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What is the name of this spikes insect?

What is the name of this spikes insect?


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Location is South India.

Behavior: It is not moving.

Month: May,

Place: No people come. (Actually species chooses the place on my next door, where neighbors left 2 months ago)


The Creature is "Debris-carrying Lacewing.".

(Source)


Most shrike species have a Eurasian and African distribution, with just two breeding in North America (the loggerhead and northern shrikes). No members of this family occur in South America or Australia, although one species reaches New Guinea. The shrikes vary in the extent of their ranges, with some species such as the great grey shrike ranging across the Northern Hemisphere to the Newton's fiscal which is restricted to the island of São Tomé. [3]

They inhabit open habitats, especially steppe and savannah. A few species of shrikes are forest dwellers, seldom occurring in open habitats. Some species breed in northern latitudes during the summer, then migrate to warmer climes for the winter.

Shrikes are medium-sized birds with grey, brown, or black and white plumage. Most species are between 16 cm (6.3 in) and 25 cm (9.8 in) in size, however, the genus Corvinella with its extremely elongated tail feathers may reach up to 50 cm (20 in) in length. Their beaks are hooked, like those of a bird of prey, reflecting their predatory nature, and their calls are strident.

Shrikes are known for their habit of catching insects and small vertebrates and impaling their bodies on thorns, the spikes on barbed-wire fences, or any available sharp point. This helps them to tear the flesh into smaller, more conveniently sized fragments, and serves as a cache so that the shrike can return to the uneaten portions at a later time. [4] This same behaviour of impaling insects serves as an adaptation to eating the toxic lubber grasshopper, Romalea microptera. The bird waits 1–2 days for the toxins within the grasshopper to degrade, when they can then eat it. [5]

Loggerhead shrikes kill vertebrates by using their beaks to grab or pierce the neck and violently shake their prey. [6]

Shrikes are territorial, and these territories are defended from other pairs. In migratory species, a breeding territory is defended in the breeding grounds and a smaller feeding territory is established during migration and in the wintering grounds. [3] Where several species of shrikes exist together, competition for territories can be intense.

Shrikes make regular use of exposed perch sites, where they adopt a conspicuous upright stance. These sites are used to watch for prey and to advertise their presence to rivals.

Breeding Edit

Shrikes are generally monogamous breeders, although polygyny has been recorded in some species. [3] Co-operative breeding, where younger birds help their parents raise the next generation of young, has been recorded in both species in the genera Eurocephalus and Corvinella, as well as one species of Lanius. Males attract females to their territory with well-stocked caches, which may include inedible but brightly coloured items. During courtship, the male performs a ritualised dance which includes actions that mimic the skewering of prey on thorns, and feeds the female. Shrikes make simple, cup-shaped nests from twigs and grasses, in bushes and the lower branches of trees. [4]

The family Laniidae was introduced (as Lanidia) by the French polymath Constantine Samuel Rafinesque in 1815. [7] [8]

    , Lanius tigrinus , Lanius souzae , Lanius bucephalus , Lanius cristatus , Lanius collurio , Lanius isabellinus , Lanius phoenicuroides , Lanius collurioides , Lanius gubernator , Lanius vittatus , Lanius schach , Lanius tephronotus or grey-capped shrike, Lanius validirostris , Lanius mackinnoni , Lanius minor , Lanius ludovicianus , Lanius borealis or northern shrike, Lanius excubitor
      , Lanius excubitor pallidirostris
      , Lanius collaris marwitzi
      , Corvinella corvina
      , Eurocephalus ruppelli , Eurocephalus anguitimens

    Birds with similar names Edit

    Other species with names including the word shrike, due to perceived similarities in morphology, are in the families:

      , vangas, helmetshrikes, woodshrikes, flycatcher-shrikes, shrike-flycatchers and philentomas , bushshrikes, puffbacks, tchagras and boubous , cuckooshrikes, trillers and cicadabirds , shriketits , whistlers and shrikethrushes , the crested shrikejay , vireos, including Cyclarhis peppershrikes, Vireolanius shrike-vireos and Pteruthius shrike-babblers , wattle-eyes and batises, including the white-tailed shrike , tanagers, including the shrike-like tanager and Lanio shrike-tanagers , monarchs, including Clytorhynchus shrikebills , antbirds, antshrikes, antwrens and antvireos tyrant flycatchers, including Agriornis shrike-tyrants , becards and allies, including Laniisoma shrike-like cotingas

    The helmetshrikes and bushshrikes were formerly included in Laniidae, but they are now known to be not particularly closely related to true shrikes.

    The Australasian butcherbirds are not shrikes, although they occupy a similar ecological niche.

    In Michael Connelly's 2020 novel, Fair Warning, a serial killer is named "The Shrike" because he snaps the necks of his victims. [10]

    In the science fiction novel Hyperion, by Dan Simmons, the central antagonist is a strange creature, perhaps cybernetic and futuristic in origin, that has the ability to appear in any area of space and time, kidnapping seemingly random individuals. These victims are later seen impaled on an impossibly large metal tree of thorns, agonized eternally. This gives the entity a quality not unlike this bird, although it does not consume its victims for sustenance. The entity is referred to simply as The Shrike.

    In the Mortal Engines book series by Philip Reeve, and in the movie adaption, a 'Stalker', named "Shrike", is one of the main characters: a resurrected bounty hunter who was once part of a military unit known as the Lazarus Brigade, of which all members were named after birds, hence how Shrike got his name. In the American versions of the novels however, Shrike is renamed to "Grike", possibly to avoid legal issues with Dan Simmons' "Hyperion", which has a creature known as "The Shrike".

    In the Edge Chronicles book series by Paul Stewart and Chris Riddell, the Shrykes are a species of sapient, bipedal birds, known for their cruelty, viciousness, and practice of slavery.

    In the short story "The Lesser Evil" by Andrzej Sapkowski, from his The Witcher series, the suspected monster Renfri is called Shrike due to her alleged habit of impaling living people on poles.

    In Hannibal (TV series), fictional serial killer Garret Jacob Hobbs is known as the "Minnesota Shrike" due to the way that he mounted his victims on deer antlers, similar to the way that the shrike impales its victims on spikes.


    What's with the spikes?

    Artists' renditions of the coronavirus, like this one, have become popular symbols of the COVID-19 pandemic. Illustration by Getty Images

    If there is one thing most of us have learned about the coronavirus itself, we know it is covered with spikes.

    In news broadcasts about the COVID-19 crisis, that gray Styrofoam ball dotted with red spikes has become an unofficial logo of the pandemic.

    We even see the spikes as they appear — with artificial coloring — in photos from powerful electron microscopes. They ring the body of the virus like jewels in a crown, hence the name of this microbial family — coronavirus.

    Biologically speaking, those spikes are critically important. They are literally the point of contact that our own vulnerable lung cells have with the virus, SARS-CoV-2. Like a key cut for a specific lock, the spike slides neatly into the matching sites of receptors found on cells that line the airways of our lungs. Once secured, this connection allows the entire ball-shaped virus to slip into the cell. Inside, it makes thousands of copies of itself. And the potentially lethal infection has begun.

    Learn more about SARS-CoV-2 and pandemics in this companion story, A short primer on coronavirus biology.

    Sign up for Hutch News to receive a newsletter with stories and information about Fred Hutch research.

    Yet this spike has qualities that make it different from other feared contagions like HIV and influenza, giving scientists a possible route to an effective vaccine or cure. Genetically, it is relatively stable compared to surface proteins on other viruses, and that makes it less of a moving target for antibodies or drugs designed to block it.

    “That’s good news for slowing resistance to antivirals. It’s good news for vaccine development,” said Dr. Michael Emerman, a virologist at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle.

    A researcher at Fred Hutch and the University of Washington, Emerman is a leading expert on how pandemic viruses like influenza, HIV and SARS cross from animals to humans. It is thought each of those viruses, on their evolutionary journeys, jumped from another species: Influenza from birds to humans, HIV from chimpanzees, SARS — and its close cousin SARS-CoV-2, most likely from bats.

    The coronavirus genome has an error-correction mechanism

    Influenza and HIV are known for surface structures made of proteins and sugars that rapidly change their shape. Attempts to block HIV with a vaccine have failed for three decades because of that virus’ ability to hide from the human immune system, including from those tiny proteins called antibodies that are raised naturally against HIV’s surface. Influenza viruses are shape shifters as well, because they evolve new surface structures against antibodies from vaccines. That forces vaccine makers to reformulate flu shots against different strains every few years.

    Coronaviruses are genetically more stable because they carry within them a mechanism for correcting errors that naturally occur through mutation of their genetic code. The genomes of HIV, flu, and coronavirus are all made of RNA, which is less stable and more prone to error than the DNA that stores our own genetic information. All three viruses mutate because they rely on RNA, but coronaviruses do so more slowly.

    Therefore, researchers have reason to hope that if they can come up with a treatment or vaccine that locks onto those signature spikes of coronavirus, it is less likely to make a quick escape and is more likely to be controlled.

    One thing that is different about the arrival of SARS-CoV-2 from pandemics of the past is that researchers are now equipped with tools that have enabled them, within weeks of the discovery of the virus, to sequence its genome and model the protein structure of the spikes. Using cryo-electron microscopes — which give scientists astoundingly accurate images of the spike — we already know the knobbly terrain of its surfaces and likely spots on it for antibodies or drugs to dock and possibly disable it.

    Fred Hutch scientists — and researchers throughout the world — are feverishly working to find antibodies that naturally attach the SARS-CoV-2 spike, gumming up its ability to enter lung cells so easily. These tiny proteins could be produced in the lab and used as drugs to block the virus, and they might serve as the basis for a new vaccine or blood tests that show prior exposure to the virus. They could prove to be critical in the fight against COVID-19.


    Explainer: What is a spike protein?

    An artist’s depiction of a virus particle covered with spike proteins (here colored orange-red). Those spikes bind to cells and help the virus release its genetic material to infect them.

    libre de droit/iStock /Getty Images Plus

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    November 10, 2020 at 11:28 am

    Members of the coronavirus family have sharp bumps that protrude from the surface of their outer envelopes. Those bumps are known as spike proteins. They’re actually glycoproteins. That means they contain a carbohydrate (such as a sugar molecule). Spiked proteins are what give the viruses their name. Under the microscope, those spikes can appear like a fringe or crown (and corona is Latin for crown).

    Spike proteins play an important role in how these viruses infect their hosts.

    See all our coverage of the new coronavirus outbreak

    Examples of coronaviruses include those that cause Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). Their spike proteins work a bit like shape-shifting lock picks. They can change shape to interact with a protein on the surface of human cells. Those spike proteins latch the virus onto a cell. This allows them to get entry into those cells.

    On February 19, 2020, researchers described the 3-D structure of the spike protein on the novel coronavirus behind the 2020 global pandemic. This confirmed that the new virus’s spike protein also is a shape-shifter. What’s more, it clings to its target on human cells 10 to 20 times as tightly as the SARS spike protein does to the same target. Such a tight grip may help the COVID-19 virus spread more easily from person to person, researchers now say.

    Power Words

    3-D: Short for three-dimensional. This term is an adjective for something that has features that can be described in three dimensions — height, width and length.

    cell: The smallest structural and functional unit of an organism. Typically too small to see with the unaided eye, it consists of a watery fluid surrounded by a membrane or wall. Depending on their size, animals are made of anywhere from thousands to trillions of cells. Most organisms, such as yeasts, molds, bacteria and some algae, are composed of only one cell.

    coronavirus: A family of viruses named for the crown-like spikes on their surface (corona means “crown” in Latin). Coronaviruses cause the common cold. The family also includes viruses that cause far more serious infections, including SARS.

    COVID-19: A name given the coronavirus that caused a massive outbreak of potentially lethal disease, beginning in December 2019. Symptoms included pneumonia, fever, headaches and trouble breathing.

    germ: Any one-celled microorganism, such as a bacterium or fungal species, or a virus particle. Some germs cause disease. Others can promote the health of more complex organisms, including birds and mammals. The health effects of most germs, however, remain unknown.

    host: (in biology and medicine) The organism (or environment) in which some other thing resides. Humans may be a temporary host for food-poisoning germs or other infective agents. (v.) The act of providing a home or environment for something.

    infect: To spread a disease from one organism to another. This usually involves introducing some sort of disease-causing germ to an individual.

    MERS: Short for Middle East respiratory syndrome. Caused by a coronavirus, this extremely infectious disease can produce fever, cough and shortness of breath. About 3 or 4 in every 10 infected patients may die. The first known outbreak occurred in 2012, when it killed some 800 people. Camels (the one-humped type) may have first introduced the disease to people.

    novel: Something that is clever or unusual and new, as in never seen before.

    pandemic: An epidemic that affects a large proportion of the population across a country or the world.

    protein: A compound made from one or more long chains of amino acids. Proteins are an essential part of all living organisms. They form the basis of living cells, muscle and tissues they also do the work inside of cells. Among the better-known, stand-alone proteins are the hemoglobin (in blood) and the antibodies (also in blood) that attempt to fight infections. Medicines frequently work by latching onto proteins.

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome or SARS: An infectious disease that emerged in 2002 and quickly spread to infect more than 8,000 people, killing nearly 800 of them.

    virus: Tiny infectious particles consisting of RNA or DNA surrounded by protein. Viruses can reproduce only by injecting their genetic material into the cells of living creatures. Although scientists frequently refer to viruses as live or dead, in fact no virus is truly alive. It doesn’t eat like animals do, or make its own food the way plants do. It must hijack the cellular machinery of a living cell in order to survive.

    Citations

    Journal:​ ​​D. Wrapp et al. Cryo-EM structure of the 2019-nCoV spike in the prefusion conformation. Science. Vol. 367, March 13, 2020, p. 1260. doi: 10.1126/science.abb2507.

    About Tina Hesman Saey

    Tina Hesman Saey is the senior staff writer and reports on molecular biology. She has a Ph.D. in molecular genetics from Washington University in St. Louis and a master’s degree in science journalism from Boston University.

    Classroom Resources for This Article Learn more

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    Insect Legs


    Insect have three pairs of legs, one pair on each of the three segments of the thorax and are generally called the fore-, mid-, and hind legs. Any of the pairs of legs may be heavily modified and are important for locomotion, prey capture, mating, etc. Thankfully, just like mouthparts, all insect legs contain the same basic parts. From proximal (toward or against the body) to distal (away from the body) the parts of an insect leg are: coxa, trochanter, femur, tibia, and tarsus. The tarsus almost always has one or two claws at the type used to grasp the substrate. The figure Insect Legs, right, shows legs modified for numerous purposes: A, running B, jumping C, digging D, grasping E, catching F, walking and digging G, reduced leg used for walking and digging H, male leg modified for grasping females during mating.


    Breeding and behavior

    Moths, crickets, grasshoppers, flies, and other insects are usually the unfortunate recipients of unwanted mantid attention. However, the insects will also eat others of their own kind. The most famous example of this is the notorious mating behavior of the adult female, who sometimes eats her mate just after—or even during—mating. Yet this behavior seems not to deter males from reproduction.

    Females regularly lay hundreds of eggs in a small case, and nymphs hatch looking much like tiny versions of their parents.


    Grasshopper


    Photo by:
    John Dudak/Phototake NYC

    Grasshoppers are 3 to 13 cm (1 to 5 in) long when fully grown. They develop by gradual metamorphosis: The nymph is initially wingless and gradually comes to resemble the adult as it grows through progressive molts. Only the adults can fly. Some species undergo seasonal color changes, being green at some times and red or brown at others. Grasshoppers are closely related to crickets, and male grasshoppers make chirping or stridulating noises similar to those produced by crickets. Females of several species also make sounds. Unlike true crickets and longhorned grasshoppers, shorthorned grasshoppers chirp by rubbing their hind legs or forewings against other parts of their bodies. The eardrums of shorthorned grasshoppers are clear, circular areas located on the abdomen at a point just behind the junction of the hind legs with the body. The hearing organs of longhorned grasshoppers and crickets are located on the forelegs.

    Pygmy grasshoppers are the smallest grasshoppers and are characterized by a greatly elongated dorsal shield, a backward extension of the thorax. Longhorned grasshoppers are characterized by antennae that extend beyond the hind end of the body when they are folded back. Females usually lay their eggs in low bushes or in crevices in the bark of trees. Longhorned grasshoppers include the katydids the meadow grasshoppers, which are slightly less than 3 cm (1 in) long and the so-called Mormon cricket found in the western United States, which was common near the early Mormon settlement in Salt Lake City, Utah, and did much damage to crops there.

    Shorthorned grasshoppers, also known as true grasshoppers, are named for their relatively short antennae. A common species, the American grasshopper, is about 10 cm (about 4 in) long when fully grown. In the fall, females lay their eggs in holes in the ground. The eggs hatch in the spring, and the young reach maturity in July or August. When some shorthorned grasshoppers reproduce too rapidly for their food supply to support them, subsequent generations undergo extensive changes in form and become migratory. Such shorthorned grasshoppers are known as locusts.

    Scientific classification: Grasshoppers belong to the order Orthoptera. Longhorned grasshoppers make up the family Tettigoniidae. The Mormon cricket is classified as Anabrus simplex. Pygmy grasshoppers make up the family Tetrigidae. Shorthorned grasshoppers make up the family Acrididae. The American grasshopper is classified as Schistocerca americana.


    New coronavirus variant: What is the spike protein and why are mutations on it important?

    Say hello to Spike. Credit: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, CC BY-SA

    The emergence of a new variant of coronavirus has sparked renewed interest in the part of the virus known as the spike protein.

    The new variant carries several peculiar changes to the spike protein when compared to other closely related variants—and that's one of the reasons why it's more concerning than other, harmless changes to the virus we have observed before. The new mutations may alter the biochemistry of the spike and could affect how transmissible the virus is.

    The spike protein is also the basis of current COVID-19 vaccines, which seek to generate an immune response against it. But what exactly is the spike protein and why is it so important?

    In the world of parasites, many bacterial or fungal pathogens can survive on their own without a host cell to infect. But viruses can't. Instead, they have to get inside cells in order to replicate, where they use the cell's own biochemical machinery to build new virus particles and spread to other cells or individuals.

    Our cells have evolved to ward off such intrusions. One of the major defenses cellular life has against invaders is its outer coating, which is composed of a fatty layer that holds in all the enzymes, proteins and DNA that make up a cell. Due to the biochemical nature of fats, the outer surface is highly negatively charged and repellent. Viruses must traverse this barrier to gain access to the cell.

    The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus molecule. Credit: Klerka/Shutterstock

    Like cellular life, coronaviruses themselves are surrounded by a fatty membrane known as an envelope. In order to gain entry to the inside of the cell, enveloped viruses use proteins (or glycoproteins as they are frequently covered in slippery sugar molecules) to fuse their own membrane to that of cells' and take over the cell.

    The spike protein of coronaviruses is one such viral glycoprotein. Ebola viruses have one, the influenza virus has two, and herpes simplex virus has five.

    The architecture of the spike

    The spike protein is composed of a linear chain of 1,273 amino acids, neatly folded into a structure, which is studded with up to 23 sugar molecules. Spike proteins like to stick together and three separate spike molecules bind to each other to form a functional "trimeric" unit.

    The spike can be subdivided into distinct functional units, known as domains, which fulfill different biochemical functions of the protein, such as binding to the target cell, fusing with the membrane, and allowing the spike to sit on the viral envelope.

    The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus molecule. Credit: Klerka/Shutterstock

    The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 is stuck on the roughly spherical viral particle, embedded within the envelope and projecting out into space, ready to cling on to unsuspecting cells. There are estimated to be roughly 26 spike trimers per virus.

    One of these functional units binds to a protein on the surface of our cells called ACE2, triggering uptake of the virus particle and eventually membrane fusion. The spike is also involved in other processes like assembly, structural stability and immune evasion.

    Vaccine vs spike protein

    Given how crucial the spike protein is to the virus, many antiviral vaccines or drugs are targeted to viral glycoproteins.

    For SARS-CoV-2, the vaccines produced by Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna give instructions to our immune system to make our own version of the spike protein, which happens shortly following immunization. Production of the spike inside our cells then starts the process of protective antibody and T cell production.

    • The spike protein is made up of different sections that perform different functions. Credit: Rohan Bir Singh, CC BY
    • The SARS-CoV-2 virus is changing over time. Credit: NIAID-RML, CC BY

    One of the most concerning features of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 is how it moves or changes over time during the evolution of the virus. Encoded within the viral genome, the protein can mutate and changes its biochemical properties as the virus evolves.

    Most mutations will not be beneficial and either stop the spike protein from working or have no effect on its function. But some may cause changes that give the new version of the virus a selective advantage by making it more transmissible or infectious.

    One way this could occur is through a mutation on a part of the spike protein that prevents protective antibodies from binding to it. Another way would be to make the spikes "stickier" for our cells.

    This is why new mutations that alter how the spike functions are of particular concern—they may impact how we control the spread of SARS-CoV-2. The new variants found in the UK and elsewhere have mutations across spike and in parts of the protein involved in getting inside your cells.

    Experiments will have to be conducted in the lab to ascertain if—and how—these mutations significantly change the spike, and whether our current control measures remain effective.

    This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.


    Show/hide words to know

    Enzyme: a protein that changes the speed of chemical reactions.

    Gene: a region of DNA that instructs the cell on how to build protein(s). As a human, you usually get a set of instructions from your mom and another set from your dad. more

    Organ: a specialized or distinct structure that is made from groups of tissues (e.g., heart, brain, etc.).

    Protein: a type of molecule found in the cells of living things, made up of special building blocks called amino acids.


    INFORMATION SHEET 3

    The following is a discussion of the members of a honey bee colony, their development and their duties within the colony.

    The vast majority of adult honey bees in any colony are female worker bees. The jobs of the worker bees are: tending and feeding young bees (larvae), making honey, making royal jelly and beebread to feed larvae, producing wax, cooling the hive by fanning wings, gathering and storing pollen, nectar and water, guarding the hive, building, cleaning and repairing the comb, and feeding and taking care of the queen and drones. In part, the job the worker honey bee performs on any given day depends on its age.

    As insects, honey bees pass through four distinct life stages: the egg , larva , pupa and adult . The process is called complete metamorphosis, which means that the form of the bee changes drastically from the larva to the adult. Passing through the immature stages takes 21 days for worker bees. On the first day, the queen bee lays a single egg in each cell of the comb. The egg generally hatches into a larva on the fourth day. The larva is a legless grub that resembles a tiny white sausage. The larva is fed a mixture of pollen and nectar called beebread . On the ninth day the cell is capped with wax and the larva transfor ms into the pupa. The pupa is a physical transition stage between the amorphous larva and the hairy, winged adult. The pupa doesn't eat. On day 21, the new adult worker bee emerges.

    The male members of the colony, the drones , are somewhat larger and make up only about five percent of the hive population. Drones are fed royal jelly , and develop in a slightly larger cell than worker bees from unfertilized eggs. Drones remain in the pupal stage for 15 days, so they don't emerge until day 24. Drones have huge compound eyes that meet at the top of their head and an extra segment in their antennae. In comparison to worker bees, drones have wider bodies and their abdomens are rounded rather than pointed. Drones, like all other male bees and wasps, do not have stingers.

    There is only one queen in a honey bee colony. She is slightly larger than a worker bee, with a longer abdomen. She does not have pollen baskets on her legs. Eggs destined to become queens are laid in a larger cell, and the larvae are fed only royal jelly. The adult queen's sole duty is to lay eggs, up to 2,000 a day! She is fed by the workers and never leaves the hive except to mate.

    Queen bees also have stingers and use them in battles with each other for dominance of the colony. If a new queen emerges from her incubation cell and is detected by the current queen, the "old lady" often goes over and kills her rival. In this way, the stability of the colony is maintained. When a queen gets old or weak and slows her production of queen substance, she is generally replaced by a new queen. New queens are also produced in colonies about to swarm.

    Virgin queen bees take what is known as a " nuptial flight " sometime within the first week or two after emerging from the pupal chamber. The new queen flies out of the hive and begins to produce a perfume-like substance called a " pheromone ." The drones in the area are attracted to the pheromone and the queen will mate with as many as 20 of them. After mating, the drones die.

    Once the queen has mated, she heads back to the hive to start laying eggs in beeswax chambers that the workers have created especially for this purpose. A queen can lay her own weight in eggs every day and, since she can maintain the sperm she has collected for her lifetime in a special pouch in her body, she can continue laying eggs indefinitely. The fertilized eggs laid by a queen become female worker bees and new queens. The queen also lays some unfertilized eggs, which produce the drones. Since they come from unfertilized eggs, the drones carry only the chromosomes of the queen.

    The drones could be called the couch potatoes of the insect world. While they wait for an opportunity to mate with a virgin queen, they are fed and cared for by workers, and only occasionally fly out of the hive to test their wings. If no opportunity to mate arises by fall, the drones are ejected from the nest by the workers and left to fend for themselves.

    On average, queen bees live for about a year-and-a-half, although some have been known to survive for up to six years. While she is alive and active, the queens are constantly cared for by workers acting as attendants. In cases where a queen dies prematurely and the colony had no new queen to replace her, some worker bees develop the ability to lay eggs but, because they cannot mate, they produce only drones and the colony eventually perishes.

    When the colony starts to become too crowded, some of the bees split off to form a new colony. This is called swarming . First the eggs for new queens are laid in their special larger cells. "Swarming" occurs when part of the colony breaks off with the old queen and flies off looking for another place to call home. The bees engorge themselves on their honey reserves before leaving so as to have sufficient energy to make it to a new location. There can be multiple swarms from one hive, since new queens can also emerge and fly off with part of the worker force.


    Watch the video: Spikes Insect Crumble - (September 2022).


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