- Humidity can be important to the growing process, so consider misting your plant with water in between waterings.
- Choose a water soluble, time-release fertilizer.  X Research source
- Too much fertilizer can alter the taste of your mint.
- Hang mint stems upside down to dry them.
- Save mint leaves in an airtight container, like a jar or a small plastic bag.
- This prevents the plant from “going to seed.” When a mint plant starts producing seeds, it puts less energy toward leaf production.
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Types of fruit
There is a massive variety of different types of fruit. The main separation between fruit types is between fleshy and dry fruits. Fleshy fruits have a juicy layer of tissue in the pericarp, seen in fruits such as oranges, tomatoes and grapes whereas dry fruits do not.
Fleshy fruits can be further separated into a large number of fruit types. Common types of fleshy fruits include berries, pomes, drupes and hesperidia fruits. Berries are fruits with one or many seeds and a thin layer of skin e.g. grapes, tomatoes and blueberries. Pomes includes fruits that are made from a swollen receptacle rather than a swollen ovary such as apples and pears. Drupes are fruits that have a single seed that is protected by a hard shell – commonly known as stone fruit. Citrus fruits are classed as hesperidia fruits because of their leathery skins that produce scented oils.
Many plants, such as maples, beans, oaks and sunflowers, produce dry fruit that don’t have a fleshy layer to their pericarp. Dry fruit can be either dehiscent, where they pop open and release their seeds to the world or indehiscent, where they do not pop open. Examples of dry dehiscent fruits include legumes, orchid fruits, milkweed plants and magnolias and examples of dry indehiscent fruit that do not pop open include carrots, acorns, grass grains and chestnuts.
Fruit can also be separated into simple, aggregate and multiple fruits. Simple fruits are made from one flower and one ovary and includes the majority of fruits. In fact, all of the examples of fruits given in this article up until this point are simple fruits. Aggregate fruits are formed from one flower that has several ovaries and each of them develops into fruit segments. These include fruits such as blackberries and raspberries. Multiple fruits are formed when multiple flowers produce fruits that merge to create one larger piece of fruit. This is seen in pineapples and figs.
A flower?s ovary usually develops into a fruit to protect the seeds and help disperse them. A fruit may be succulent (fleshy) or dry. Fruit is often tasty and colourful to attract fruit-eating animals. Its seeds can pass through an animal unharmed, falling to the ground in droppings. Seeds may also be dispersed on animals? coats, by the wind, or by the fruit bursting open.
The seeds of dry fruits are dispersed in various ways. Peapods are dry fruits that split and shoot out their seeds by force. The hogweed fruit forms a papery wing around the seed, helping it to float on the breeze. The strawberry is a false fruit, but it is covered by tiny dry fruits, each with a seed.
Fleshy, brightly coloured, and often scented, succulent fruits are designed to attract the animals that eat and disperse them. Fleshy fruits such as apricots and cherries have a woody stone or pip that protects the seed. Called drupes, these fruits form from a single ovary. Many drupes, formed from many ovaries, may cluster to form a compound fruit, such as a raspberry.
Strawberry Pollination Basics
Strawberry flowers have both male and female parts on each bloom. The male parts include the pollen carrying portion of the flower (highlighted in blue) and pollinators must come into contact with this area to collect pollen grains. The female parts of the flower (highlighted in pink) must individually receive pollen grains to attain complete pollination.
Strawberry flower. Photo: Jeremy Slone
Lack of complete pollination in each pistil (female flower part) can result in smaller or misshapen berries, meaning reduced yield of marketable fruit.
Poorly pollinated berry (left) and a misshapen berry (right). Photo: Jeremy Slone
The actual berry forms from each pistil developing into an individual “seed’ that is actually an individual fruit, called an achene. The fleshy red part of the strawberry is rather an enlarged receptacle that holds the achenes (Poling, 2012).
Berry development from each pistil being pollinated into individual achenes. Photo: Jeremy Slone
As seen in the photo below, there are many ways for pollen to be transferred within the flower and unlike some crops, strawberries are self-fertile. However, maximum yields are possible with a combination of self-pollination (pink), wind (blue), and insects (green).Although flowers are capable of self-pollinating, each pistil must receive pollination, and studies have shown that self-pollination and wind-blown pollen are often not sufficient to completely pollinate a flower. Only about 60-70% of maximum pollination results from these vectors alone, and open pollination with the aid of insects is necessary for the greatest yield. Insect pollination can also improve strawberry quality and shape, meaning that berries last longer and look fuller!
How do Plant Cells and Tissues Get Oxygen?
For the green tissues above ground, oxygen is a byproduct of the photosynthesis process. For root tissues which are in the dark and have no photosynthesis, this option is not possible. Root tissues must therefore take up oxygen from the soil in which they grow. The hair roots of the plant have a large surface to volume ratio and are semi-permeable. They can absorb oxygen from the pores in the soil.
Chloroplasts are key organelles within many plant cells for performing the function of photosynthesis. This function captures the energy from light provided. It is the chlorophyll within these chloroplasts that actually gives the ability to harvest energy.
Light energy is absorbed by the chlorophyll within a limited frequency range. The molecules within the chlorophyll will become excited, thus producing energy that is passed from one molecule to another. In the end, the electron in a molecule must be ejected from the chlorophyll in order for energy to be captured and used. The process of electron ejection takes place only within chlorophyll molecules, which are held in a protein complex known as a reaction center.
The Meyer lemon tree is the most widely recommended indoor lemon tree because of its compact size and tolerance of cooler conditions, says Rosie Leary, a resident botanist with Candide Gardening, a site that sells plants, garden accessories and tickets to public gardens.
“It’s a dwarf cultivar that self-pollinates, meaning guaranteed fruits,” Leary says.
Citrus trees like soil that’s moist and loamy (equal amounts of sand and silt, with less clay) and that’s on the acidic side of the pH scale, Leary says. It grows best with bright sunlight all year round and will benefit from some added humidity, says Leary, who recommends giving it a regular misting or placing it on a pebble tray.
If you’re going the citrus route, these trees do need a lot of light, so you’ll need to have your lemons by a sunny window for at least six hours a day, says Rachel Brown, who runs DIY Garden, which helps inspire garden projects. If you can’t get that much light, you can use full-spectrum grow lights to help your fruit plants thrive.
Plant growing inside a fruit - Biology
Plants with stems that are usually soft and bendable. Herbaceous stems die back to the ground every year.
Plants with stems, such as tree trunks, that are hard and do not bend easily. Woody stems usually don't die back to the ground each year.
A process by which a plant produces its food using energy from sunlight, carbon dioxide from the air, and water and nutrients from the soil.
The movement of pollen from one plant to another. Pollination is necessary for seeds to form in flowering plants.
What's the difference between a fruit and a vegetable?
A fruit is what a flower becomes after it is pollinated. The seeds for the plant are inside the fruit.
Vegetables are other plant parts. Carrots are roots. Asparagus stalks are stems. Lettuce is leaves.
Foods we often call vegetables when cooking are really fruits because they contain seeds inside.
What Do Different Plant Parts Do?
P lant parts do different things for the plant.
Roots act like straws absorbing water and minerals from the soil. Tiny root hairs stick out of the root, helping in the absorption. Roots help to anchor the plant in the soil so it does not fall over. Roots also store extra food for future use.
Stems do many things. They support the plant. They act like the plant's plumbing system, conducting water and nutrients from the roots and food in the form of glucose from the leaves to other plant parts. Stems can be herbaceous like the bendable stem of a daisy or woody like the trunk of an oak tree.
A celery stalk, the part of celery that we eat, is a special part of the leaf structure called a petiole. A petiole is a small stalk attaching the leaf blade of a plant to the stem. In celery, the petiole serves many of the same functions as a stem. It's easy to see the "pipes" that conduct water and nutrients in a stalk of celery. Here the "pipes" are dyed red so you can easily see them.
Most plants' food is made in their leaves. Leaves are designed to capture sunlight which the plant uses to make food through a process called photosynthesis.
Flowers are the reproductive part of most plants. Flowers contain pollen and tiny eggs called ovules. After pollination of the flower and fertilization of the ovule, the ovule develops into a fruit.
Fruit provides a covering for seeds. Fruit can be fleshy like an apple or hard like a nut.
Fruits are found in three main anatomical categories: aggregate fruits, multiple fruits, and simple fruits. Aggregate fruits are formed from a single compound flower and contain many ovaries or fruitlets.  Examples include raspberries and blackberries. Multiple fruits are formed from the fused ovaries of multiple flowers or inflorescence.  An example of multiple fruits are the fig, mulberry, and the pineapple.  Simple fruits are formed from a single ovary and may contain one or many seeds. They can be either fleshy or dry. In fleshy fruit, during development, the pericarp and other accessory structures become the fleshy portion of the fruit.  The types of fleshy fruits are berries, pomes, and drupes.  In berries, the entire pericarp is fleshy but this excludes the exocarp which acts as more as a skin. There are berries that are known as pepo, a type of berry with an inseparable rind, or hesperidium, which has a separable rind.  An example of a pepo is the cucumber and a lemon would be an example of a hesperidium. The fleshy portion of the pomes is developed from the floral tube and like the berry most of the pericarp is fleshy but the endocarp is cartilaginous an apple is an example of a pome.  Lastly, drupes are known for being one-seeded with a fleshy mesocarp an example of this would be the peach.  However, there are fruits where the fleshy portion is developed from tissues that are not the ovary, such as in the strawberry. The edible part of the strawberry is formed from the receptacle of the flower. Due, to this difference the strawberry is known as a false fruit or an accessory fruit. There is a shared method of seed dispersal within fleshy fruits. These fruits depend on animals to eat the fruits and disperse the seeds in order for their populations to survive.  Dry fruits also develop from the ovary but unlike the fleshy fruits they do not depend on the mesocarp but the endocarp for seed dispersal.  Dry fruits depend more on physical forces, like wind and water. Dry fruits' seeds can also perform pod shattering, which involve the seed being ejected from the seed coat by shattering it. Some dry fruits are able to perform wisteria, which is an extreme case where there is an explosion of the pod, resulting the seed to be dispersed over long distances. Like fleshy fruits, dry fruits can also depend on animals to spread their seeds by adhering to animal's fur and skin, this is known as epizoochory. Types of dry fruits include achenes, capsules, follicles or nuts. Dry fruits can also be separated into dehiscent and indehiscent fruits. Dry dehiscent fruits are described as a fruit where the pod has an increase in internal tension to allow seeds to be released. These include the sweet pea, soybean, alfalfa, milkweed, mustard, cabbage and poppy.  Dry indehiscent fruit differ in that they do not have this mechanism and simply depend on physical forces. Examples of species indehiscent fruit are sunflower seeds, nuts, and dandelions. 
Evolutionary history Edit
There is a wide variety in the structures of fruit across the different species of plants. Evolution has selected for certain traits in plants that would increase their fitness. This diversity arose through the selection of advantageous methods for seed protection and dispersal in different environments.  It is known that dry fruits were present before fleshy fruits and fleshy fruits diverged from them.  A study looking at the family Rubiaceae found that within the family, fleshy fruits had evolved independently at least 12 times.  This means that fleshy fruits were not passed on to following generations but that this form of fruit was selected for in different species. This may imply that fleshy fruit is a favorable and beneficial trait because not only does it disperse the seeds, but it also protects them.  There is also a variety of dispersal methods that are used by different plants. The origins of these modes of dispersal have been found to be a more recent evolutionary change.  Of the methods of dispersal, the plants that use animals have not changed in many ways from the original trait. Due to this, it may be assumed that animal dispersal is an efficient form of dispersal, however there has been no evidence that it increases dispersal distances.  Therefore, the question remains of what evolutionary mechanism causes such dramatic diversity. It has been found, however, that simple changes within developmental regulatory genes can cause large alterations within the anatomical structure of the fruit.  Even without knowing the mechanism involved in the biodiversity of fruit, it is clear that this diversity is important to the continuation of plant populations.
Watch the video: Το φυτό που τρώει ποντίκια - What the Fact?! #25 (September 2022).