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9.10: ClimateSim - Biology

9.10: ClimateSim - Biology


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9.10: ClimateSim

High-frequency, precise modification of the tomato genome

The use of homologous recombination to precisely modify plant genomes has been challenging, due to the lack of efficient methods for delivering DNA repair templates to plant cells. Even with the advent of sequence-specific nucleases, which stimulate homologous recombination at predefined genomic sites by creating targeted DNA double-strand breaks, there are only a handful of studies that report precise editing of endogenous genes in crop plants. More efficient methods are needed to modify plant genomes through homologous recombination, ideally without randomly integrating foreign DNA.

Results

Here, we use geminivirus replicons to create heritable modifications to the tomato genome at frequencies tenfold higher than traditional methods of DNA delivery (i.e., Agrobacterium). A strong promoter was inserted upstream of a gene controlling anthocyanin biosynthesis, resulting in overexpression and ectopic accumulation of pigments in tomato tissues. More than two-thirds of the insertions were precise, and had no unanticipated sequence modifications. Both TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 achieved gene targeting at similar efficiencies. Further, the targeted modification was transmitted to progeny in a Mendelian fashion. Even though donor molecules were replicated in the vectors, no evidence was found of persistent extra-chromosomal replicons or off-target integration of T-DNA or replicon sequences.

Conclusions

High-frequency, precise modification of the tomato genome was achieved using geminivirus replicons, suggesting that these vectors can overcome the efficiency barrier that has made gene targeting in plants challenging. This work provides a foundation for efficient genome editing of crop genomes without the random integration of foreign DNA.


Biological Technician

Also known as laboratory assistants, biological technicians use the laboratory skills and techniques that biology majors learn in their labs, academic research, and collaborative research with faculty.  

Technicians must carry out studies that yield accurate results. They document results and perform calculations just as they have done when compiling reports as a biology major.

Many new graduates who choose not to go on to graduate school or want to postpone graduate study find technician positions with researchers at medical schools, government agencies, non-profit research centers, or pharmaceutical and biotechnology firms.

Salary and Job Outlook: The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) estimates that biological technicians earned a median annual salary of $45,860 in May 2019.

The top 10% earned $73,350 or more and the bottom 10% earned $29,540 or less. The BLS projected that employment in this field will grow by 7% between 2019 and 2029, faster than average for all occupations.  


9.10: ClimateSim - Biology

All articles published by MDPI are made immediately available worldwide under an open access license. No special permission is required to reuse all or part of the article published by MDPI, including figures and tables. For articles published under an open access Creative Common CC BY license, any part of the article may be reused without permission provided that the original article is clearly cited.

Feature Papers represent the most advanced research with significant potential for high impact in the field. Feature Papers are submitted upon individual invitation or recommendation by the scientific editors and undergo peer review prior to publication.

The Feature Paper can be either an original research article, a substantial novel research study that often involves several techniques or approaches, or a comprehensive review paper with concise and precise updates on the latest progress in the field that systematically reviews the most exciting advances in scientific literature. This type of paper provides an outlook on future directions of research or possible applications.

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to authors, or important in this field. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.


BSEB Bihar Board Text Book Solutions for Class 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1

Students of BSEB have the provision to download all the Bihar state books and refer to them according to their own convenience in offline mode. Students can also get new (2020-2021) Edition of SCERT BTBC Bihar Board Books in Hindi Medium and English Medium with Free Download PDF for Class 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th. The Bihar State Text Book Publishing Corporation Ltd. is dedicated to providing online books.


Inference and analysis of cell-cell communication using CellChat

Understanding global communications among cells requires accurate representation of cell-cell signaling links and effective systems-level analyses of those links. We construct a database of interactions among ligands, receptors and their cofactors that accurately represent known heteromeric molecular complexes. We then develop CellChat, a tool that is able to quantitatively infer and analyze intercellular communication networks from single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) data. CellChat predicts major signaling inputs and outputs for cells and how those cells and signals coordinate for functions using network analysis and pattern recognition approaches. Through manifold learning and quantitative contrasts, CellChat classifies signaling pathways and delineates conserved and context-specific pathways across different datasets. Applying CellChat to mouse and human skin datasets shows its ability to extract complex signaling patterns. Our versatile and easy-to-use toolkit CellChat and a web-based Explorer ( http://www.cellchat.org/ ) will help discover novel intercellular communications and build cell-cell communication atlases in diverse tissues.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no competing interests.

Figures

Fig. 1. Overview of CellChat.

Fig. 1. Overview of CellChat.

Fig. 2. CellChat analysis of the communications…

Fig. 2. CellChat analysis of the communications between skin cells during wound repair.

Fig. 3. Application of CellChat to continuous…

Fig. 3. Application of CellChat to continuous cell states along pseudotemporal trajectories during embryonic skin…

Fig. 4. Application of CellChat to communications…

Fig. 4. Application of CellChat to communications between spatially colocalized cell populations.

Fig. 5. Comparison analysis of epidermal-dermal communications…

Fig. 5. Comparison analysis of epidermal-dermal communications between different skin developmental stages.

Fig. 6. Joint identification of conserved and…

Fig. 6. Joint identification of conserved and context-specific communication patterns between two skin states.

Fig. 7. Identification of major signaling changes…

Fig. 7. Identification of major signaling changes in diseased human skin.


Science exhibitions are a great way to learn different concepts by watching many projects at a time and can meet with the inventors of that project. They provide a platform to share your experiments/ projects/ inventions with people and also get feedback.

Learning about science concepts will be very boring if we just learn the concepts and do not make or use them in real. One can increase learning tenfolds by making things, using different materials, play with them, and see the wonders that you can do.

Here are some most popular experiments of biology projects which are published on Pakistan Science Club portal https://paksc.org/pk/science-experiments/biology-experiments/

Best Biology Projects # 7 Biofuel (biogas, methane) from waste

Biogas is chiefly composed of methane (CH4), is produced from the decomposition of organic matter by bacteria in the absence of oxygen, a process called anaerobic decomposition. Bacteria that can survive without oxygen is called anaerobic bacteria.When you complete the activity you will produce your own biofuel and have studied it.

Best Biology Projects # 6. Do plants grow towards the light

This project investigates a property of plants known as phototropism: that is, their ability to grow toward light sources wherever they may be. You may be surprised at how clever these plants can be, even without a brain.

Best Biology Projects # 5. Osmosis: experiment with potato

Osmosis is the process by which solutions of different concentrations move across semi-permeable membranes from the region of lower concentration into that of higher concentration. Osmotic pressure is the force with which molecules move from the area of its higher concentration into that of its lower concentration.

Best Biology Projects # 4. Lung model science project

Build Your Own Lung Model Science Project

In this lung model science project, the straws represent your trachea and bronchial tubes, the balloons represent your lungs, the bottle is your chest, and the plastic sheet is your diaphragm – a sheet of muscles under your chest. When you breathe in, or inhale, your diaphragm contracts and moves down, creating more space in your chest for your lungs to fill with air. When you exhale (breath out), your diaphragm relaxes back up. The space inside your chest gets smaller forcing the air out of your lungs.

Best Biology Projects # 3. How to make pulse counter

The rhythmical dilation of arteries produced when blood is pumped outward by regular contractions of the heart, especially as palpated at the wrist or in the neck. The pulse is usually felt just inside the wrist below the thumb by placing two or three fingers lightly upon the radial artery.

Best Biology Projects # 2. E xtraction of DNA from banana

Just like us, banana plants have genes and DNA in their cells, and just like us, their DNA determines their traits. Using only our eyes, we couldn’t see a single cell or the DNA inside of it. If we remove DNA from millions of cells, however, we will be able to view it without a microscope. That is what we will do today!

Best Biology Projects # 1. Working model of the heart

See Also

Top 10 Best Chemistry Project of Science Exhibition

Chemistry focused science exhibition projects are ways for students of any age to showcase their science learning. With a chemistry science exhibition project, students learn about and see chemical processes in the real world while also learning how to record the results of experiments and present them to an audience.

Top 10 Innovative Physics Projects for Science Exhibition class 10 to 12

Top 10 Innovative Physics Projects for Science Exhibition class 10 to 12: Making of physics working model and projects for science fair or science exhibition, Physics category has too many options to make interesting award-winning projects than biology and chemistry

Top 7 Wind Energy Working Model of Science Fair Project

Top 7 Wind Energy “Renewable Energy” Working Model of Science Fair Project: “wind turbine” working model and construction plan for middle and high schools students. These projects can be made by grade 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 class students.


9.10: ClimateSim - Biology

All articles published by MDPI are made immediately available worldwide under an open access license. No special permission is required to reuse all or part of the article published by MDPI, including figures and tables. For articles published under an open access Creative Common CC BY license, any part of the article may be reused without permission provided that the original article is clearly cited.

Feature Papers represent the most advanced research with significant potential for high impact in the field. Feature Papers are submitted upon individual invitation or recommendation by the scientific editors and undergo peer review prior to publication.

The Feature Paper can be either an original research article, a substantial novel research study that often involves several techniques or approaches, or a comprehensive review paper with concise and precise updates on the latest progress in the field that systematically reviews the most exciting advances in scientific literature. This type of paper provides an outlook on future directions of research or possible applications.

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to authors, or important in this field. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.



Comments:

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  2. Laren

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  3. Misho

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  4. Erian

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  5. Shain

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