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Infection of urinary tract if the pH of urine is made alkaline

Infection of urinary tract if the pH of urine is made alkaline


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It is very well known that drugs like phenobarbiton,morphine are unionized, lipid soluble.So,in case if there is toxicity due to these drugs,the only way to save the patient is make the pH of urine alkaline and thus facilitating its excretion.But,the normal pH of the urine is acidic which protects the person from various urinary tract infections,if the pH is made alkaline is there a increased for the patient to have urinary tract infections?


There is a huge misconception here. Morphine overdose is treated with Narcan (naloxone). Phenobarbiton overdose is treated with artificial respiration (in extreme cases), blood pressure medication, and management of low heart rate. The concept of lowering the pH of the urine to increase a drug excretion is (to my knowledge) never used in emergency settings. Dialysis, which filters the blood, would be used to 'clean' the blood of toxins. Think about it. Time is life, and changing the composition of your fluids would take a lifetime compared to the implemented measures in emergency rooms. You body has an extremely sensitive acid-base balance. You do not want to try to increase or decrease the pH of your bodily fluids.


Urine pH: Ideal Urine pH And Alkaline Urine

The pH of urine tells about the alkalinity of the urine. The pH test measure acidity of the urine. The doctor recommend you to do a pH test when you have problems related to the urinary tract. The urine pH test is a painless and straightforward process, so you should not worry about the pH test. Diseases, diets and medicines affect the urine. It will make urine acidic or basic. When you have extremely low or high pH, it indicates that there is the possibility of forming stones in the kidney. The pH test will give you the early warning to adjust your diets to prevent the likelihood of the kidney stones.

The urine is made of water, waste and salt. What we eat and drink affect the pH of the urine. Acidic food like grains, fish, soda and sugar increase the acidity of the urine. If the urine has low pH, then it indicates the acidic urine. Means that we are at risk of diabetes, diarrhoea and starvation.

Alkaline food like nuts, vegetables, foods and high protein foods increase the pH of the urine. If the urine has high pH, it indicates our urine is alkaline, meaning that we are at risk of developing kidney stones, urinary tract infection and kidney problems.

The doctor might ask you what you ate before the pH test to evaluate the pH test result. The food we eat affects the acidic or alkalinity of the urine. If our diet has a high amount of vegetables and a low amount of meat, it is more likely to have urine pH above eight, which indicates the alkaline urine.

If our diet has a high amount of meat, it is more likely to have urine pH below five, which indicates the acidic urine.

The pH test will tell a lot about the overall health of your body. It gives an early sign of future diseases that you may face. There are no side effects of pH test, so you can quickly test the urine pH without any issues.


What is the normal pH range for urine?

Urine comprises water, salts, and waste products from the kidneys. The balance of these compounds can affect the urine’s acidity levels, which specialists measure in pH.

The pH is the measurement of how acidic or alkaline a person’s urine is. Doctors often test the urine pH, and they may perform other diagnostic tests, when a person has symptoms that may be related to a problem in the urinary tract.

Share on Pinterest A pH test looks at how acidic or alkaline a person’s urine is.

According to the American Association for Clinical Chemistry, the average value for urine pH is 6.0, but it can range from 4.5 to 8.0. Urine under 5.0 is acidic, and urine higher than 8.0 is alkaline, or basic.

Different laboratories may have different ranges for “normal” pH levels. The laboratory report will explain the normal and abnormal levels for the specific laboratory. A doctor will usually explain these results to the person.

One of the major factors affecting urine pH is the food that a person eats. A doctor will likely ask a person about the foods they typically eat before evaluating their urine pH results.

If a person has a high urine pH, meaning that it is more alkaline, it might signal a medical condition such as:

A person can also have a higher urine pH due to prolonged vomiting. This rids the body of stomach acid, which can make body fluids more basic.

Acidic urine can also create an environment where kidney stones can form.

If a person has low urine pH, meaning that it is more acidic, it might indicate a medical condition such as:

Taking certain medications can also make a person’s urine pH more basic or acidic.

A person should ask their doctor if they should stop taking certain medications the night or morning of a urinalysis. However, sometimes a doctor will want a person to continue taking these medications to determine a person’s urine pH while they are taking them.

Because many factors affect urine pH, and because it can vary greatly, a doctor cannot diagnose a medical condition based on pH alone. For instance, a pH of over 7 could signal a UTI or a different kind of infection.

A doctor may consider urine pH along with other symptoms to make a diagnosis. They may also order a urine pH test to study the effectiveness of kidney stone treatments.

Medications such as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (acetazolamide) aim to make urine more alkaline, so a doctor may take more than one sample to see whether the pH is changing.

Sometimes, a doctor may ask for a “clean-catch” urine sample to prevent bacteria from entering the sample. This means that a person will clean their genital area, release a small amount of urine, and collect 1–2 ounces of urine for pH testing.

A urinalysis has three major components:

  • Visual exam: When a doctor or laboratory technician examines the urine, they will look at its color, whether foreign material such as blood is present in the urine, and whether the urine appears foamy.
  • Dipstick test: A dipstick test involves holding a piece of specially treated paper, or litmus paper, in a urine sample. The dipstick will change color to show how acidic or alkaline the urine is. It may also change color if other substances, such as glucose, white blood cells, bilirubin, or proteins, are present in the urine.
  • Microscopic exam: A laboratory technician will examine a small amount of urine under a microscope to look for particles, such as red blood cells, crystals, or white blood cells. These are not usually present in the urine and can indicate an underlying medical condition.

A urine pH test does not cause side effects. A person will urinate as they normally would to provide the sample.

The acidity or alkalinity of urine can help a doctor diagnose medical conditions. Doctors can test urine pH using a litmus paper test.

A doctor can perform a urine pH test as part of a larger urinalysis test, or a they can specifically test urine pH.

High and low pH levels can indicate problems with a person’s kidneys, such as an environment that could help kidney stones develop.


Infection of urinary tract if the pH of urine is made alkaline - Biology

Forty percent of women in the United States will develop a urinary tract infection (UTI) at some point in her lifetime, making this one of the most common infections in women. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections, also known as cystitis or lower urinary tract infections, are bacterial infections of the bladder and associated structures. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections occur in female patients with no structural abnormality or comorbidities such as diabetes, old age, pregnancy, or immunocompromised status. Complicated urinary tract infections occur in patients with structural abnormalities or comorbidities such as diabetes, old age, pregnancy, or immunocompromised status. This activity reviews the evaluation and management of urinary tract infections and highlights the role of interprofessional team members in collaborating to provide well-coordinated care and enhance outcomes for affected patients.

  • Identify the pathophysiology of UTI.
  • Outline the presentation of a patient with UTI.
  • Summarize the treatment and management options available for UTI.
  • Review interprofessional team strategies for improving care and outcomes in patients with UTI.

Introduction

Uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection of the bladder and associated structures. These are patients with no structural abnormality and no comorbidities, such as diabetes, immunocompromised, or pregnant. Uncomplicated UTI is also known as cystitis or lower UTI. Forty percent of women in the United States will develop a UTI during their lifetime, making it one of the most common infections in women. UTI is uncommon in circumcised males, and by definition, any male UTI is considered complicated. Many cases of uncomplicated UTI will resolve spontaneously, without treatment, but many patients seek treatment for symptoms. Treatment is aimed at preventing spread to the kidneys or developing into upper tract disease/pyelonephritis, which can cause the destruction of the delicate structures in the nephrons and lead to hypertension.[1][2][3]

E.coli causes the majority of UTI but other organisms of importance include proteus, klebsiella, and enterococcus. The diagnosis of UTI is made from the clinical history and urinalysis, but the proper collection of the urine sample is important.

Etiology

Pathogenic bacteria ascend from the perineum, causing UTI. Women have shorter urethras than men and therefore are more susceptible to UTI. Very few uncomplicated UTIs are caused by blood-borne bacteria. Escherichia coli is the most common organism in uncomplicated UTI by a large margin.[4]

A major risk factor for UTI is the use of a catheter. In addition, manipulation of the urethra is also a risk factor. Sexual intercourse and the use of spermicide and diaphragm are also risk factors for UTI. Frequent pelvic exams and the presence of anatomical abnormalities of the urinary tract can also predispose one to UTI.

UTI is very common after a kidney transplant the two triggers include the use of immunosuppressive drugs and vesicoureteral reflux. Other risk factors include the use of antibiotics and diabetes mellitus.

Epidemiology

Urinary tract infections are very frequent bacterial infection in women. They usually occur between the ages of 16 and 35 years, with 10% of women getting an infection yearly and more than 40% to 60% having an infection at least once in their lives. Recurrences are common, with nearly half getting a second infection within a year. Urinary tract infections occur four times more frequently in females than males.[5][6]

Pathophysiology

An uncomplicated UTI usually only involves the bladder. When the bacteria invade the bladder mucosal wall, cystitis is produced. The majority of organisms causing a UTI are enteric coliforms that usually inhabit the periurethral vaginal introitus. These organisms ascend into the bladder and cause a UTI. Sexual intercourse is a common cause of a UTI as it promotes the migration of bacteria into the bladder. People who frequently void and empty the bladder have a much lower risk of a UTI.[7]

Urine is an ideal medium for bacterial growth factors that make it unfavorable for bacterial growth include a pH less than 5, presence of organic acids and high levels of urea. Frequent urination is also known to decrease the risk of UTI.

Bacteria that cause UTI have adhesins on their surface which allow the organism to attach to the mucosal surface. In addition, a short urethra also makes it easier for the uropathogen to invade the urinary tract. Premenopausal women have large concentrations of lactobacilli in the vagina and prevent the colonization of uropathogens. However, the use of antibiotics can erase this protective effect.

History and Physical

Symptoms of uncomplicated UTI are pain on urination (dysuria), frequent urination (frequency), inability to start the urine stream (hesitation), sudden onset of the need to urinate (urgency), and blood in the urine (hematuria). Usually, patients with uncomplicated UTI do not have fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, or back pain, which are signs of kidney involvement or upper tract disease/pyelonephritis. Clinical symptoms can overlap, and in some cases, it is hard to distinguish uncomplicated UTI from a kidney infection. When in doubt, treat aggressively for possible upper renal tract disease. Diagnosis is a combination of signs, symptoms, and urinalysis. Be careful of literature that is based on the results of the urinalysis of asymptomatic patients.

Patients with spinal cord injury or those who are paralyzed may present with:

  • Autonomic instability
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Cloudly, foul-smelling urine
  • Chills

Patients with catheters tend to have vague symptoms that include elevated WBC and fever. Most patients will have pyuria and elevated bacterial colony counts in the urine.

Evaluation

A good, clean, urinalysis (UA) specimen is vital to the workup. A clean-catch specimen in nonobese women is preferred. Most obese women cannot give a clean specimen, and epithelial cells in the UA means the urine sample was exposed to the genital surface and did not come directly out of the urethra. Get a clean sample, with very few epithelial cells. In-and-out catheterization of the bladder will cause UTI in uninfected women 1% of the time. Men should start the urine stream to clean the urethra and then obtain a midstream sample. Urine should be sent to the lab immediately or refrigerated because bacteria grow rapidly when a sample is left at room temperature, causing an overestimate of the infection's severity.[8][9]

Do not base the diagnosis upon visual inspection of the urine. Cloudy urine can be aseptic the cloudiness can come from protein in the sample, not necessarily infection. Crystal clear urine can be grossly infected. All urines undergo dipstick testing, which can be done at the bedside. Helpful values are pH, nitrites, leukocyte esterase, and blood. Remember that in patients with symptoms of UTI, a negative dipstick does not rule out UTI, but positive findings can help make the diagnosis. Look for the presence of bacteria and/or white blood cells (WBC) in the urine.

Normal urine pH is slightly acidic, with usual values of 6.0 to 7.5, but the normal range is 4.5 to 8.0. A urine pH of 8.5 or 9.0 is indicative of a urea-splitting organism, such as Proteus, Klebsiella, or Ureaplasma urealyticum therefore, an asymptomatic patient with a high pH means UTI regardless of the other urine test results. Alkaline pH also can signify struvite kidney stones, which are also known as &ldquoinfection stones.&rdquo

The most accurate dipstick test is the nitrite test because bacteria must be present in the urine to convert nitrates to nitrites. This takes 6 hours. This is why urologists request the first-morning urine, particularly in males. The specificity of this test is greater than 90%. This is direct confirmation of bacteria in the urine, which is UTI by definition in patients with symptoms. Several bacteria do not convert the nitrates to nitrites, but those are usually involved in complicated UTIs, such as those involving Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter.

Leukocyte esterase (LE) identifies the presence of WBCs in the urine. The WBCs release the LE, presumably in response to bacteria in the urine. This is why LE is a subsequent test with a specificity of only 55% for UTI. LE is good at detecting WBCs in the urine, but WBCs can be in the bladder for other reasons, like inflammatory disorders.

Hematuria can be helpful because bacterial infection of the transitional cell lining of the bladder can cause bleeding. This helps distinguish UTI from vaginitis and urethritis which do not cause blood in the urine.

In many labs, the presence of nitrites or leukocyte esterase will automatically trigger a microscopic evaluation of the urine for bacteria, WBCs, and RBCs. On microscopy, there should be no bacteria in uninfected urine, so any bacteria on Gram-stained urine under microscopy is highly correlated to UTI. A good urine sample with greater than 5 to 10 WBC/HPF is abnormal and highly suggestive of UTI in symptomatic patients.

Urine cultures are not needed in uncomplicated UTI. Urine should be cultured in all men and patients with diabetes mellitus, who are immunosuppressed, and women who are pregnant. Classic teaching on urine culture sets the gold standard for infected urine at greater than 10 colony forming units (CFU). Recent literature states that a patient who presents with symptoms and greater than 10 CFU is diagnostic of infection. Urine cultures rarely help in the emergency department, except with recurrent UTI.

Collecting urine is key. Midstream voided technique is very accurate as long as the technique is followed. Presence of lactobacilli and squamous cells indicates contamination. In young children and those with spinal cord injury, suprapubic aspiration is often done to collect urine.

In some patients, catheterization is necessary. At the same time, one should use a bladder scan to assess for post-void residual volume.

Treatment / Management

The treatment has varied historically from 3 days to 6 weeks. There are excellent rates with &ldquomini-dose therapy&rdquo which involves three days of treatment. E. coli resistance to common antimicrobials varies in different areas of the country, and if the resistance rate is greater than 50% choose another drug.

Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole for 3 days is good mini-dose therapy, but resistance rates are high in many areas. First-generation cephalosporins are good choices for mini-dose therapy. Nitrofurantoin is a good choice for uncomplicated UTI, but it is bacteriostatic, not bacteriocidal, and must be used for 5 to 7 days. Fluoroquinolones have high resistance but are a favorite of urologists for some reason. Recent precautions from the FDA about fluoroquinolone side effects should be heeded.[10][11][12]

Recently the FDA approved fosfomycin as a single-dose therapy for uncomplicated UTI caused by E coli. Adjunctive therapy with phenazopyridine for several days may help provide symptom relief.

Even without treatment, the UTI will spontaneously resolve in about 20% of women. The likelihood that a female will develop acute pyelonephritis is very small.

Asymptomatic bacteriuria is quite common and requires no treatment, except in pregnant women, those who are immunosuppressed, have undergone a transplant or have undergone a urological procedure.

Differential Diagnosis

Prognosis

Even with antibiotic treatment, most UTI symptoms last several days. In women with recurrent UTIs, the quality of life is poor. About 25% of women experience recurrences. Factors that indicate a poor outlook include:

  • Overall health
  • Advanced age
  • Presence of renal calculi
  • Diabetes
  • Sickle cell anemia
  • Presence of malignancy
  • Catheterization
  • Ongoing chemotherapy

While mortality rates are low, the morbidity of UTI is enormous. Besides the annoying symptoms, the cost of management is prohibitive. Missing work and school are common reasons and sometimes, admission is required because of the severe symptoms.

Pearls and Other Issues

Although there is no proof of prevention, women should urinate after sexual intercourse because bacteria in the bladder can increase by ten-fold after intercourse. After urination, women should wipe from front to back, not from the anal area forward, which seems to drag pathogenic organisms nearer to the urethra. Vigorous urine flow is helpful to prevention.

Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

UTI is best managed in an interprofessional fashion, and besides physicians, most nurses will encounter a patient with a UTI. The key to preventing recurrences is the education of the patient. Once a UTI has been diagnosed the patient should be encouraged to drink more fluids. Sexually active women should try to void right after sexual intercourse as this can help flush the bacteria out of the bladder. Some women with recurrent UTIs may benefit from prophylactic use of antibiotics. Several other non-medical remedies may help some women with UTI. Anecdotal reports indicate that the use of cranberry juice and probiotics may help reduce the severity and frequency of UTI in some women. Primary clinicians should refer patients with recurrent UTI to the urologist to rule out reflux and anatomical defects. Clinicians should work closely with a pharmacist to ensure the best antibiotic choices for treatment, with the pharmacist verifying appropriate coverage, dosing, and duration. Patient and community safety are affected by ensuring the prescribing of the best antibiotic and medication compliance. Nursing can chart progress and counsel the patient on compliance, as well as answering any patient questions, and reporting concerns or results to the clinical team. The earlier UTI is managed, the better the outcomes, and interprofessional team involvement is a significant enhancement to outcomes. [Level 5] [13][14] (Level V)

The majority of women with a UTI have an excellent outcome. Following treatment with an antibiotic, the duration of symptoms is 2 to 4 days. Unfortunately, nearly 30% of women will have a recurrence of the infection. Morbidity is usually seen in older debilitated patients, those with renal calculi and in patients. Other factors linked to recurrence include the presence of diabetes, underlying malignancy, chemotherapy and chronic catheterization of the bladder. The mortality after a UTI is close to zero. [15][16](Level 5)


11 Sneaky Causes of Urinary Tract Infections

Getting a urinary tract infection is the worst. OK, that’s a little dramatic. But with symptoms that include a burning sensation when you go to the bathroom, feeling like you have to go all the time but can’t, and foul-smelling or dark urine, UTIs can be torturous.

And considering that 150 million people get a UTI each year, it’s safe to say this type of misery loves company. Flores-Mireles AL, et al. (2015). Urinary tract infections: Epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options. DOI: 10.1038/nrmicro3432

We know a “You’re not alone” pep talk won’t make it any less painful to pee. But that whole “Knowledge is power” thing might help you figure out why your body seems like it’s out to get you. Here are the sneaky factors that up your risk of getting a dreaded UTI.

While all this may sound pretty doom-and-gloom, you can reduce your risk of a UTI by avoiding some of the causes.

1. You eat a lot of sugar

Bacteria that cause UTIs love feeding on sugar, so you run the risk of providing a feast for them whenever your sweet tooth strikes. Kalas V, et al. Structure-based discovery of glycomimetic FmlH ligands as inhibitors of bacterial adhesion during urinary tract infection. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720140115

“If you eat tons of added sugars and get a real surge in your blood sugar, you may end up with some of that sugar in your urine,” says Mary Jane Minkin, MD, a clinical professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the Yale School of Medicine.

Some foods and beverages, like coffee, booze, and chocolate, can also irritate your delicate urinary tract and exacerbate an existing UTI.

2. You have diabetes

Research shows that if you have diabetes, you’re more likely to get UTIs. Nitzan O, et al. Urinary tract infections in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Review of prevalence, diagnosis, and management. DOI: 10.2147/DMSO.S51792 Scientists suggest the increased risk may be related to a compromised immune system, incomplete bladder emptying, or fluctuations in blood sugar.

3. You wipe from back to front

Wiping from back to front can transport E. coli, the bacteria that’s behind most UTIs, from the rectal region to the urethra. Moral of the story: Always wipe from front to back. Al-Badr A, et al. (2013). Recurrent urinary tract infections management in women: A review. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3749018/

4. You have lots of sex

The more sex you have, the likelier it is you might get a UTI, Minkin says. That’s because bacteria may move to the urethra from the vagina and from the perineum, which is the area between your vagina and your anus. Al-Badr A, et al. (2013). Recurrent urinary tract infections management in women: A review. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3749018/

Keep in mind that sex toys, oral sex, and anal sex can all introduce bacteria to anyone’s pee parts.

5. You don’t pee after sex

The threat of getting a UTI shouldn’t stop you from getting it on. But that doesn’t mean resigning yourself to the afterburn.

One simple way to cut your risk: Head to the potty after you’ve finished your romp. You’ll possibly flush out the bacteria that may have made their way into your urinary tract. Hickling DR, et al. (2013). Management of recurrent urinary tract infections in healthy adult women. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3784967/

6. You hold it too long

We’re all busy, but not taking time to hit the loo — and not just post-sex — does more harm than good. You don’t want urine to sit in your bladder for long periods because bacteria in there can multiply if they hang around too long. So don’t hold your pee.

7. You’re using certain methods of birth control

When it comes to UTI prevention, not all birth control methods are created equal. Luckily, only one method is associated with UTIs: a diaphragm.

Because of where the diaphragm sits, it puts pressure on the urethra, which might lead to an increased risk, says Minkin. The good news? There are plenty of other great birth control options.

8. You’re using condoms

Hold up! Hear us out before you throw out your love gloves. Although you should always practice safer sex, unlubricated condoms can increase the risk of UTIs, possibly because of increased irritation to the vagina during sexual activity.

And using spermicide with diaphragms and condoms can increase your risk even more. Hickling DR, et al. (2013). Management of recurrent urinary tract infections in healthy adult women. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3784967/ Try lubricated condoms without spermicide or use unlubricated condoms with a nonspermicidal lubricant.

9. You don’t drink enough water

Guzzling H2O will make you go pretty often. And that’s a good thing. “When you do this, the bacteria gets flushed out before they have a chance to grab hold,” Minkin says.

Consider that your cue to make a giant water bottle your BFF. Hooton TM, et al. (2018). Effect of increased daily water intake in premenopausal women with recurrent urinary tract infections: A randomized clinical trial. DOI: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.4204

10. You’ve got a cold, the flu, or allergies

You may be tempted to curse your seasonal sneezes, a cold, or the dreaded flu for making your life even more miserable with a UTI, but these ailments aren’t the cause. The meds you take to manage symptoms could be.

Though they’re the bomb at keeping your runny or stuffy nose in check, antihistamines and decongestants might make you go less by causing urinary retention. And — see No. 6 — that may lead to a UTI.

11. You’re pregnant

“Pregnant women have a higher chance of getting a UTI because the hormonal changes cause the bladder muscle to relax, thus delaying emptying,” says Iffath A. Hoskins, an OB-GYN in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at NYU Langone Medical Center.

If you’re pregnant, you also have a decreased ability to fight off infections, so any UTI-causing bacteria are more likely to catch hold. Habak PJ, et al. (2018). Urinary tract infection in pregnancy. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537047/

And now a brief note about reproductive parts: Although people with penises do get UTIs, people with vaginas are more at risk. It all boils down to the anatomy, Minkin says.

Bacteria that cause UTIs often make their way from the back door to the front and then up the urethra to wreak havoc on the urinary system.

Because the male reproductive system has a longer urethra than the female reproductive system, the bacteria have farther to travel, which makes it more difficult for a UTI to develop.

But regardless of anatomy, once you’ve had one UTI, you’re more likely to get another, especially if you have a vagina. Hickling DR, et al. (2013). Management of recurrent urinary tract infections in healthy adult women. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3784967/

Although it’s a cruel fate, a UTI isn’t a cause for major concern as long as you seek treatment.

Treatment involves antibiotics. Sorry — natural remedies don’t really work. Antibiotics typically clear up the infection within a few days. So if you feel any of the un-fun symptoms coming on or notice cloudy or pink pee, see your doc, stat.

If you’ve had a UTI three to six times in a year, you might want to see a urologist to make sure you don’t have more complex bladder issues. Plus, your doctor may offer solutions for prevention tailored to your unique health situation.


Treatment

"Anyone with new classic symptoms should probably be treated for a UTI. However, if the only symptom is confusion, considering other causes or waiting a day or two to see if it resolves may be appropriate, if the family can observe the person and is okay with this," says Dr. Chen.

If your doctor does prescribe an antibiotic, talk about potential side effects. Certain commonly used antibiotics called fluoroquinolones — such as levofloxacin (Levaquin) and ciprofloxacin (Cipro) — can be associated with damage to tendons, joints, nerves, and the central nervous system. The FDA advises that these medications should not be used as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated UTIs. Dr. Chen says other antibiotics, such as amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (Augmentin), cotrimoxazole (Bactrim), or nitrofurantoin (Macrobid), may be better options.

Ways to avoid urinary tract infections

Stay hydrated. Drink plenty of water, which increases urination, thereby flushing out bladder bacteria. How much should you drink? Enough to keep your urine looking clear.

Wipe properly. Women should wipe from front to back after using the toilet. Wiping from back to front may increase the risk of getting UTIs.

Use topical estrogen creams. These creams may help postmenopausal women who have vaginal dryness and struggle with recurrent urinary tract infections.

Don't rely on cranberry juice. The evidence about whether it helps prevent UTIs is mixed. And the juice has lots of sugar and calories.


Lupus and the Kidneys

The kidneys are just one part of the body’s urinary system, otherwise known as the renal or excretory system. The primary job of the urinary system is to filter the blood and remove any excess water, electrolytes, and any metabolic wastes (urea) that would be unhealthy and ultimately deadly if they remained in the body. How this happens is both simple and incredibly complex and requires some of the most delicate tubes and blood vessels in human anatomy. It is far too complicated to describe here, but it entails structures, called glomeruli, which filter chemicals, molecule by molecule, from the blood and mixes them with water to form urine. A complex series of tubules take the urine through several pathways and eventually lead to ureters, which in turn bring the resulting urine to the bladder. There the urine is stored until it is eliminated through the urethra.

There are approximately one million glomeruli in each kidney and they are the most delicate and important part of its anatomy. They are also where most of the damage from lupus nephritis (or most other kidney diseases) takes place. The microscopic blood vessels and tube-like structures within each glomerulus can be damaged by lupus in several ways. These include inflammation, blood clots (often from vasculitis) as well as other types of damage that are associated with the body’s out of control autoimmune response. When this occurs, the kidneys lose their ability to filter the blood properly, and other parts of the blood can leak into the urine. These leaked chemicals and cells are most of what is measured with urinalysis.


12. Vitamin C


Vitamin C boosts the immune function of the body and treats UTI. It is very effective in preventing the growth of bacteria that cause urinary tract infection in the body. It will also help you for improved health level and a better metabolism. You can take fruits that are rich in vitamin C such as citrus fruits and berries. You could also take vitamin C supplements. however, consult your doctor before taking any supplement.
(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24766384)


Magnesium & Urinary Tract Infection

A urinary tract infection is an infection that occurs in the kidneys, ureters, bladder or urethra, though the most common locations for UTIs are the bladder and urethra 1. Serious consequences can occur if UTIs are not properly treated, including painful bacterial kidney infections, which can permanently damage the organ, and low birth-weight babies when the infection occurs in pregnant women.

If you are experiencing serious medical symptoms, seek emergency treatment immediately.


What Is the Difference Between Cystitis and UTI?

Your urinary tract is made up of your kidneys, ureters, and bladder. Your body uses this system to rid itself of waste, including bacteria. Your kidneys produce urine, which travels to the bladder for storage before emptying through the urethra.

Normally, your urine does not contain bacteria. When bacteria are introduced to your body through the urethra, they can cause a urinary tract infection (UTI) that is uncomfortable and potentially harmful to your body.

Cystitis and UTIs have similar causes but affect different parts of the urinary system.

What is a urinary tract infection?

&ldquoUrinary tract infection&rdquo is an umbrella term for three possible infections. The diagnosis of each depends on where bacteria are introduced within your urinary tract.

Sometimes bacteria may pass through one part of the urinary tract without causing harm before infecting a different region.

What is cystitis?

Cystitis is a type of UTI caused by bacteria moving up the urinary tract, infecting the bladder.

Other types of UTIs include:

  • Urethritis: Bacteria infects the urethra
  • Pyelonephritis: Blockages in the urinary tract cause urine to back up into the kidneys, causing a kidney infection. Infections that spread up to the kidneys can also cause pyelonephritis.

Symptoms of cystitis and urinary tract infections

The symptoms of cystitis and urinary tract infection are largely the same, so it can be difficult to tell which you&rsquore experiencing.

Symptoms of cystitis

The pain associated with cystitis may be localized to your bladder. If you have cystitis, you&rsquore likely to experience:

  • A feeling of needing to pee more often than normal, even right after using the bathroom that is dark and strong-smelling or burning when you urinate
  • Blood in your urine
  • Pain in your lower stomach area
  • A general feeling of sickness, achiness, and tiredness

Notably, cystitis does not usually cause fever, which is the major difference between symptoms of the two conditions.

Symptoms of urinary tract infections

The most common type of a UTI is a bladder infection. Signs you may have one include:

  • Cloudy or milky-looking urine
  • Urine that smells bad , meaning the infection has reached your kidneys
  • Pain or burning when urinating
  • An urge to pee often, but not much comes out when you go

QUESTION

Causes of cystitis and urinary tract infections

Causes of cystitis

Cystitis can affect anyone, but women are at a much higher risk. The most common cause of cystitis is a bacterial infection, but it can also occur if the bladder gets damaged or irritated in another way.

Other causes of cystitis include:

  • Friction from sexual intercourse
  • Irritation from chemicals found in perfumed soap or bubble bath
  • Damage from a catheter or bladder surgery
  • Medical treatments such as radiotherapy or chemotherapy medications

Some people may be at increased risk of cystitis, including people who have diabetes, people nearing menopause, and people with a history of difficulty emptying their bladders.

Causes of urinary tract infections

Anyone can get a urinary tract infection, although women and girls are at a higher risk than men and boys. This is because the urethra is shorter and closer to the anus.

  • History of UTIs
  • Sexual activity, especially if you or the other person has poor hygiene
  • Changes in the bacteria caused by new soaps or spermicides and other hormone changes
  • Age (older adults and young children are more likely to get UTIs) for men
  • Poor hygiene, especially for children who are potty training

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Stages of cystitis and urinary tract infections

Stages of cystitis

While cystitis is more serious than bacteria in the urethra, it is still easy to treat when it&rsquos caught early. If cystitis isn't treated, the bacteria can spread to your kidneys. Kidney infections are rare but serious.

Stages of urinary tract infections

Urinary tract infections begin on the outside of the body at the urethra. Some bacteria stop there and do not travel further into the urinary tract. If bacteria do make it into the bladder, they can cause cystitis.

Diagnosing cystitis and urinary tract infections

First, your doctor will ask about your symptoms. They may also complete urinalysis to determine your diagnosis. This test will look for:

  • PH balance &ndash this represents if the urine is acidic or alkaline
  • Glucose &ndash sugar levels should remain low in urine output
  • Nitrites &ndash a specific bacteria that causes UTIs
  • Protein &ndash similar to sugar, proteins are not typically found in urine output

Treatments for cystitis and urinary tract infections

Your treatment plan will be customized to the severity of your condition and your symptoms. In most cases, your doctor will prescribe an oral antibiotic to kill bacteria and prevent further infection.

You should finish all the antibiotics prescribed by your doctor. Finish them even if you feel better before the end of your treatment. If you do not finish the antibiotics, you may develop an infection that is harder to treat.

If this happens, you may have a short hospital stay for intravenous (IV) antibiotics and fluids. In addition to treating the infection itself, your doctor may also treat your symptoms with pain medicine to ease discomfort.

Once your infection is clear, make the necessary lifestyle changes to reduce your chances of a future urinary tract infection.

SLIDESHOW



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