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21.1: The Value of Biodiversity - Biology

21.1: The Value of Biodiversity - Biology


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Learning Objectives

  • Define biodiversity.
  • Distinguish among ecosystem, species, and genetic diversity, explaining the value of each.
  • Define and provide examples of ecosystem services.
  • Distinguish between species richness and species evenness.
  • Explain the importance of biodiversity hotspots and identify the characteristics of endemic species.

Biodiversity is a broad term for the variety of life on Earth. Traditionally, ecologists have measured biodiversity by taking into account both the number of species and the number of individuals of each species. However, biologists now measure biodiversity at a number of organizational levels, including ecosystem, species, and genetic diversity. This focuses efforts to preserve the biologically and technologically important elements of biodiversity. Biodiversity is important to the survival and welfare of human populations because it has impacts on our health and our ability to feed ourselves through agriculture and harvesting populations of wild animals.

Ecosystem Diversity

Measuring biodiversity on a large scale involves measuring ecosystem diversity, the number of different ecosystems on Earth or in a geographical area as well as their relative abundances (Figure (PageIndex{1})). The loss of an ecosystem means the loss of the interactions between species and the loss of biological productivity that an ecosystem is able to create. An example of a largely extinct ecosystem in North America is the prairie ecosystem (Figure (PageIndex{1})). Prairies once spanned central North America from the boreal forest in northern Canada down into Mexico. They are now all but gone, replaced by crop fields, pasture lands, and suburban sprawl. Many of the species survive, but the hugely productive ecosystem that was responsible for creating our most productive agricultural soils is now gone. As a consequence, their soils are now being depleted unless they are maintained artificially at great expense.

The soil productivity described above is an example of an ecosystem service. These are the products and processes associated with biological systems are directly or indirectly of immense value to the well-being of people. Some ecosystem services are processes such as the regulation of climate, flooding, and disease. Nutrient cycling, pollination, and regulation of crop pests are ecosystem services important to food production. A 2002 study by Claire Kremen and colleagues found that native pollinators in Central California (those that historically occurred there; Figure (PageIndex{2})) provided full pollination to watermelon crops (Figure (PageIndex{3})). This was only true on organic farms that were located near the natural habitat for these pollinators, highlighting the importance of sustainable farming practices and habitat conservation in preserving ecosystem services. The water cycle provides fresh water, and photosynthesis adds oxygen to our air. Other ecosystem services are human provisions including food, fuel, and fiber (such as cotton for clothing or timber). Medicines are another important provision (see Species Diversity). Furthermore, healthy ecosystems allow for recreational activities, such as hiking, kayaking, and camping, and educational opportunities, such as field trips. Nature is also the basis for a significant part of aesthetic and spiritual values held by many cultures.

In 1997, Robert Costanza and his colleagues estimated to annual value of ecosystem services to be $33 trillion dollars ($53 trillion in 2019 dollars), and many consider this to be an underestimation. For comparison the gross domestic product of the United States in 2020 was $21 trillion.

Species Diversity

Species diversity includes species richness and species evenness. Species richness, the number of species living in a habitat or other unit, is one component of biodiversity. Species richness varies across the globe. Species evenness is a component of species diversity based on relative abundance (the number individuals in a species relative to the total number of individuals in all species within a system). The area in question could be a habitat, a biome, or the entire biosphere. Areas with low species diversity, such as the glaciers of Antarctica, still contain a wide variety of living organisms, whereas the diversity of tropical rainforests is so great that it cannot be accurately assessed.

Species richness is related to latitude: the greatest species richness occurs near the equator and the lowest richness occurs near the poles (Figure (PageIndex{4})). Several hypothesis might explain this dyanamic, but the exact reasons for this pattern are still not clearly understood. One hypothesis is that tropical forests have consistently existed at the same location for a long period of time, allowing more time for speciation to occur. Another hypothesis is that speciation rate is simply higher in the tropics than other regions. The tropics also has a long growing season and a wide variety of ecological niches (different roles that species can occupy), partly due to the different vertical layers in a tropical forest (Video (PageIndex{1})). Other factors besides latitude influence species richness as well. For example, ecologists studying islands found that biodiversity varies with island size and distance from the mainland.

In 1988, British environmentalist Norman Myers developed a conservation concept to identify geographical areas rich in species and at significant risk for species loss: biodiversity hotspots. The original criteria for a hotspot included the presence of 1500 or more endemic plant species and 70 percent of the area disturbed by human activity. Endemic species are found in only one location. For example, giant lobelia (Lobelia rhynchopetalum, Figure (PageIndex{5})) is only found in the alpine habitats in Ethiopia. Endemic species with highly restricted distributions are particularly vulnerable to extinction. If a population of a widespread species declines in one region, individuals from another region may be able to recolonize the first location, but this is not possible for endemic species. Endemic species are particularly common in isolated regions, such as mountaintops or islands. Identifying biodiversity hotspots aids with conservation efforts, a kind of conservation triage. By protecting hotspots, governments are able to protect a larger number of species. There are now 34 biodiversity hotspots (Figure (PageIndex{6})) containing large numbers of endemic species, which include half of Earth’s endemic plants.

Regarding species evenness, foundation species often have the highest relative abundance of species. Two locations with the same richness do not necessarily have the same species evenness. For example, both communities in Figure (PageIndex{7}) have three different trees species and thus a species richness of three. However, there is a dominant species (represented by six individuals) in community #1. In community #2, there are three of individuals of each species. Therefore, community #2 has a greater species evenness and greater species diversity overall.

Healthy ecosystems contain a diversity of species, and each species plays a role in ecosystem function; therefore, species diversity as well as ecosystem diversity are essential to maintaining ecosystem services. For example, many medications are derived from natural chemicals made by a diverse group of organisms. For example, many plants produce compounds meant to protect the plant from insects and other animals that eat them. Some of these compounds also work as human medicines (Video (PageIndex{2})). Examples of significant medicines derived from plant compounds include aspirin, codeine, digoxin, atropine, and vincristine (Figure (PageIndex{8})). It is estimated that, at one time, 25 percent of modern drugs contained at least one plant extract. That number has probably decreased to about 10 percent as natural plant ingredients are replaced by synthetic versions of the plant compounds. Antibiotics, which are responsible for extraordinary improvements in health and lifespans in developed countries, are compounds largely derived from fungi and bacteria. It is estimated that about 35 percent of new drugs brought to market between 1981 and 2002 were from natural compounds.

Genetic Diversity

Genetic diversity is a measure of the variability among individuals within a single species. Genetic diversity is represented by the variety of alleles present within a population. Genetic diversity provides the raw material for evolutionary adaptation. Loss of genetic diversity makes a species less able to reproduce successfully and less adaptable to a changing environment or to a new disease. Small populations of species are especially susceptible to loss of genetic diversity. When a species loses too many individuals, it becomes genetically uniform. Some of the causes for the loss in genetic diversity include: inbreeding among closely related individuals and genetic drift, the process by which the genetic composition of a population fluctuates randomly over time. Genetic drift can lead to the loss of alleles from a population, even if those alleles are adaptive. For more on genetic drift, see Openstax 2e 19.1.

Genetic diversity is important to agriculture. Since the beginning of human agriculture more than 10,000 years ago, human groups have been breeding and selecting crop varieties. This crop diversity matched the cultural diversity of highly subdivided populations of humans. For example, potatoes were domesticated beginning around 7,000 years ago in the central Andes of Peru and Bolivia. The people in this region traditionally lived in relatively isolated settlements separated by mountains. The potatoes grown in that region belong to seven species and the number of varieties likely is in the thousands. Each variety has been bred to thrive at particular elevations and soil and climate conditions. The diversity is driven by the diverse demands of the dramatic elevation changes, the limited movement of people, and the demands created by crop rotation for different varieties that will do well in different fields.

The potato demonstrates a well-known example of the risks of low crop diversity: during the tragic Irish potato famine (1845–1852 AD), the single potato variety grown in Ireland became susceptible to a potato blight—wiping out the crop (Figure (PageIndex{9})). The loss of the crop led to famine, death, and mass emigration. Resistance to disease is a chief benefit to maintaining crop biodiversity and lack of diversity in contemporary crop species carries similar risks. Seed companies, which are the source of most crop varieties in developed countries, must continually breed new varieties to keep up with evolving pest organisms. These same seed companies, however, have participated in the decline of the number of varieties available as they focus on selling fewer varieties in more areas of the world replacing traditional local varieties.

The ability to create new crop varieties relies on the diversity of varieties available and the availability of wild forms related to the crop plant. These wild forms are often the source of new gene variants that can be bred with existing varieties to create varieties with new attributes. Loss of wild species related to a crop will mean the loss of potential in crop improvement. Maintaining the genetic diversity of wild species related to domesticated species ensures our continued supply of food.

Since the 1920s, government agriculture departments have maintained seed banks of crop varieties as a way to maintain crop diversity. This system has flaws because over time seed varieties are lost through accidents and there is no way to replace them. In 2008, the Svalbard Global seed Vault, located on Spitsbergen island, Norway, (Figure (PageIndex{10})) began storing seeds from around the world as a backup system to the regional seed banks. If a regional seed bank stores varieties in Svalbard, losses can be replaced from Svalbard should something happen to the regional seeds. The Svalbard seed vault is deep into the rock of the Arctic island. Conditions within the vault are maintained at ideal temperature and humidity for seed survival, but the deep underground location of the vault in the arctic means that failure of the vault’s systems will not compromise the climatic conditions inside the vault.

References

Costanza, R., d'Arge, R., de Groot, R. et al. The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387, 253–260 (1997). DOI

Kremen, C., Williams, N. M., and Thorp, R. W. Crop pollination from native bees at risk from agricultural intensification. PNAS 99, 6812-16816 (2002). DOI


Biodiversity Values: 6 Major Values of Biodiversity – Explained !

This article throws light on the six major values of biodiversity. The six major values are:

(a) Total Environmental Value (TEnV), (b) Primary Value (PV), (c) Total Economic Value (TEV), (d) Use Value (UV), (e) Direct Use Value (DUV), (f) Indirect Use Value (IUV), and (g) Ethical and Aesthetic Values.

(a) Total Environmental Value (TEnV):

UNEP (1995) defined this as a function of primary value and total economic value.

Scientists and economists working together arrived at a surrogate evaluation of all environmental goods and services. It amounts to $33 trillion worldwide per year and thus is larger than the global economy of $29 trillion (1997 figures). In other words, global natural resources are more valuable than global national products.

(b) Primary Value (PV):

This is defined as the value of the system characteristics upon which all ecosystem functions depend (UNEP, 1995). It is called primary value because the structured ecosystem produces functions that have secondary value. The secondary value will exist as long as the ecosystem retains its health, existence, homeostasis, operation and maintenance.

(c) Total Economic Value (TEV):

Also called Total Value (TV) or simply Value (V). TEV denotes the sum total of all kinds of values attached to biodiversity minus the primary value. It is the function of use and non-use values. Total economic value by itself will underestimate the true value of ecosystems. It has to be considered along with the primary value.

(d) Use Value (UV):

This represents the value arising from an actual use made of a given component of biodiversity. It is often a function of Direct and Indirect Use Values.

(e) Direct Use Value (DUV):

This is also known as direct value. It is defined as actual uses especially in consumption. It represents the economic values derived from direct use or interaction with a biological resource or resource system, DUV is relatively easily measured by assigning market prices.

(f) Indirect Use Value (IUV):

It is defined as benefits arising from an ecosystem function. It represents the economic value derived from the role of resources and system in supporting or protecting activities whose outputs have direct value in production on consumption (UNEP, 1995). Indirect contributions of biodiversity to human welfare are said to have this value. Biogeochemical cycles, photosynthesis, climate regulation, prevention of soil erosion, pollutant degradation are the phenomena which contribute indirectly to biodiversity.

(g) Ethical and Aesthetic Values:

People with good cultural background have deep concern for biodiversity. They derive ethical benefit from biodiversity. Biodiversity is considered to have great value on cultural and religious grounds specially in India and East Asian countries. Ethical values differ from place to place, culture to culture, time to time and differ between different components of biodiversity. For example, the ethical value attached to sacred basil is not accorded to cactus in India. Most people value certain species more than others subconsciously.

The aesthetic value of biodiversity is very well known. Most people react more aesthetically towards plants that are appealing, visually or otherwise. Most cultured societies have attached great value to the effect that plant and animal beauty have on human mind and emotions. Poets, writers and artists from various cultures have given expression to the aesthetic appeal of plants and animals. Roses, for instance, kindle the aesthetic sense much more than cacti and carnivorous plants, although the latter have their own admirers. Such relative aesthetic judgments could compel greater concern for certain biodiversity elements than for others.


Top 6 Values of Biodiversity in India

This article throws light upon the top six values of Biodiversity in India. The values are: 1. To Meet Survival Needs 2. Aesthetic Value 3. Economic Value 4. Ethical Value 5. Ecological Services 6. Religious, Spiritual and Other Cultural Uses.

Value # 1. To Meet Survival Needs:

Perhaps the most important value of biodiversity, particularly in a country like India, is that it meets the basic survival needs of a vast number of people. Even today there are many traditional com­munities which depend, wholly or partially, on the surrounding natural resources for their daily needs of food, shelter, clothing, household goods, medi­cines, fertilisers and entertainment.

Value # 2. Aesthetic Value:

Each species and ecosystem adds to the richness and beauty of life on Earth. Once a species be­comes extinct, it is gone forever. A natural eco­system once destroyed is impossible to recreate. The value people attribute to the aesthetic func­tion of nature is partly reflected in the number of people who visit areas of natural beauty.

This func­tion near or within a dense human settlement is best seen at the Sanjay Gandhi National Park on the outskirts of Bombay, which receives a traffic of 1.5 millions visitors every year.

Value # 3. Economic Value:

Each species is of potential value to humans. So are healthy ecosystems. The global collection of genes, species, habitats and ecosystems is a re­source that provides for human needs now, and is essential for human survival in the future. Humans depend on other species for all of their food and for many medicines and industrial products.

Up to 80 per cent of the people in developing countries depend on traditional medicine for pri­mary health care, most of which is derived from plants and some from animal and mineral sources. About 20,000 species of plants are used for me­dicinal purposes in these countries. Nearly one-quarter of all prescription drugs used in the de­veloped world are based on plants.

Value # 4. Ethical Value:

Each species is unique and has a right to exist. Each species is worthy of respect regardless of its worth to human beings. This point of view was recognised in the World Charter for Nature, adopted by the United Nations in 1982.

Value # 5. Ecological Services:

Species evolve to fill particular niches (role in an ecosystem) or habitats. Many species depend on each other in intricate ways for survival. Specific life forms present in a particular habitat helps in providing conditions for other life forms to live in that environment. Destroying one species can lead to further extinctions or changes.

The primary indirect value of biodiversity lies in the services provided by the ecosystems and taxa (distinct groups of organisms) by maintain­ing an intricate network of life forms. Some ef­forts have been made to put a monetary value on such services.

In India an attempt at valuing the ecosystem services, such as protecting against soil erosion and purifying the air, provided by a me­dium-sized tree over a period of 50 years worked out to be roughly Rs. 15,70,000.

Value # 6. Religious, Spiritual and Other Cultural Uses:

Biodiversity in India, particularly, is important for its religious, spiritual and other cultural uses. Many plants and animals have ritual significance. Among auspicious flowers offered in temples are Hibiscus offered to goddess Kali and Datura flowers to Lord Siva.

In some parts of India such as Gujarat, Sami (Prosopis spicigera) is used in sacrificial fires. Various plant and animal species are considered sacred on account of their association with different deities. Some animal species are termed vahanas or ve­hicles of deities and are hence venerated. Impor­tant among these are the bull for Lord Siva, the rat for Lord Ganesh and the lion for Goddess Durga.


Values of Biodiversity, Types and its Role


In this , I will explain different types of values of Biodiversity which either directly or indirectly influence our life. Types of biodiversity such as species biodiversity, genetic biodiversity and ecosystem biodiversity play different role in our life. Biodiversity has immense ecological importance. All species perform different role in Ecosystem.

Values of biodiversity can be categorized as follows:

Biodiversity or biological diversity simply means the variety and variability among living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they occur. Such variety refers to the variety at the species, genetic and ecosystem level.

Direct values

These are those ways by which we can directly use biodiversity for our benefit. For example we can use plants as food of for deriving medicines in the laboratory. Economic value and recreational value comes under this category.

  • Consumptive use Value: Consumptive use value is the value put on the products of nature which are consumed directly without passing through a market. For example, if we use firewood by cutting down a tree or consume an animal after hunting it.
  • Productive use value: Productive use value is the value put on the products of nature which are consumed after passing through a market. For example, if we buy fish from the market then it will have productive use value.

Indirect values or Non-Consumptive value

These are those ways by which we don't physically use a plant or animal, but by virtue of its existence it provides services that keep the ecosystem healthy. Indirect values would include ethical or moral value, existence value, ecological value, aesthetic value, cultural or spiritual value, option value and scientific or educational value.

Social values

Social value of biodiversity lies in the more and more use of resources by affluent societies. Local use or sale of products if biodiversity is not included in it. Yet, 'ecosystem people' value biodiversity as a part of their livelihood as well as through cultural and religious sentiments. Now a day's Government is spending a lot of money on lush green vegetation and Coral Reef Island for the purpose of tourism. Apart from traditional agricultural systems, in recent years, farmers have begun to receive economic incentives to grow each crop for national or international markets rather than to supply local needs. This has resulted in local food shortages, unemployment, landlessness and increased tendency to drought and floods.

Ethical and Moral value

Economical value

We depend heavily on biological products for our survival. Biodiversity has economic value because it is a source of important products.


  • Food supplies: Agriculture, the very basis of human survival, depends on plants and animals.
  • Source of medicines: A large number of medicines are obtained from plants and animals. Cinchonas, Belladonna are important medicinal plants. Snake venom is used in making medicines.
  • Source of raw materials for industries.
  • It supports the economy of a country. Industries and agriculture generate revenue or income. They also generate employment. In fact the economy of many countries is heavily dependent on biodiversity.

Aesthetic value

Nature contributes immensely to the beauty of the world. Can you imagine a world without trees, grass, flowers, birds or animals? Thus, biodiversity has immense aesthetic value for us.

Ecological value

Every species plays a unique role in the ecosystem. Through this role its maintains the ecological balance. Thus, the ecosystems don't get disrupted. So, even if we do not use a plant or animal for making products in our industries, by virtue of its very existence in the wild it provides us with many important services. These services maintain ecological balance and the ecosystem.

Scientific value or Educational value

Biodiversity is of great scientific value. Many species of plants and animals are the subjects of our research. We use many species for research and in turn get a lot of knowledge from their study. Through research on plants, insects and animals we find better ways of making medicines, hybrid plants, engineering designs and many other things that are of immense value to human beings. For example, the design of Velcro is developed from cockle-burrs which cling fast to clothing as we walk in the woods.

Cultural and Spiritual value

Many cultures of human beings are closely related to many species of plants and animals. For example, Hindus Identify owls as the transport of Goddess Lakshmi. Many religions identify themselves with such plants and animals which renders to them a cultural or spiritual value.

Option value

There are many plants and animals which have not yet been discovered or even if they have been discovered we do not know if they can be of any use to us. This untapped potential is referred to as option value. For example, there might be a plant or animal which we can use in the future to find a cure for corner. If we destroy biodiversity then we lose this chance of finding a cure for cancer. Thus biodiversity has great potential of being useful to us in the future.

Types of Biodiversity

How is species diversity measured?

Importance of species diversity :

Why is genetic diversity important?

High genetic diversity ensures better survival of the species. Nature has a system called natural selection. The natural selection concept was stated by Charles Darwin. Natural selection means that nature decides whether an organism will survive or not. Nature is dynamic and keeps undergoing changes. These changes in the environment of an organism will obviously affect the organism. Those organisms that are able to adapt to these changes will survive while those that cannot adapt will not. In this process of natural selection genetic diversity plays a very important role. The more the genetic diversity, the more are the chances of survival of a species.


Biodiversity

In order to measure the biodiversity of a habitat, you need to observe all the species present. However, observing the whole habitat is time-consuming and difficult. Sampling involves taking a small portion of the habitat and studying the area carefully. You can then multiply up the numbers of individuals of each species found, on order to estimate the number in the whole habitat.

Sampling is a balance of ease and accuracy. To improve the accuracy of the estimation, repeated samples are taken and also the sample size must be large.

(d) describe how random samples can be taken when measuring biodiversity

  1. Random Sampling– A basic way to do this is to stand within the area, and just throw the quadrat, however, it is not truly random. A better way is to use a calculator to generate random numbers, to get coordinates of where you will place your quadrat. The first number is the x coordinate and the second number is the y coordinate.
  2. Systematic Sampling– In some situations, you may want to sample more systematically. In this case, you could sample along a transect. A transect is a line taken across a habitat. You stretch a tape measure across the habitat and take samples along the line. You can use a:
  • Line Transect – recording each organism which is touching the line at suitable, regular intervals.
  • Belt Transect – placing a quadrat against the line, recording its contents, then placing the next quadrat immediately touching the first one, repeating this along the transect.
  • Interrupted Belt Transect – placing quadrats at regular intervals along the transect.

Quadrats are square frames used to define the size of the ample area. It’s important to choose the right size of the quadrat (normally 50cm or 1m quadrats are used) depending on the size of the area. The quadrat is placed randomly and the abundance is measures. You could:

  • Habitat – The range of habitats in which different species live. Each habitat will be occupied by a range of organisms.
  • Species – The differences between species. This could be structural differences (between a tree and an ant) or functional differences (between bacteria that cause decay and those that help to digest food).
  • Genetic – Genetic variation between individuals belonging to the same species, ensures that they do not all look alike.

(c) explain the importance of sampling in measuring the biodiversity of a habitat

In order to measure the biodiversity of a habitat, you need to observe all the species present. However, observing the whole habitat is time-consuming and difficult. Sampling involves taking a small portion of the habitat and studying the area carefully. You can then multiply up the numbers of individuals of each species found, on order to estimate the number in the whole habitat.

Sampling is a balance of ease and accuracy. To improve the accuracy of the estimation, repeated samples are taken and also the sample size must be large.

(d) describe how random samples can be taken when measuring biodiversity

  1. Random Sampling– A basic way to do this is to stand within the area, and just throw the quadrat, however, it is not truly random. A better way is to use a calculator to generate random numbers, to get coordinates of where you will place your quadrat. The first number is the x coordinate and the second number is the y coordinate.
  2. Systematic Sampling– In some situations, you may want to sample more systematically. In this case, you could sample along a transect. A transect is a line taken across a habitat. You stretch a tape measure across the habitat and take samples along the line. You can use a:
  • Line Transect – recording each organism which is touching the line at suitable, regular intervals.
  • Belt Transect – placing a quadrat against the line, recording its contents, then placing the next quadrat immediately touching the first one, repeating this along the transect.
  • Interrupted Belt Transect – placing quadrats at regular intervals along the transect.

Quadrats are square frames used to define the size of the ample area. It’s important to choose the right size of the quadrat (normally 50cm or 1m quadrats are used) depending on the size of the area. The quadrat is placed randomly and the abundance is measures. You could:

  • Count the number of individuals of each species.
  • Estimate the percentage cover of each species – this is the proportion of the area within the quadrat which it occupies.
  • Use an abundance scale, such as the ACFOR scale, by estimating which one of these best describes the abundance of each species within the quadrat.
  • A point quadrat may be used. This is a frame holding a number of long needles or pointers. You lower the frame into the quadrat and record any plant touching the needles. It can also be useful for measuring the height of plants.
    Sampling Animals:

(f) use Simpson’s Index of Diversity (D) to calculate the biodiversity of a habitat, using the formula


Simpson’s index of diversity is a measure of the diversity of a habitat. It takes into account both species richness and species eveness. It is calculated by the formula:

(g) outline the significance of both high and low values of Simpson’s Index of Diversity

A high value of Simpson’s Index indicates a diverse habitat, which provides a place for many different species and many organisms to live in. Small changes to the environment would only affect one species. If the species is only a small part of the habitat, the total number of individual affected is a small proportion of the total number present. Therefore the effect on the whole habitat is small. The habitat tends to be stable and able to withstand changes.

A low value of Simpson’s Index indicates a less diverse habitat, which provides a habitat for only a few different species. A small change to the environment that affects one of those species could damage or destroy the whole habitat. Such a small change could be a disease or predator, or even something that humans have done nearby.

(h) discuss current estimates of global diversity

Estimates of global diversity varies across the world. One estimate includes:


Watch the video: biodiversity 1. values of biodiversity (September 2022).


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