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13.2: Readings and Resources - Biology

13.2: Readings and Resources - Biology


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13.2: Readings and Resources

TOEFL Reading Topics

I took a deep dive into the publicly available TOEFL reading sets to measure which academic subjects appear most frequently. My study included the tests in:

  • The Official Guide to the TOEFL
  • The Official iBT Tests Vol. 1
  • The Official iBT Tests Vol. 2
  • The free practice test on ETS.org
  • The TOEFL PDF sets on ETS.org
  • The Propell Workshop Teacher’s Book

These contain 47 passages in total.

I think this is everything that is easily accessible. I didn’t include the TPO sets in my study because we aren’t really supposed to have access to those. If there are any other sources I should consult please let me know, and I will add them to the list.

I examined each reading passage and classified it by subject. I focused on the broadest possible subject headings. So, for example, I used “history” as a category but not “political history.” This wasn’t always an easy task as some of the passages cover overlapping subject areas.

Following this chart, I’ll include a few notes about more specific subject areas.


13.2: Readings and Resources - Biology

New International Version
“Consecrate to me every firstborn male. The first offspring of every womb among the Israelites belongs to me, whether human or animal.”

New Living Translation
“Dedicate to me every firstborn among the Israelites. The first offspring to be born, of both humans and animals, belongs to me.”

English Standard Version
“Consecrate to me all the firstborn. Whatever is the first to open the womb among the people of Israel, both of man and of beast, is mine.”

Berean Study Bible
“Consecrate to Me every firstborn male. The firstborn from every womb among the Israelites belongs to Me, both of man and beast.”

King James Bible
Sanctify unto me all the firstborn, whatsoever openeth the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast: it is mine.

New King James Version
“Consecrate to Me all the firstborn, whatever opens the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and beast it is Mine.”

New American Standard Bible
“Sanctify to Me every firstborn, the firstborn of every womb among the sons of Israel, among people and animals alike it belongs to Me.”

NASB 1977
“Sanctify to Me every first-born, the first offspring of every womb among the sons of Israel, both of man and beast it belongs to Me.”

Amplified Bible
“Sanctify to Me [that is, set apart for My purpose] every firstborn, the first offspring of every womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of animal it is Mine.”

Christian Standard Bible
“Consecrate every firstborn male to me, the firstborn from every womb among the Israelites, both man and domestic animal it is mine.”

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Consecrate every firstborn male to Me, the firstborn from every womb among the Israelites, both man and domestic animal it is Mine.”

American Standard Version
Sanctify unto me all the first-born, whatsoever openeth the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast: it is mine.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
“Hallow to me every firstborn that opens every womb of the children of Israel, of men and of beast they are mine.”

Brenton Septuagint Translation
Sanctify to me every first-born, first produced, opening every womb among the children of Israel both of man and beast: it is mine.

Contemporary English Version
"Dedicate to me the first-born son of every family and the first-born males of your flocks and herds. These belong to me."

Douay-Rheims Bible
Sanctify unto me every firstborn that openeth the womb among the children of Israel, as well of men as of beasts: for they are all mine.

English Revised Version
Sanctify unto me all the firstborn, whatsoever openeth the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast: it is mine.

Good News Translation
"Dedicate all the first-born males to me, for every first-born male Israelite and every first-born male animal belongs to me."

GOD'S WORD® Translation
"Set apart every firstborn male for me. Every firstborn male offspring among the Israelites is mine, whether human or animal."

International Standard Version
"Consecrate to me every firstborn male. Whatever is the first to open the womb among the Israelis, both of humans and of animals, belongs to me."

JPS Tanakh 1917
Sanctify unto Me all the first-born, whatsoever openeth the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast, it is Mine.'

Literal Standard Version
“Sanctify to Me every firstborn, opening any womb among the sons of Israel, among man and among beast it [is] Mine.”

NET Bible
"Set apart to me every firstborn male--the first offspring of every womb among the Israelites, whether human or animal it is mine."

New Heart English Bible
"Sanctify to me all of the firstborn, whatever opens the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of animal. It is mine."

World English Bible
"Sanctify to me all of the firstborn, whatever opens the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of animal. It is mine."

Young's Literal Translation
Sanctify to Me every first-born, opening any womb among the sons of Israel, among man and among beast it is Mine.'

Luke 2:23
(as it is written in the Law of the Lord: "Every firstborn male shall be consecrated to the Lord"),

Exodus 13:1
Then the LORD said to Moses,

Exodus 13:12
you are to present to the LORD the firstborn male of every womb. All the firstborn males of your livestock belong to the LORD.

Exodus 13:13
You must redeem every firstborn donkey with a lamb, and if you do not redeem it, you are to break its neck. And every firstborn of your sons you must redeem.

Exodus 22:29
You must not hold back offerings from your granaries or vats. You are to give Me the firstborn of your sons.

Exodus 34:19
The first offspring of every womb belongs to Me, including all the firstborn males among your livestock, whether cattle or sheep.

Leviticus 27:26
But no one may consecrate a firstborn of the livestock, because a firstborn belongs to the LORD. Whether it is an ox or a sheep, it is the LORD's.

Sanctify to me all the firstborn, whatever opens the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast: it is mine.

Exodus 13:12-15 That thou shalt set apart unto the LORD all that openeth the matrix, and every firstling that cometh of a beast which thou hast the males shall be the LORD'S…

Exodus 4:22 And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh, Thus saith the LORD, Israel is my son, even my firstborn:

Exodus 22:29,30 Thou shalt not delay to offer the first of thy ripe fruits, and of thy liquors: the firstborn of thy sons shalt thou give unto me…

SANCTIFICATION OF THE FIRSTBORN, AND LAW OF REDEMPTION.

(2) Sanctify unto me all the firstborn. --It was a reasonable demand that the existing firstborn of Israel, spared by God when the Egyptian firstborn were destroyed, should be regarded thenceforth as His, and set apart for His service. The extension of the demand to existing beasts was also reasonable, since they too had been spared. God's further requirement, that henceforth all the future firstborn should also be His, was intended to perpetuate the memory of the recent deliverance, and to help to fix it in the mind of the nation. The substitution of a redemption in the case of unclean beasts was necessitated by the circumstances of the case, since they could not be sacrificed and the redemption of the firstborn sons naturally followed when the Levitical priesthood was established, and their services were no longer necessary. (See Numbers 3:40-51 Numbers 18:16.) The Jews still observe the ordinance, so far as the children are concerned, and redeem the son which has "opened the womb" on the thirtieth day after the birth.

Verse 2. - Sanctify unto me . Not by any positive ceremony, but by regarding it as "set apart unto the Lord" (verse 12) - made over to him, that is, as his own. All the first-born . The Hebrew word used is masculine, and by its proper force limits the command to the first-born males , who alone had been in danger from the tenth plague. Whatever openeth the womb . This clause added definiteness, showing that "first-born" did not contain any reference to any later Birth, and that it applied to every case where a woman's first child was a male. It is mine. Or, "it shall be mine." I claim it.

The firstborn
פֶּ֤טֶר (pe·ṭer)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's 6363: That which separates or first opens

from every
כָּל־ (kāl-)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's 3605: The whole, all, any, every

belongs
הֽוּא׃ (hū)
Pronoun - third person masculine singular
Strong's 1931: He, self, the same, this, that, as, are


So what

Receiving clarification about which regions -- and therefore which specific Xinca communities -- will be included in the consultation process with MEM, may not seem like a big deal, but that information allows Tahoe Resources to keep an eye out for foul play from any NGOs trying to game the process. So that's good news for the company.

Of course, since MEM won't be forced to renew the miner's export credentials, there's not much that can happen from Escobal in the meantime. That's especially true considering there's a "roadblock" at Casillas, which is about 16 miles from the mine and blocking transport to and from it. The company is working to peacefully end the roadblock.

There always seem to be new twists and turns, but it appears the next big decision investors will need to look out for will be from the Constitutional Court, which is expected to rule on all of the company's appeals to Supreme Court decisions by the end of 2017.


The Worcester Bookshelf project is all about sharing books that we love about our subjects with you. We suggest books that we love - you tell us what you think of them. Every term we will release a new list of six books that our tutors and academics would like to share with you. If you are in year 10, 11 or 12 at a UK state school and would like to find out more, simply email [email protected]

We have compiled the best of our digital resources to support learning and exploration. These resources can help inspire you to think broadly as well as enable you to explore your passions and interests further, and to discover more about Oxford.


For Kids

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Activities to help you learn more about our world, and how NOAA helps you explore, understand, and protect our Earth.

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Ocean Today "Every Full Moon"

Thematic collections of videos for kids of all ages. New videos are released every full moon from NOAA’s Ocean Today program

Understanding Marine Debris

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Regional Activity Books

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Phonetics resources

This is a list of web sites that might be useful in an introductory phonetics course for classroom demos or homework assignments most of these sites include audio, images, or interactive material. The list began in 2000 with some of the phonetics resources compiled by Karen Steffen Chung (see LINGUIST List posts 11.1812, 11.1869, and 11.1964). It has grown to include other sites that I have found via LINGUIST List posts, web searches, and word-of-mouth &mdash students in my Linguistic Phonetics and Introduction to Language courses have discovered some fantastic links. Many thanks to the people and organizations who designed the sites that appear on this list, and to Jaye Padgett for originally suggesting that I investigate what phonetics resources might be available online.

I update this page about once a year to fix or remove broken links. I would also welcome suggestions ( ) for links to add. (See also my Linguistics resources page for resources beyond phonetics.)

This page was chosen as Speechwoman's Speech-Language Pathology Site of the Month for May 2011.


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13.2: Readings and Resources - Biology

New International Version
By the word of the LORD he cried out against the altar: “Altar, altar! This is what the LORD says: ‘A son named Josiah will be born to the house of David. On you he will sacrifice the priests of the high places who make offerings here, and human bones will be burned on you.’”

New Living Translation
Then at the LORD’s command, he shouted, “O altar, altar! This is what the LORD says: A child named Josiah will be born into the dynasty of David. On you he will sacrifice the priests from the pagan shrines who come here to burn incense, and human bones will be burned on you.”

English Standard Version
And the man cried against the altar by the word of the LORD and said, “O altar, altar, thus says the LORD: ‘Behold, a son shall be born to the house of David, Josiah by name, and he shall sacrifice on you the priests of the high places who make offerings on you, and human bones shall be burned on you.’”

Berean Study Bible
And he cried out against the altar by the word of the LORD, “O altar, O altar, this is what the LORD says: ‘A son named Josiah will be born to the house of David, and upon you he will sacrifice the priests of the high places who burn incense upon you, and human bones will be burned upon you.’ ”

King James Bible
And he cried against the altar in the word of the LORD, and said, O altar, altar, thus saith the LORD Behold, a child shall be born unto the house of David, Josiah by name and upon thee shall he offer the priests of the high places that burn incense upon thee, and men's bones shall be burnt upon thee.

New King James Version
Then he cried out against the altar by the word of the LORD, and said, “O altar, altar! Thus says the LORD: ‘Behold, a child, Josiah by name, shall be born to the house of David and on you he shall sacrifice the priests of the high places who burn incense on you, and men’s bones shall be burned on you.’ ”

New American Standard Bible
And he cried out against the altar by the word of the LORD and said, “Altar, altar, this is what the LORD says: ‘Behold, a son shall be born to the house of David, Josiah by name and on you he shall sacrifice the priests of the high places who burn incense on you, and human bones shall burn on you.’”

NASB 1995
He cried against the altar by the word of the LORD, and said, “O altar, altar, thus says the LORD, ‘Behold, a son shall be born to the house of David, Josiah by name and on you he shall sacrifice the priests of the high places who burn incense on you, and human bones shall be burned on you.’”

NASB 1977
And he cried against the altar by the word of the LORD, and said, “O altar, altar, thus says the LORD, ‘Behold, a son shall be born to the house of David, Josiah by name and on you he shall sacrifice the priests of the high places who burn incense on you, and human bones shall be burned on you.’”

Amplified Bible
The man cried out against the [idolatrous] altar by the word of the LORD, “O altar, altar, thus says the Lord: ‘Behold, a son shall be born to the house of David, Josiah by name and on you shall he sacrifice [the bodies of] the priests of the high places who burn incense on you, and human bones shall be burned on you.’”

Christian Standard Bible
The man of God cried out against the altar by the word of the LORD: “Altar, altar, this is what the LORD says, ‘A son will be born to the house of David, named Josiah, and he will sacrifice on you the priests of the high places who are burning incense on you. Human bones will be burned on you.’ ”

Holman Christian Standard Bible
The man of God cried out against the altar by a revelation from the LORD: “Altar, altar, this is what the LORD says, ‘A son will be born to the house of David, named Josiah, and he will sacrifice on you the priests of the high places who are burning incense on you. Human bones will be burned on you.’”

American Standard Version
And he cried against the altar by the word of Jehovah, and said, O altar, altar, thus saith Jehovah: Behold, a son shall be born unto the house of David, Josiah by name and upon thee shall he sacrifice the priests of the high places that burn incense upon thee, and men's bones shall they burn upon thee.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And he cried against the altar the word of LORD JEHOVAH and said: “Altar, altar, hear the word of LORD JEHOVAH! Thus says LORD JEHOVAH: ‘Behold, a son is born of the house of David. Yoshiah is his name, and he will sacrifice upon you the Priests of the idols who placed incense upon you, and the bones of a man he will burn upon you!’”

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And he cried against the altar by the word of the Lord, and said, O altar, altar, thus saith the Lord, Behold, a son is to be born to the house of David, Josias by name and he shall offer upon thee the priests of the high places, even of them that sacrifice upon thee, and he shall burn men's bones upon thee.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And he cried out against the altar in the word of the Lord, and said: O altar, altar, thus saith the Lord: Behold a child shall be born to the house of David, Josias by name, and he shall immolate upon thee the priests of the high places, who now burn incense upon thee, and he shall burn men's bones upon thee.

English Revised Version
And he cried against the altar by the word of the LORD, and said, O altar, altar, thus saith the LORD: Behold, a child shall be born unto the house of David, Josiah by name and upon thee shall he sacrifice the priests of the high places that burn incense upon thee, and men's bones shall they burn upon thee.

Good News Translation
Following the LORD's command, the prophet denounced the altar: "O altar, altar, this is what the LORD says: A child, whose name will be Josiah, will be born to the family of David. He will slaughter on you the priests serving at the pagan altars who offer sacrifices on you, and he will burn human bones on you."

GOD'S WORD® Translation
By a command of the LORD, this man condemned the altar. "Altar, altar! This is what the LORD says: There will be a son born in David's family line. His name will be Josiah. Here on you Josiah will sacrifice the priests from the illegal worship sites who offer sacrifices on you. Human bones will be burned on you."

International Standard Version
He cursed the altar in this message from the LORD: "Hey altar! Hey altar! This is what the LORD says: 'Pay attention to this! A son is going to be born in David's dynasty. His name will be Josiah. He will sacrifice the priests who burn incense on you in these high places. Human bones will be burned on you!'"

JPS Tanakh 1917
And he cried against the altar by the word of the LORD, and said: 'O altar, altar, thus saith the LORD: Behold, a son shall be born unto the house of David, Josiah by name and upon thee shall he sacrifice the priests of the high places that offer upon thee, and men's bones shall they burn upon thee.'

Literal Standard Version
and he calls against the altar, by the word of YHWH, and says, “Altar! Altar! Thus said YHWH: Behold, a son is born to the house of David—Josiah [is] his name—and he has sacrificed on you the priests of the high places who are making incense on you, and bones of man are burned on you.”

NET Bible
With the authority of the LORD he cried out against the altar, "O altar, altar! This is what the LORD says, 'Look, a son named Josiah will be born to the Davidic dynasty. He will sacrifice on you the priests of the high places who offer sacrifices on you. Human bones will be burned on you.'"

New Heart English Bible
He cried against the altar by the word of the LORD, and said, "Altar, altar, thus says the LORD: 'Look, a son shall be born to the house of David, Josiah by name. On you he shall sacrifice the priests of the high places who burn incense on you, and they will burn men's bones on you.'"

World English Bible
He cried against the altar by the word of Yahweh, and said, "Altar, altar, thus says Yahweh: 'Behold, a son shall be born to the house of David, Josiah by name. On you he shall sacrifice the priests of the high places who burn incense on you, and they will burn men's bones on you.'"

Young's Literal Translation
and he calleth against the altar, by the word of Jehovah, and saith, 'Altar! altar! thus said Jehovah, Lo, a son is born to the house of David -- Josiah his name -- and he hath sacrificed on thee the priests of the high places who are making perfume on thee, and bones of man are burnt on thee.'

1 Kings 13:32
for the message that he cried out by the word of the LORD against the altar in Bethel and against all the shrines on the high places in the cities of Samaria will surely come to pass."

2 Kings 23:15
He even pulled down the altar at Bethel, the high place set up by Jeroboam son of Nebat, who had caused Israel to sin. Then he burned the high place, ground it to powder, and burned the Asherah pole.

2 Kings 23:16
And as Josiah turned, he saw the tombs there on the hillside, and he sent someone to take the bones out of the tombs, and he burned them on the altar to defile it, according to the word of the LORD proclaimed by the man of God who had foretold these things.

2 Chronicles 34:3
In the eighth year of his reign, while he was still young, Josiah began to seek the God of his father David, and in the twelfth year he began to cleanse Judah and Jerusalem of the high places, the Asherah poles, the carved idols, and the cast images.

2 Chronicles 34:5
Then he burned the bones of the priests on their altars. So he cleansed Judah and Jerusalem.

Jeremiah 1:2
The word of the LORD came to Jeremiah in the thirteenth year of the reign of Josiah son of Amon king of Judah,

And he cried against the altar in the word of the LORD, and said, O altar, altar, thus said the LORD Behold, a child shall be born to the house of David, Josiah by name and on you shall he offer the priests of the high places that burn incense on you, and men's bones shall be burnt on you.

Deuteronomy 32:1 Give ear, O ye heavens, and I will speak and hear, O earth, the words of my mouth.

Isaiah 1:2 Hear, O heavens, and give ear, O earth: for the LORD hath spoken, I have nourished and brought up children, and they have rebelled against me.

Isaiah 58:1 Cry aloud, spare not, lift up thy voice like a trumpet, and shew my people their transgression, and the house of Jacob their sins.

2 Kings 22:1,2 Josiah was eight years old when he began to reign, and he reigned thirty and one years in Jerusalem. And his mother's name was Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah of Boscath…

2 Kings 23:15-18 Moreover the altar that was at Bethel, and the high place which Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin, had made, both that altar and the high place he brake down, and burned the high place, and stamped it small to powder, and burned the grove…

2 Chronicles 34:1,4-7 Josiah was eight years old when he began to reign, and he reigned in Jerusalem one and thirty years…

2 Kings 23:15-17 Moreover the altar that was at Bethel, and the high place which Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin, had made, both that altar and the high place he brake down, and burned the high place, and stamped it small to powder, and burned the grove…

Verse 2. - And he cried against the altar in the word of the Lord, and said, O altar, altar, thus saith the Lord [This apostrophe of the altar is very striking and significant. It is as if the prophet disdained to notice the royal but self-constituted priest as if it were useless to appeal to him as if his person was of little consequence compared with the religious system he was inaugurating, the system of which the altar was the centre and embodiment] Behold a child shall be born unto the house of David, Josiah by name [This particular mention of the Reformer by name was formerly regarded, as by many it is still, as a remarkable instance of prophetic foresight. But the tendency of late, even amongst orthodox theologians, has been to doubt the authenticity of these two words, on the ground that it is unlike Scripture prophecy in general to descend to such details, which rather belong to soothsaying than prediction. Prophecy concerns itself not with names, times, and similar particulars, but with the "progressive development of the kingdom of God in its general features" (Keil). It is not for a moment denied that the prophet could just as easily, speaking "in the word of the Lord," have mentioned the name of Josiah, as the circumstance that a son of the house of David would utterly destroy the worship of calves. But it is alleged that the latter prediction is quite in accordance with Scripture usage, and the former altogether contrarient thereto. The case of Cyrus (Isaiah 44:28 Isaiah 45:1), it is true, is an exception to the rule, unless כֹרֶשׁ (which means the sun ) is, like Pharaoh and Hadad, a name of office, a title of the Persian kings. The instances of Isaac (Genesis 17:19) and Solomon (1 Chronicles 22:9) are not parallels, as in both these cases the name was highly significant, and each was mentioned, not by way of prophecy, but as a direction to bestow that name on a child shortly about to be born. And it is certainly noticeable - though the argument e silentio is necessarily a precarious one - "that where this narrative is again referred to (2 Kings 23:15-18) there is no allusion to the fact that the man of God had prophesied of Josiah by name" (Rawlinson). On the whole, therefore, it seems probable that the two words יֹאשׁיָּהוּ שְׁמו were no part of the original prophecy, but a marginal note which in course of time found its way accidentally into the text. The idea of Keil, that "Josiah" is mentioned here not as a proper name, but as an appellation, "he whom Jehovah sustains," is hardly worthy of serious consideration. It may be allowed, however, that the meaning of the name affords some slender reason for its mention] and upon thee shall he offer [lit., sacrifice ] the priests of the high places [see on 1 Kings 12:32] that burn incense upon thee, and men's bones [Heb. bones of man, i.e. , human bones. Nothing could more completely foreshadow the future desecration of the altar. The presence in the congregation of a living man who had merely touched a dead body and had not been purified, defiled the tabernacle (Numbers 19:13), how much more the dead body itself, burnt on the very altar. The Samaritan who once strewed the temple with human ashes (Jos., Ant. 18:02.2) knew that he took the most effectual way to pollute it] shall be burnt [Heb. shall they burn ] upon thee. [For the fulfilment, see 2 Kings 23:20, "At the ground of this judgment, as of the whole theocratic law, lies the jus talionis" (Keil, 1846).] It is worthy of note how completely this brief protest proclaimed to Jeroboam the utter and shameful overthrow, both of his political and religious systems. A child of the rival house of David should stand where he then stood, his successors extinct or powerless to prevent him, and should cover this new cultus with disgrace and contempt. The man of God, he must have felt, has proclaimed in few words the fall of his dynasty, the triumph of his rival, and the failure of all his schemes.

And he cried out
וַיִּקְרָ֤א (way·yiq·rā)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's 7121: To call, proclaim, read

of the LORD,
יְהוָ֔ה (Yah·weh)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's 3068: LORD -- the proper name of the God of Israel

the LORD
יְהוָ֑ה (Yah·weh)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's 3068: LORD -- the proper name of the God of Israel

will be born
נוֹלָ֤ד (nō·w·lāḏ)
Verb - Nifal - Participle - masculine singular
Strong's 3205: To bear young, to beget, medically, to act as midwife, to show lineage

he will sacrifice
וְזָבַ֣ח (wə·zā·ḇaḥ)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Conjunctive perfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's 2076: To slaughter for sacrifice


Watch the video: CCHF VS - Prof. Peng Liu (October 2022).