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23Alt: Regulation and Integration of Mammalian Metabolism - Literature Reviews - Biology


23Alt: Regulation and Integration of Mammalian Metabolism - Literature Reviews

Biology (BIOL)

Integrated lecture and laboratory focusing on the overriding principles of Biology. Designed to convey biological reasoning to non-science majors. May not count as prerequisite for advanced courses in BIOL. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer)

BIOL�L. Principles of Biology Laboratory (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 1014 Lab). 1 Hour.

Experimental and observational techniques used in biology with emphasis on the acquisition and interpretation of results that illustrate major biological principles. Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer)

BIOL�M. Honors Principles of Biology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

This course is designed for the well prepared student in the Honors program. It focuses on teaching students experimental and observational techniques used in the science of biology. It emphasizes the acquisition and interpretation of results that illustrate the major principles of biology. Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�L.

BIOL�. Principles of Biology (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 1014 Lecture). 3 Hours.

Principles that unify biology with emphasis on scientific study that demonstrates how all organisms are the product of evolution and are parts of interacting systems from the molecular to the ecosystem level. Corequisite: BIOL�L. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer)

BIOL�H. Honors Principles of Biology. 3 Hours.

This course is designed for the well prepared student in Honors program. It focuses on the principles that unify the science of biology. Students will be exposed to how scientific principles have been used to demonstrate that all organisms are the products of evolution and are parts of interacting systems from the molecular to the ecosystem level. Corequisite: BIOL�M or BIOL�L. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�.

BIOL�. Biology for Majors (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 1014 Lecture). 4 Hours.

Integrated lecture and laboratory course designed to prepare Biology Majors to enter the rest of the Biology Core of Cell Biology, General Genetics, Evolutionary Biology, and General Ecology. Pre- or Corequisite: CHEM� or CHEM�. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)

BIOL�H. Honors Biology for Majors. 4 Hours.

Integrated lecture and laboratory course designed to prepare Biology Majors to enter the rest of the Biology Core of Cell Biology, General Genetics, Evolutionary Biology, and General Ecology. Pre or Corequisite: CHEM� or CHEM�. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�.

BIOL�L. Principles of Zoology Laboratory (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 1054 Lab). 1 Hour.

Laboratory exercises illustrating animal structure, physiology, genetics, and ecology. Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall and Summer)

BIOL�. Principles of Zoology (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 1054 Lecture). 3 Hours.

Introduction to zoological principles relating to cells, organ systems, development, genetics, ecology, and animal phyla. Corequisite: BIOL�L. Prerequisite: BIOL� or BIOL� and BIOL�L. (Typically offered: Fall and Summer)

BIOL�L. Plant Biology Laboratory (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 1034 Lab). 1 Hour.

Plant biology lab. Pre- or Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring and Summer)

BIOL�. Plant Biology (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 1034 Lecture). 3 Hours.

Consideration of basic flowering plant structure, growth, development, physiology, genetics, ecology, and a brief survey of other plant groups. Lecture 3 hours per week. BIOL�L is recommended as a corequisite and both are required for partial fulfillment of the Fulbright College natural sciences requirement. Prerequisite: BIOL� or BIOL� and BIOL�L. (Typically offered: Spring and Summer)

BIOL�. Biology Bridges. 3 Hours.

Prepares students for advanced biology courses including genetics, cell biology, ecology, and evolutionary biology, among others. Synthesizes sub-disciplines within biology using the underlying concepts of evolutionary theory found in scientific literature. Prerequisite: BIOL� or BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�L. General Microbiology Laboratory (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 2004 Lab). 1 Hour.

Techniques for handling microorganisms. Does not count toward BS in Biology. Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer)

BIOL�M. Honors General Microbiology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Techniques for handling microorganisms. Does not count towards BS in Biology. Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�L.

BIOL�. General Microbiology (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 2004 Lecture). 3 Hours.

Basic concepts of microbiology including diversity, genetics, metabolism, growth, control of growth, pathogenesis, and immunology. Does not count towards BS in Biology. Corequisite: BIOL�L. Prerequisite: (BIOL� and BIOL�L) or BIOL�)) and (CHEM� and CHEM�L or CHEM� or CHEM� and CHEM�L or CHEM� and CHEM�L). (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer)

BIOL�L. Human Physiology Laboratory (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 2414 Lab). 1 Hour.

Exercises include experiments on osmosis, reflexes, senses, muscle, cardiovascular system, ventilation, metabolism, renal function, etc. Data collection, analysis, and report writing. Does not satisfy the Fulbright College writing requirement. Does not count toward BS in Biology. Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)

BIOL�. Human Physiology (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 2414 Lecture). 3 Hours.

Fundamental concepts of physiology with emphasis in the human. Does not count toward BS in Biology. Corequisite: BIOL�L. Prerequisite: (CHEM� and CHEM�L) or (CHEM�) or (CHEM� and CHEM�L) and MATH�. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)

BIOL�L. General Genetics Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Analysis of genetic problems and experiments with emphasis on "hands-on" experience with a variety of organisms. May require time outside laboratory period. Laboratory 3 hours per week. Pre- or Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)

BIOL�. General Genetics. 3 Hours.

Surveys of Mendelian, molecular, and population mechanisms of inheritance and gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Lecture 3 hours per week. Prerequisite: (BIOL� or BIOL� and BIOL�L) and (CHEM� or CHEM�) and (MATH� or higher or STAT� or STAT� or equivalent). (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)

BIOL�L. Human Anatomy Laboratory (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 2404 Lab). 1 Hour.

Laboratory 3 hours exercises in mammalian anatomy. Cannot be taken without prior credit in BIOL� or concurrent enrollment in BIOL�. Does not count toward BS in Biology. Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer)

BIOL�. Human Anatomy (ACTS Equivalency = BIOL 2404 Lecture). 3 Hours.

Description of human body as a series of organ systems and their interrelationships. Does not count towards BS in Biology. Corequisite: BIOL�L. Prerequisite: Four hours of biological sciences. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer)

BIOL�L. Cell Biology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Introduction to methods and techniques used in Cell Biology research. Laboratory experiences to highlight topics covered in BIOL�. Pre- or Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)

BIOL�. Cell Biology. 3 Hours.

Introduction to cell structure, cell processes, biological polymers, energetics, and diversity. An introduction to biochemistry and cell chemistry. Recommended: (CHEM� and CHEM�L) or (CHEM� and CHEM�L) or equivalent. Prerequisite: BIOL�, or BIOL� and BIOL�L. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)

BIOL�L. Microbial Fermentation Laboratory. 3 Hours.

An inquiry-based introductory lab course that explores the biology and chemistry of brewing, with a focus on brewing microbiology. Laboratory 6 hours per week. Students must be 21 years of age or older on the first day of class. Prerequisite: BIOL� or BIOL�. Pre- or Corequisite: FDSC�. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�L. Principles of Plant Pathology Lab. 1 Hour.

Lab course in examination of the causes and symptoms of plant disease and the genetics of plant disease. Physiology, and ecology of host-pathogen interactions. Spread of disease and principles of disease control. Pre- or Corequisite: PLPA� or BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall)
This course is cross-listed with PLPA�L.

BIOL�. Principles of Plant Pathology. 3 Hours.

Examination of the causes and symptoms of plant disease and the genetics of plant disease. Physiology, and ecology of host-pathogen interactions. Spread of disease and principles of disease control. (Typically offered: Fall)
This course is cross-listed with PLPA�.

BIOL�L. Introduction to Insect Identification Lab. 1 Hour.

Introductory lab course on insect identification, collection, and curation techniques, primarily designed as an intensive add-on to BIOL� for students wanting a more in-depth examination of insect diversity. Insect collection required. Course includes field trips. Students are encouraged to contact instructor before enrolling. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall)
This course is cross-listed with ENTO�L.

BIOL�. Introduction to Entomology. 3 Hours.

Fundamentals of insect biology including structure and function, development, ecology, behavior, plant feeding and disease transmission. Lecture 3 hours/week. Students interested in a more intensive examination of insects, including collection, curation, and identification techniques, should sign up for the separate one credit lab BIOL�L. Students are strongly encouraged to take BIOL� before registering for this course. (Typically offered: Fall)
This course is cross-listed with ENTO�.

BIOL�. Evolutionary Biology. 3 Hours.

An introduction to the mechanisms and patterns of evolutionary change. Seeks to develop logical, scientific skills and to apply them in understanding how life has changed during the history of the earth. Corequisite: Drill component. Prerequisite: (BIOL� or BIOL�, BIOL�L) and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)

BIOL�. Bones, Bodies, and Brains in Evolutionary Perspective. 3 Hours.

Reviews the anatomy of the human body, comparing this anatomy with primates, mammals, and vertebrates, and it will consider how the major features of the human body emerged throughout evolution. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Prokaryote Biology. 3 Hours.

An in-depth coverage of prokaryote diversity, genetics, metabolism, growth, structures and functions. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�H. Honors Prokaryote Biology. 3 Hours.

An in-depth coverage of prokaryote diversity, genetics, metabolism, growth, structures and functions. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�.

BIOL�. Inquiry and Modeling in Science Education. 3 Hours.

Study of science practices with an emphasis on modeling and inquiry for learning/teaching. Includes practical, philosophical, cognitive, and disciplinary specific dimensions of doing science in academic and nonacademic settings. Includes planning and implementing. Prerequisite: 8 hours of BIOL courses. Corequisite: Drill component. (Typically offered: Spring)
This course is cross-listed with PHYS�, CHEM�.

BIOL�H. Honors UAteach Research Methods. 3 Hours.

A project-based course for prospective science and mathematics teachers utilizing scientific research methods and inquiry to solve research problems. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: ARSC� and ARSC 1221, junior standing and honors. (Typically offered: Spring)
This course is cross-listed with PHYS�, CHEM�, BIOL�.

BIOL�. Comparative Vertebrate Morphology. 4 Hours.

Anatomy of selected vertebrate animals with emphasis upon homologous structures in various animal groups. The recommended anatomy course for Biology BS majors. Lecture 2 or 3 hours, laboratory 4 or 6 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL� or BIOL� and BIOL�L. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)

BIOL�L. General Ecology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

General ecology lab. Pre-or Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. General Ecology. 3 Hours.

Ecological principles and concepts environmental factors and interactions that determine distribution and abundance of organisms. Prerequisite: 7 hours of biological science. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)

BIOL�H. Honors Colloquium. 3 Hours.

Covers a special topic or issue, offered as part of the honors program. Prerequisite: honors candidacy (not restricted to candidacy in biological sciences). (Typically offered: Irregular) May be repeated for degree credit.

BIOL�L. Laboratory in Prokaryote Biology. 3 Hours.

Laboratory techniques in prokaryote culture, identification, physiology, metabolism, and genetics. Laboratory 6 hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)

BIOL�. Insect Behavior and Chemical Ecology. 3 Hours.

Basic concepts in insect senses and patterns of behavioral responses to various environmental stimuli. Previous knowledge of basic entomology is helpful, but not required. Lecture 2 hours, laboratory/discussion 2 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)
This course is cross-listed with ENTO�.

BIOL�. Insect Diversity and Taxonomy. 4 Hours.

Principles and practices of insect classification and identification with emphasis on adult insects. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: ENTO�. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)
This course is cross-listed with ENTO�.

BIOL�. Insect Ecology. 3 Hours.

To develop understanding of important ecological concepts through study of dynamic relationships among insects and their environment. To become familiar with the literature of insect ecology, and interpretation and critique of ecological research. Previous knowledge of basic entomology and/or ecology will be assumed. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)
This course is cross-listed with ENTO�.

BIOL�. Taxonomy of Flowering Plants. 4 Hours.

Identifying, naming, and classifying of wildflowers, weeds, trees, and other flowering plants. Emphasis is on the practical aspects of plant identification. Lecture 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�L and BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Dendrology. 4 Hours.

Morphology, classification, geographic distribution, and ecology of woody plants. Lecture 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week, and fieldtrips. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Food Microbiology. 2 Hours.

The study of food microbiology including classification/taxonomy, contamination, preservation and spoilage of different kinds of foods, pathogenic microorganisms, food poisoning, sanitation, control and inspection and beneficial uses of microorganisms. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�L or BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall)
This course is cross-listed with FDSC�.

BIOL�. Plant Disease Control. 3 Hours.

Principles, methods and mechanics of plant disease control. Emphasis is given to the integration of control measures and epidemiology of plant diseases. Lecture 3 hours per week. Prerequisite: PLPA�. (Typically offered: Fall)
This course is cross-listed with PLPA�.

BIOL�. Biology of Global Change. 3 Hours.

Covers impact of global change on sustainability and adaptability of biological systems. Corequisite: BIOL�. Prerequisite: (BIOL� and BIOL�L) or BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Dynamic Models in Biology. 3 Hours.

Mathematical and computational techniques for developing, executing, and analyzing dynamic models arising in the biological sciences. Both discrete and continuous time models are studied. Applications include population dynamics, cellular dynamics, and the spread of infectious diseases. Prerequisite: MATH�. (Typically offered: Irregular)
This course is cross-listed with MATH�.

BIOL�. Conservation Genetics. 4 Hours.

Covers concepts of biodiversity identification and illustrates how genetic data are generated and analyzed to conserve and restore biological diversity. Corequisite: Lab component and drill. Prerequisite: BIOL�, BIOL� and STAT� (or equivalent), and Junior standing. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Biological Regulation and Subcellular Communication. 3 Hours.

Combines lectures, review of primary literature, student presentations, and small group discussions to explore a diversity of topics related to mechanisms of biological regulation and subcellular communication. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Bacterial Lifestyles. 3 Hours.

Introduces students to bacteria as prokaryotic organisms, different from eukaryotes such as plants and animals. Model microbial systems will be studied to identify unique strategies that bacteria employ to thrive in their respective environments or develop special adaptations to harsh environments. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�L or BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)
This course is cross-listed with PLPA�.

BIOL�. Genomics and Bioinformatics. 3 Hours.

Principles of molecular and computational analyses of genomes. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�H. Honors Genomics and Bioinformatics. 3 Hours.

Principles of molecular and computational analyses of genomes. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�.

BIOL�. Comparative Physiology. 4 Hours.

Comparison of fundamental physiological mechanisms in various animal groups. Adaptations to environmental factors at both the organismal and cellular levels are emphasized. Lecture 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL� and CHEM� and (CHEM�L or CHEM�M). (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�L. Ichthyology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Practical application of fish identification based on anatomy, fish sampling methods, and curation of fish specimen. Laboratory component of BIOL�. Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)

BIOL�M. Honors Ichthyology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Practical application of fish identification based on anatomy, fish sampling methods, and curation of fish specimen. Laboratory component of BIOL�H. Prerequisite: Honors standing. Corequisite: BIOL�H. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�L.

BIOL�. Ichthyology. 3 Hours.

Comprehensive overview of the diversity of fishes. Covers anatomy, physiology, evolution, taxonomy, ecology, behavior, zoogeography and conservation of marine and freshwater fishes. Lecture 3 hours per week. Prerequisite: Eight credits in Biology. Corequisite: BIOL�L. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)

BIOL�H. Honors Ichthyology. 3 Hours.

Comprehensive overview of the diversity of fishes. Covers anatomy, physiology, evolution, taxonomy, ecology, behavior, zoogeography and conservation of marine and freshwater fishes. Lecture 3 hours per week. Prerequisite: Eight credits in Biology and honors standing. Corequisite: BIOL�L. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�.

BIOL�. Biology of Global Change Seminar. 2 Hours.

Readings, essays, and group discussions that parallel the 27 lectures in BIOL� and which dissect the resulting impacts of global change on sustainability and adaptability of biological systems. Corequisite: BIOL�. Prerequisite: BIOL� or BIOL� and BIOL�L. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�H. Honors Biology of Global Change Seminar. 2 Hours.

Readings, essays, and group discussions that parallel the 27 lectures in BIOL� and which dissect the resulting impacts of global change on sustainability and adaptability of biological systems. Corequisite: BIOL�. Prerequisite: BIOL� or BIOL� and BIOL�L. (Typically offered: Spring)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�.

BIOL�. Cell Physiology. 3 Hours.

In-depth molecular coverage of cellular processes involved in growth, metabolism, transport, excitation, signalling and motility, with emphasis on function and regulation in eukaryotes, primarily animals. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL� and CHEM� and PHYS�. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�H. Honors Cell Physiology. 3 Hours.

In-depth molecular coverage of cellular processes involved in growth, metabolism, transport, excitation, signalling and motility, with emphasis on function and regulation in eukaryotes, primarily animals. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL� and CHEM� and PHYS�. (Typically offered: Fall)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�.

BIOL�. Endocrinology. 3 Hours.

In endocrinology we study hormonal integration of living processes as all levels from molecule to organism. We will work with the mechanisms of hormone action, the endocrine control axes and hormones physiological role. The course will include paper discussions and student presentations on topics of special interest. Prerequisite: BIOL� or equivalent. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Plant Physiology. 3 Hours.

An introductory course in plant physiology focusing on cellular processes that support the metabolic, developmental, and reproductive needs of plants. Prerequisite: BIOL� or CHEM� or CHEM�. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Molecular Cell Biology. 3 Hours.

In-depth molecular coverage of transcription, cell cycle, translation, and protein processing in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL� and CHEM� and CHEM�L and CHEM� and CHEM�L. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�H. Honors Molecular Cell Biology. 3 Hours.

In-depth molecular coverage of transcription, cell cycle, translation, and protein processing in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL� and CHEM� and CHEM�L and CHEM� and CHEM�L. (Typically offered: Spring)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�.

BIOL�. Comparative Neurobiology. 3 Hours.

Exploration of modern research approaches to understanding the development and function of animal nervous systems, with emphasis on molecular and cellular approaches in non-human animal models commonly used in biomedical research. Format combines lectures, group discussions, and student presentations using examples from the primary neurobiology literature. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL� or equivalents. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Biotechnology in Agriculture. 3 Hours.

Discussion of the techniques, applications, and issues of biotechnology as it is being used in modern agriculture. Coverage includes the basics of molecular biology, production of transgenic plants and animals, and new applications in the agricultural, food, and medical marketplace. Lecture and discussion, 3 hours per week. (Typically offered: Fall)
This course is cross-listed with PLPA�.

BIOL�. Ecological Genetics/Genomics. 3 Hours.

Analysis of the genetics of natural and laboratory populations with emphasis on the ecological bases of evolutionary change. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�L and MATH� and STAT� or equivalents. (Typically offered: Fall Odd Years)

BIOL�. Comparative Botany. 4 Hours.

A comparative approach to organisms classically considered to be plants with emphasis on morphology, life history, development, and phylogeny. Three hours lecture, 4 hours lab per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Mycology. 4 Hours.

Form and function of the fungi. Lecture 2 hours, laboratory 4 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Principles of Evolution. 3 Hours.

Advanced survey of the mechanisms of evolutionary change with special emphasis on advances since the Modern Synthesis. Historical, theoretical, and population genetics approaches are discussed. Recommended BIOL� and BIOL�L and BIOL�L. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)

BIOL�. Physiological Ecology. 3 Hours.

Interactions between environment, physiology, and properties of individuals and populations on both evolutionary and ecological scales. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL� and its lab component. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)

BIOL�L. Population Ecology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Population Ecology Lab. Pre- or Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)

BIOL�. Population Ecology. 3 Hours.

Survey of theoretical and applied aspects of population processes stressing models of growth, interspecific interactions, and adaptation to physical and biotic environments. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)

BIOL�. Plant Ecology. 3 Hours.

To develop understanding of important ecological concepts through study of dynamics relationships among plants and their environment. To become familiar with the literature of plant ecology, and interpretation and critique of ecological research. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)

BIOL�. Developmental Biology. 3 Hours.

An analysis of the principles and mechanisms of development emphasizing the embryonic and postembryonic development of animals. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Developmental Biology with Laboratory. 4 Hours.

An analysis of the concepts of mechanisms of development emphasizing the experimental approach. Lecture 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week. Students may not receive degree credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL� or graduate standing. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Cancer Biology. 3 Hours.

An introduction to the fundamentals of cancer biology. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. 3 Hours.

Introduction to the biology of the order Primates. This course considers the comparative anatomy, behavioral ecology and paleontology of our nearest living relatives. Prerequisite: BIOL� or ANTH�. (Typically offered: Spring)
This course is cross-listed with ANTH�.

BIOL�. Wetlands Ecology and Management. 4 Hours.

To familiarize students with the ecology and management of wetlands. Students will be exposed to the characteristics of wetlands, the environmental factors that produce wetland types, and the management techniques used to meet desired wetland goals. Primary lecture topics will include: wetland definition, wetlands of the world, wetland status, trends, laws, wetland hydrology, wetland soils, wetland plants, wetland plant adaptations, wetland wildlife, wetland wildlife adaptations, wetland ecosystem development, and wetland management. Lecture 2 hours, Laboratory 3 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Forest Ecology. 3 Hours.

Introduction to the various biological, ecological and historical aspects of forest communities, with particular emphasis on the forests of the central and southeastern United States. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Mechanisms of Pathogenesis. 3 Hours.

A survey of the events causing human disease at the molecular, cellular and genetic levels. Seeks to develop an appreciation that both the tricks pathogens use and the body's own defenses contribute to pathology. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�L. Basic Immunology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Basic immunology laboratory. Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Basic Immunology. 3 Hours.

(Formerly MBIO 4714) A general overview of immunity with emphasis on the underlying cellular, molecular, and genetic events, and discussions of more specialized issues in immunology, such as disease states involving the immune system, and other interesting problems in modern immunology. Lecture 2 hours, laboratory 4 hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�H. Honors Basic Immunology. 3 Hours.

A general overview of Immunity with emphasis on the underlying cellular, molecular, and genetic events, and discussions of more specialized issues in Immunology, such as disease states involving the Immune system, and other interesting problems in modern Immunology. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�.

BIOL�. Protistology. 4 Hours.

The biology of eukaryotes other than animals, land plants, and fungi with emphasis on morphology and modern approaches to phylogenetic systematics. Three hours lecture, four hours lab/week. Involves writing term papers. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Wildlife Management Techniques. 4 Hours.

To familiarize students with techniques used in the management of wildlife populations. Students will be exposed to field methods, approaches to data analysis, experimental design, and how to write a scientific paper. Management applications will be emphasized. Lecture 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Fish Biology. 4 Hours.

Morphology, classification, life history, population dynamics, and natural history of fishes and fish-like vertebrates. Lecture 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: 12 hours of biological science. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)

BIOL�. General Virology. 3 Hours.

An introduction to viral life-cycles, structure, and host cell interactions. Emphasis placed on molecular and biochemical aspects of virology. Two hour lecture and one hour discussion. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Ornithology. 3 Hours.

Taxonomy, morphology, physiology, behavior, and ecology of birds. Lecture, laboratory, and field work. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL� (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)

BIOL�. Biometry. 4 Hours.

Students learn biological statistics and experimental design by actually designing experiments and analyzing data, as well as through lecture, discussion, reading, writing, and problem solving. Lecture 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours each week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: (STAT� or STAT� or equivalent) and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)

BIOL�. Mammalogy. 3 Hours.

Lectures and laboratory dealing with classification, morphology, distribution, ecology, behavior, and physiology of mammals. Two hours lecture, 4 hours laboratory. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: 10 hours Biological Sciences. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)

BIOL�. Introduction to Neurobiology. 3 Hours.

Exploration of the neurological underpinnings of perception, action, and experience including: how sense receptors convert information in the world into electricity, how information flows through the nervous systems, how neural wiring makes vision possible, how the nervous system changes with experience, and how the system develops. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL𧋠V. Special Topics in Biological Sciences. 1-6 Hour.

Consideration of new areas of biological sciences not yet treated adequately in other courses. Prerequisite: 8 hours of biological sciences. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer) May be repeated for degree credit.

BIOL𧋠VH. Honors Special Topics in Biological Sciences. 1-6 Hour.

Consideration of new areas of biological sciences not yet treated adequately in other courses. Prerequisite: 8 hours of biological sciences. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer) May be repeated for degree credit.
This course is equivalent to BIOL𧋠V.

BIOL�. Animal Behavior. 3 Hours.

Organization, regulation, and phylogeny of animal behavior, emphasizing vertebrates. Lecture, laboratory, and field work. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Fall Odd Years)

BIOL�. Community and Ecosystem Ecology. 4 Hours.

Survey of theoretical and applied aspects of community processes stressing structure, tropic dynamics, community interactions, and major community types. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall Odd Years)

BIOL�. Analysis of Animal Populations. 3 Hours.

Basic principles of design and analysis for population studies of fish and wildlife species. Students will be instructed in the use of the latest software for estimating population parameters. Focus will be on both concepts and applications. Management applications of estimated parameters will be emphasized. Lecture 2 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)

BIOL�. Microbial Molecular Genetics and Informatics. 3 Hours.

Fundamentals of microbial genomics and bioinformatics. Course covers microbial genetics, genetic structure, genome organization, proteome organization, approaches for the analysis of DNA, RNA, and proteins, cellular metabolic pathways, genetic regulation, small RNA molecules, functional genomics, metagenomics, and bioinformatics approaches for analysis of microbial genomes. Prerequisite: BIOL� or BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�H. Honors Microbial Molecular Genetics and Informatics. 3 Hours.

Fundamentals of microbial genomics and bioinformatics. Course covers microbial genetics, genetic structure, genome organization, proteome organization, approaches for the analysis of DNA, RNA, and proteins, cellular metabolic pathways, genetic regulation, small RNA molecules, functional genomics, metagenomics, and bioinformatics approaches for analysis of microbial genomes. Prerequisite: BIOL� or BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall)
This course is equivalent to BIOL�.

BIOL�. Mammalian Evolution and Osteology. 3 Hours.

Focuses on describing the evolutionary history of mammals, a group of vertebrates that include over 5,000 species in 29 orders, and will provide an overview of living species and their identifying features. Prerequisite: ANTH� and ANTH�L, or BIOL� and BIOL�L, or instructor consent. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)
This course is equivalent to ANTH�.

BIOL𧋰V. Culture and Environment: Field Studies. 1-6 Hour.

May be taken by students participating in overseas study programs or other domestic field study programs approved by the department. (Typically offered: Irregular) May be repeated for up to 12 hours of degree credit.

BIOL𧋰VH. Honors Culture and Environment: Field Studies. 1-6 Hour.

May be taken by students participating in overseas study programs or other domestic field study programs approved by the department. (Typically offered: Irregular) May be repeated for up to 12 hours of degree credit.
This course is equivalent to BIOL𧋰V.

BIOL𧋲V. Senior Thesis. 1-6 Hour.

Senior thesis. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer)

BIOL𧋳V. Research In Biological Sciences. 1-4 Hour.

Research. Prerequisite: Senior standing. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer) May be repeated for up to 8 hours of degree credit.

BIOL𧋳VH. Honors Research in Biological Sciences. 1-4 Hour.

Honors research. Prerequisite: Senior standing. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer) May be repeated for up to 8 hours of degree credit.
This course is equivalent to BIOL𧋳V.

BIOL�. Seminar in Biology. 1 Hour.

Discussion of selected topics and review of current literature in any area of the biological sciences. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring) May be repeated for up to 2 hours of degree credit.

BIOL�L. Laboratory in Prokaryote Biology. 3 Hours.

Laboratory techniques in prokaryote culture, identification, physiology, metabolism, and genetics. Laboratory 6 hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall and Spring)

BIOL�. Insect Diversity and Taxonomy. 4 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) Principles and practices of insect classification and identification with emphasis on adult insects. 2.5 hours lecture, 4 hours lab. Previous knowledge of basic entomology is necessary. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Prerequisite: Instructor consent. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Fall)
This course is cross-listed with ENTO�.

BIOL�. Wildlife Management Techniques. 4 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) To familiarize students with techniques used in the management of wildlife populations. Students will be exposed to field methods, approaches to data analysis, experimental design, and how to write a scientific paper. Management applications will be emphasized. Lecture 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Insect Ecology. 3 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) Teaches important ecological concepts through study of dynamic relationships among insects and their environment. Introduces literature of insect ecology, and interpretation and critique of ecological research. Previous knowledge of basic entomology and/or ecology will be assumed. 2 hours lecture/2 hours lab. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Prerequisite: Instructor consent. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)
This course is cross-listed with ENTO�.

BIOL�. Taxonomy of Flowering Plants. 4 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) Identifying, naming, and classifying of wildflowers, weeds, trees, and other flowering plants. Emphasis is on the practical aspects of plant identification. Lecture 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�L and BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Insect Behavior and Chemical Ecology. 3 Hours.

Basic concepts in insect senses and patterns of behavioral responses to various environmental stimuli. Previous knowledge of basic entomology is helpful, but not required. Prerequisite: Instructor consent. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)
This course is cross-listed with ENTO�.

BIOL�. Food Microbiology. 2 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) The study of food microbiology including classification/taxonomy, contamination, preservation and spoilage of different kinds of foods, pathogenic microorganisms, food poisoning, sanitation, control and inspection and beneficial uses of microorganisms. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�L or BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall)
This course is cross-listed with FDSC�.

BIOL�. Dendrology. 4 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) Morphology, classification, geographic distribution, and ecology of woody plants. Lecture 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week, and fieldtrips. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Insect Molecular Genetics. 3 Hours.

A hands on course in insect molecular genetic techniques including molecular diagnostics and population genetics. Students will learn how to apply advanced molecular genetic methodologies and Internet database resources to insects that they are using for their graduate research. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)
This course is cross-listed with ENTO�.

BIOL�. Practical Programming for Biologists. 3 Hours.

Hands-on instruction in the fundamentals of biological computing. Students learn how to set up a Unix work station, work from the command line, install software, build databases, and program in Python, a popular scripting language for biological applications. Most examples focus on the analysis of genomic data. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Dynamic Models in Biology. 3 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) Mathematical and computational techniques for developing, executing, and analyzing dynamic models arising in the biological sciences. Both discrete and continuous time models are studied. Applications include population dynamics, cellular dynamics, and the spread of infectious diseases. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Prerequisite: MATH�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Conservation Genetics. 4 Hours.

Covers concepts of biodiversity identification and illustrates how genetic data are generated and analyzed to conserve and restore biological diversity. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL�, BIOL� and STAT� (or equivalent) and graduate standing. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Biological Regulation and Subcellular Communication. 3 Hours.

Combines lectures, review of primary literature, student presentations, and small group discussions to explore a diversity of topics related to mechanisms of biological regulation and subcellular communication. Prerequisite: Graduate standing. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Bacterial Lifestyles. 3 Hours.

The course will introduce students to bacteria as prokaryotic organisms, different from eukaryotes such as plants and animals. Model microbial systems will be studied in more detail to identify unique strategies that bacteria employ to thrive in their respective environment, whether they are causing diseases or establishing beneficial interactions with animal or plants or coexisting with other microorganisms in diverse ecological environments. The course will also cover special adaptations that bacteria have evolved to adapt to harsh environments and how these adaptations can be harnessed to control pollution. Prerequisite: (BIOL� and BIOL�L) or BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)
This course is cross-listed with PLPA�.

BIOL�. Genomics and Bioinformatics. 3 Hours.

Principles of molecular and computational analyses of genomes. Prerequisite: BIOL� or BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�L. Ichthyology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Practical application of fish identification based on anatomy, fish sampling methods, and curation of fish specimen. Laboratory component of BIOL�. Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)

BIOL�. Ichthyology. 3 Hours.

Comprehensive overview of the diversity of fishes. Covers anatomy, physiology, evolution, taxonomy, ecology, behavior, zoogeography and conservation of marine and freshwater fishes. Lecture 3 hours per week. Corequisite: BIOL�L. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)

BIOL�. Comparative Physiology. 4 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) Comparison of fundamental physiological mechanisms in various animal groups. Adaptations to environmental factors at both the organismal and cellular levels are emphasized. Lecture 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Prerequisite: BIOL� and CHEM� and (CHEM�L or CHEM�M). (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Cell Physiology. 3 Hours.

In-depth molecular coverage of cellular processes involved in growth, metabolism, transport, excitation, signaling and motility, with emphasis on function and regulation in eukaryotes, primarily animals. Prerequisite: BIOL�, BIOL�, BIOL�L, CHEM�, and PHYS�. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Endocrinology. 3 Hours.

In endocrinology we study hormonal integration of living processes at all levels from molecule to organism. We will work with the mechanisms of hormone action, the endocrine control axes and hormones physiological role. The course will include paper discussions and student presentations on topics of special interest. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Plant Physiology. 3 Hours.

Introductory course in plant physiology focusing on cellular processes that support the metabolic, developmental, and reproductive needs of plants. Prerequisite: 3 hours of cell biology or biochemistry. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Molecular Cell Biology. 3 Hours.

In-depth molecular coverage of transcription, cell cycle, translation, and protein processing in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL� and CHEM� and CHEM�L and CHEM� and CHEM�L. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Comparative Neurobiology. 3 Hours.

Exploration of modern research approaches to understanding the development and function of animal nervous systems, with emphasis on molecular and cellular approaches in non-human animal models commonly used in biomedical research. Format combines lectures, group discussions, and student presentations using examples from the primary neurobiology literature. Prerequisite: Graduate standing. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Advanced Immunology. 3 Hours.

Aspects of innate, cell-mediated, and humoral immunity in mammalian and avian species. Molecular mechanisms underlying the function of the immune system are emphasized. A course in Basic Immunology prior to enrollment in Advanced Immunology is recommended but not required. Lecture 3 hours per week. (Typically offered: Spring)
This course is cross-listed with POSC�.

BIOL�L. Immunology in the Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Laboratory course on immune-diagnostic laboratory techniques and uses of antibodies as a research tool. Included are cell isolation and characterization procedures, immunochemistry, flow cytometry, ELISA and cell culture assay systems. Laboratory 6 hours per week. Prerequisite: POSC� or BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)
This course is cross-listed with POSC�L.

BIOL�. Ecological Genetics/genomics. 3 Hours.

Analysis of the genetics of natural and laboratory populations with emphasis on the ecological bases of evolutionary change. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�L, BIOL� and MATH� and STAT� or equivalents. (Typically offered: Fall Odd Years)

BIOL�. Comparative Botany. 4 Hours.

A comparative approach to organisms classically considered to be plants with emphasis on morphology, life history, development, and phylogeny. Three hours lecture, 4 hours lab per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: Graduate standing. (Typically offered: Fall Odd Years)

BIOL�. Mycology. 4 Hours.

Form and function of the fungi. Lecture 2 hours, laboratory 4 hours per week.Corequisite: Laboratory component. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Principles of Evolution. 3 Hours.

Advanced survey of the mechanisms of evolutionary change with special emphasis on advances since the Modern Synthesis. Historical, theoretical, and population genetics approaches are discussed. Recommended: BIOL� and BIOL�L and BIOL�L. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)

BIOL�. Physiological Ecology. 3 Hours.

Interactions between environment, physiology, and properties of individuals and populations on both evolutionary and ecological scales. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)

BIOL�L. Population Ecology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Demonstration of the models and concepts from BIOL�. Pre- or Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)

BIOL�. Population Ecology. 3 Hours.

Survey of theoretical and applied aspects of populations processes stressing models of growth, interspecific interactions, and adaptation to physical and biotic environments. Corequisite: BIOL�L. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)

BIOL�. Plant Ecology. 3 Hours.

To develop understanding of important ecological concepts through study of dynamics relationships among plants and their environment. To become familiar with the literature of plant ecology, and interpretation and critique of ecological research. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)

BIOL�. Developmental Biology with Laboratory. 4 Hours.

An analysis of the concepts and mechanisms of development emphasizing the experimental approach. Students may not receive degree credit for both BIOL� Developmental Biology and BIOL� Developmental Biology with Laboratory. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Biochemical Genetics. 4 Hours.

Lectures and laboratories based on modern molecular genetic techniques for analyses of eukaryotes and manipulation of prokaryotes. A hands-on course in recombinant DNA techniques: laboratory practices in gene identification, cloning, and characterization. Lecture 2 hours, laboratory 6 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL� (or equivalent) and CHEM� (or equivalent). (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Developmental Biology. 3 Hours.

An analysis of the principles and mechanisms of development emphasizing the embryonic and postembryonic development of animals. Degree credit will not be allowed for both BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Astrobiology. 3 Hours.

Discusses the scientific basis for the possible existence of extraterrestrial life. Includes the origin and evolution of life on Earth, possibility of life elsewhere in the solar system (including Mars), and the possibility of life on planets around other stars. Prerequisite: Instructor consent. (Typically offered: Irregular)
This course is cross-listed with SPAC�.

BIOL�. Cancer Biology. 3 Hours.

An introduction to the fundamentals of cancer biology. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. 3 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) Introduction to the biology of the order Primates. This course considers the comparative anatomy, behavioral ecology and paleontology of our nearest living relatives. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Prerequisite: BIOL� or ANTH�. (Typically offered: Spring)
This course is cross-listed with ANTH�.

BIOL�. Wetlands Ecology and Management. 4 Hours.

To familiarize students with the ecology and management of wetlands. Students will be exposed to the characteristics of wetlands, the environmental factors that produce wetland types, and the management techniques used to meet desired wetland goals. Primary lecture topics will include: wetland definition, wetlands of the world, wetland status, trends, laws, wetland hydrology, wetland soils, wetland plants, wetland plant adaptations, wetland ecosystem development, and wetland management. Lecture 2 hours, Laboratory 3 hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Eukaryote Phylogeny. 3 Hours.

Molecular analysis of the eukaryotic tree of life, phylogenetic tree reconstruction, and eukaryote diversity and evolutionary relationships. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)

BIOL�. Forest Ecology. 3 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) Introduction to the various biological, ecological and historical aspects of forest communities, with particular emphasis on the forests of the central and southeastern United States. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Mechanisms of Pathogenesis. 3 Hours.

A survey of events causing human disease at the molecular, cellular and genetic levels. Seeks to develop an appreciation that both the tricks pathogens use and the body's own defenses contribute to pathology. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�L. Basic Immunology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

(Formerly BIOL�L.) Basic immunology laboratory. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL�L and BIOL�L. Corequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Basic Immunology. 3 Hours.

A general overview of Immunity with emphasis on the underlying cellular, molecular and genetic events controlling immune reactions. Reading of the primary literature on disease states involving the immune system. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Fish Biology. 3 Hours.

Morphology, classification, life histories, population dynamics, and natural history of fishes and fish-like vertebrates. Lecture 2 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: 12 hours of biological sciences. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)

BIOL�. Protistology. 4 Hours.

The biology of eukaryotes other than animals, land plants, and fungi with emphasis on morphology and modern approaches to phylogenetic systematics. Three hours lecture, four hours lab/week. Involves writing term papers. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Herpetology. 3 Hours.

Morphology, classification and ecology of amphibians and reptiles. Lecture 2 hours, laboratory 1 hour per week. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)

BIOL�. General Virology. 3 Hours.

An introduction to viral life-cycles, structure, and host cell interactions. Emphasis placed on molecular and biochemical aspects of virology. Two hour lecture and one hour discussion. Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL�. Ornithology. 3 Hours.

Taxonomy, morphology, physiology, behavior, and ecology of birds. Lecture, laboratory, and field work. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: 10 hours of biological sciences. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)

BIOL�. Biometry. 4 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) Students learn biological statistics and experimental design by actually designing experiments and analyzing data, as well as through lecture, discussion, reading, writing, and problem solving. Lecture 3 hours, laboratory 3 hours each week. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: STAT� or equivalent, BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)

BIOL�. Mammalogy. 3 Hours.

Lectures and laboratory dealing with classification, morphology, distribution, ecology, behavior, and physiology of mammals. Two hours lecture, 4 hours laboratory. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Introduction to Neurobiology. 3 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) Exploration of the neurological underpinnings of perception, action, and experience including: how sense receptors convert information in the world into electricity, how information flows through the nervous systems, how neural wiring makes vision possible, how the nervous system changes with experience, and how the system develops. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring)

BIOL𧍄V. Special Topics in Biological Sciences. 1-6 Hour.

Consideration of new areas of biological sciences not yet treated adequately in other courses. Prerequisite: 8 hours of biological sciences. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer) May be repeated for up to 6 hours of degree credit.

BIOL�. Science Communication. 3 Hours.

Covers the foundations of writing strategies, how to communicate with discipline-specific versus broad audiences, elements of an effective presentation, and the manuscript and proposal review process. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Animal Behavior. 3 Hours.

Organization, regulation, and phylogeny of animal behavior, emphasizing vertebrates. Lecture, laboratory, and field work. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Fall Odd Years)

BIOL�. Conservation Biology. 3 Hours.

The study of direct and indirect factors by which biodiversity is impacted by human activity. It is a synthetic field of study that incorporates principles of ecology, biogeography, population genetics, economics, sociology, anthropology, philosophy, geology, and geography. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Irregular)

BIOL�. Community Ecology. 4 Hours.

Survey of theoretical and applied aspects of community processes stressing structure, trophic dynamics, community interactions, and major community types. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Fall Odd Years)

BIOL�. Analysis of Animal Populations. 3 Hours.

(Formerly BIOL�.) Basic principles of design and analysis for population studies of fish and wildlife species. Students will be instructed in the use of the latest software for estimating population parameters. Focus will be on both concepts and applications. Management applications of estimated parameters will be emphasized. Lecture 2 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: BIOL�. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)

BIOL�. Microbial Molecular Genetics and Informatics. 3 Hours.

Fundamentals of microbial genomics and bioinformatics. Course covers microbial genetics, genetic structure, genome organization, proteome organization, approaches for the analysis of DNA, RNA, and proteins, cellular metabolic pathways, genetic regulation, small RNA molecules, functional genomics, metagenomics, and bioinformatics approaches for analysis of microbial genomes. Prerequisite: Graduate status. (Typically offered: Fall)

BIOL�. Mammalian Evolution and Osteology. 3 Hours.

Focuses on describing the evolutionary history of mammals, a group of vertebrates that include over 5,000 species in 29 orders, and will provide an overview of living species and their identifying features. Credit will not be given for both ANTH� and ANTH�. Prerequisite: Instructor consent. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)
This course is cross-listed with ANTH�.

BIOL�. Stream Ecology. 4 Hours.

Current concepts and research in lotic ecosystem dynamics. Lecture, laboratory, field work and individual research projects required. Corequisite: Lab component. Prerequisite: 3 hours of ecology-related coursework. (Typically offered: Fall Even Years)

BIOL�. Global Biogeochemistry: Elemental Cycles and Environmental Change. 3 Hours.

This course explores the chemical, biological, and geological processes occurring within ecosystems. An understanding of these processes is used to investigate how they form the global biogeochemical cycles that provide energy and nutrients necessary for life. Class discussions focus on global change and the effects of more recent anthropogenic influences. Prerequisite: 3 hours of chemistry or biochemistry and ecology. (Typically offered: Spring Odd Years)

BIOL𧍔V. Culture and Environment: Field Studies. 1-6 Hour.

(Formerly BIOL𧋰V.) May be taken by students participating in overseas study programs or other domestic field study programs approved by the department. Graduate degree credit will not be given for both BIOL𧋰V and BIOL𧍔V. (Typically offered: Irregular) May be repeated for up to 12 hours of degree credit.

BIOL𧍘V. Master's Thesis. 1-6 Hour.

Master's Thesis. Prerequisite: Graduate standing. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer) May be repeated for degree credit.

BIOL�. Insect Physiology. 3 Hours.

General and comparative physiology of insects. Previous knowledge of basic entomology is helpful, but not required. Lecture 2 hours, laboratory 3 hours per week. Corequisite: Lab component. (Typically offered: Spring Even Years)
This course is cross-listed with ENTO�.

BIOL𧎼V. Doctoral Dissertation. 1-18 Hour.

Doctoral Dissertation. Prerequisite: Graduate standing. (Typically offered: Fall, Spring and Summer) May be repeated for degree credit.


The regulation of food intake in mammalian hibernators: a review

One of the most profound hallmarks of mammalian hibernation is the dramatic reduction in food intake during the winter months. Several species of hibernator completely cease food intake (aphagia) for nearly 7 months regardless of ambient temperature and in many cases, whether or not food is available to them. Food intake regulation has been studied in mammals that hibernate for over 50 years and still little is known about the physiological mechanisms that control this important behavior in hibernators. It is well known from lesion experiments in non-hibernators that the hypothalamus is the main brain region controlling food intake and therefore body mass. In hibernators, the regulation of food intake and body mass is presumably governed by a circannual rhythm since there is a clear seasonal rhythm to food intake: animals increase food intake in the summer and early autumn, food intake declines in autumn and actually ceases in winter in many species, and resumes again in spring as food becomes available in the environment. Changes in circulating hormones (e.g., leptin, insulin, and ghrelin), nutrients (glucose, and free fatty acids), and cellular enzymes such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) have been shown to determine the activity of neurons involved in the food intake pathway. Thus, it appears likely that the food intake pathway is controlled by a variety of inputs, but is also acted upon by upstream regulators that are presumably rhythmic in nature. Current research examining the molecular mechanisms and integration of environmental signals (e.g., temperature and light) with these molecular mechanisms will hopefully shed light on how animals can turn off food intake and survive without eating for months on end.

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POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION FOR CARBON ALLOCATION

To date, the molecular mechanisms of how sugar metabolism and transport is regulated at the post-transcriptional level remain largely unknown. Nonetheless, there have been several reports indicating that mRNA turnover and microRNAs (miRNAs) are key components underlying post-transcriptional regulation of genes encoding sugar metabolic enzymes or transporters (Lu et al. 2005 Kühn and Grof 2010 Liesche et al. 2011 Wang et al. 2012 ).

Regulation by mRNA turnover

H + /Suc symporters (SUTs) are major players for apoplasmic Suc phloem loading and other important developmental processes such as pollen tube elongation and seed development (Ruan et al. 1995 Braun et al. 2014 ). There is now evidence that SUT expression is regulated at the post-transcriptional level by mRNA turnover affecting transcript stability (Williams et al. 2000 Kühn and Grof 2010 ). SUT mRNAs are short-lived with half-life ranging between 60 and 130 min and this quick turnover suggests a very responsive regulation of SUT gene transcription (He et al. 2008 Liesche et al. 2011 ). In an early report, it was shown that the mRNA level of SUT1 is diurnally regulated and has a high turnover rate in leaves of three Solanaceae species, including potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), and tobacco (Kühn et al. 1997 ). It was subsequently revealed that while the diurnal oscillation of the potato StSUT1 mRNA is unlikely related to post-transcriptional mRNA decay, StSUT2 and StSUT4 mRNA levels may be regulated by putative RNA binding proteins (He et al. 2008 ). Here, the 3′ untranslated regions (3′ UTRs) or coding regions of the StSUT2 and StSUT4, contain some AUUUA motifs (He et al. 2008 ), which have been characterized as the binding sites for proteins in mediating mRNA degradation (Chen and Shyu 1995 ). These findings suggest that there might be some very short-lived RNA-binding proteins that play an important role in the post-transcriptional control of StSUT2 and StSUT4 mRNA stability (He et al. 2008 Liesche et al. 2011 ). Interestingly, in the presence of both transcriptional and translational inhibitors, actinomycin D and cycloheximide respectively, the half-life of StSUT2 and StSUT4 mRNA increased significantly in comparison with that treated with the transcriptional inhibitor alone (He et al. 2008 ). Therefore, when transcription was inhibited, translational inhibition of protein synthesis could increase StSUT2 and StSUT4 mRNA levels, resulting in prolonged mRNA half-life. It is unclear, though, whether the increased mRNA stability involves the action of putative RNA-binding proteins and, if so, what their identities are.

Similarly, with regard to INV, it has been reported that there are apparent downstream (DST) elements in the 3′ UTRs of the sugar-repressed genes OsVIN1 and AtvacINV2 in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively (Huang 2006 Huang et al. 2007 ). DST elements have been implicated in rapid destabilization of other plant mRNAs such as small auxin-up RNAs (SAUR) (Newman et al. 1993 Feldbrugge et al. 2002 ). Importantly, Glc enhanced the decay of AtvacINV2 mRNA when its transcription is blocked by cordycepin (Huang 2006 Huang et al. 2007 ). It is yet to be established whether this Glc-induced mRNA decay is mediated through the DST elements harbored in AtvacINV2 and what the physiological implications are for such a Glc-induced RNA decay.

Possible regulation by putative miRNAs

miRNAs, a class of 20–24 nucleotide non-protein-coding small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs), are able to: (i) cleave mRNAs through binding to the target mRNAs and catalyzing the activity of the RNA silencing complex or (ii) reduce protein levels by repressing translation (Jones-Rhoades et al. 2006 Li et al. 2013 ). In Arabidopsis, seven out of nine different SUT genes have been bioinformatically identified to be putative miRNA target genes (Lu et al. 2005 Kühn and Grof 2010 ), but with two exceptions, AtSUT2 and AtSUT4, the orthologous genes of which in potato, that is StSUT2 and StSUT4, respectively, have been suggested to be post-transcriptionally regulated by very short-lived RNA-binding proteins (He et al. 2008 ) as discussed earlier. Moreover, several miRNAs, including miR164, miR166, miR167, miR414, miR531, miR854 and miR2102, were predicted to target genes encoding Sus, cellulose synthases, glycosyltransferases, glycoside hydrolases, polygalacturonases, and SUTs respectively in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) (Xie et al. 2010 ). However, to date, no miRNAs have been experimentally demonstrated to directly regulate the transcript levels of any genes associated with sugar metabolism and transport.

Developed from the miRNA-mediated gene silencing principle, artificial miRNA (amiRNA) technology has now emerged as a powerful approach to determine the physiological function of sugar transport-related genes. For example, amiRNA-mediated tissue-specific silencing of the expression of the dominant allele OsSWEET11 (Xa13/Os8N3) in rice conferred resistance to bacterial blight (Li et al. 2012a ). Here, the promoters of rice or Arabidopsis ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (rbcs) that were predominantly expressed in green tissues, were used to drive amiRNAs homologous to OsSWEET11. As a result, OsSWEET11 expression in green tissues was suppressed to prevent bacterial pathogens from obtaining sugars (mainly Glc) from rice green tissues, whereas its expression in developing pollen was not affected, allowing viable seeds to be produced.


Cellular energy metabolism: lessons from control analysis

Organs consist of multiple tissues that, in turn, consist of specific cell types. The control of metabolism in hepatocytes, neurons, tubule cells, and cardiomyocytes therefore becomes a central issue to consider when determining what controls the rate of metabolism in livers, brains, kidneys, hearts and,ultimately, whole animals.

There are now many examples of the application of metabolic control analysis to studies of the control of flux through various pathways(Fell, 1997). The prediction,based on theoretical considerations, that control should be shared by multiple steps, is now supported by a large body of empirical evidence. For example,arguments concerning what is rate-limiting in glycolysis are now informed by quantitative data. Using a bottom-up approach that involves estimating Ci values from the elasticities (i.e. enzyme kinetic responses to variation in substrate concentration) at each of the steps,Kashiwaya et al. (1994) found not only distribution of control among multiple steps, but also changes in Ci values as hearts were perfused with or without insulin and with single or multiple substrates. Thus, the control of flux is shared by multiple steps whose relative contributions can change in response to changes in physiological conditions.

Under steady-state, aerobic conditions, most of the total cellular O2 consumption is due to mitochondrial respiration (for the present discussion, we shall ignore the small fraction due to non-mitochondrial processes). Because energy metabolism is inherently complex, addressing the question of what controls mitochondrial O2 consumption in intact cells is potentially more difficult than determining Civalues for individual steps in linear pathways. To a large extent, the difficulties have been surmounted by the use of top-down metabolic control analysis. This is a simplifying approach, developed by Brand and colleagues(Brand, 1996), which involves conceptually subdividing metabolism into blocks consisting of entire pathways,networks of pathways or groups of reactions. Individual blocks are considered to be linked to each other via a common intermediate, and the strength of control of blocks over each other is estimated empirically. In isolated liver mitochondria, Hafner et al.(1990) designated the group of reactions involving substrate oxidation that create the proton-motive force,Δ p, as one such block. Two other blocks were designated as those involved in dissipating Δp, i.e. proton leak and the phosphorylation system (i.e. ATP synthesis). The kinetic responses of these blocks, measured as O2 consumption, to changes in their common intermediate, Δp, were determined. Fig. 2 plots the Ci values of substrate oxidation, proton leak and phosphorylation systems on mitochondrial respiration as a function of percent of the state 3 rate (maximum rate of O2 consumption coupled to ATP synthesis). It is seen that non-phosphorylating mitochondria (state 4) respire at between 10-20% of the maximum rate. Under these conditions, substrate oxidation accounts for a small fraction and proton leak accounts for most of the control of respiration, while ATP synthesis has no influence. As mitochondria approach 100% of their state 3 respiration rate, control by proton leak declines while control by ATP synthesis increases. Control of substrate oxidation increases more gradually until it shares, along with ATP synthesis, most of control, while proton leak has minimal influence over respiration at 100% of state 3.

Flux control coefficients of ATP turnover (solid line), substrate oxidation(thick broken line), and proton leak (thin broken line), showing shared and changing contributions to control as the system moves towards 100% of state 3 respiration rate. Results were obtained using top-down control analysis. Redrawn from Brand et al.(1993).

Flux control coefficients of ATP turnover (solid line), substrate oxidation(thick broken line), and proton leak (thin broken line), showing shared and changing contributions to control as the system moves towards 100% of state 3 respiration rate. Results were obtained using top-down control analysis. Redrawn from Brand et al.(1993).

In contrast with isolated mitochondria, both ATP synthesis and hydrolysis occur simultaneously and might be expected to regulate each other in intact cells. Applying the top-down approach to the control of respiration in isolated rat hepatocytes, Brown et al.(1990) estimated Ci values of 0.29 for the processes that generateΔ p, 0.49 for the processes that synthesize, transport and use ATP, and 0.22 for the proton leak. In isolated perfused rat livers in the`resting' state, i.e. when no substrates for gluconeogenesis or ureagenesis are provided, Soboll et al.(1998) found that mitochondrial respiration is controlled by `maintenance' ATP-hydrolyzing reactions, while mitochondrial reactions involved in ATP synthesis have no influence. However, when livers are made to synthesize glucose and urea at high rates, mitochondrial ATP synthesis exerts strong control over its own rate as well as on both gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis. In addition, both gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis exert negative control over each other's rates, presumably by competing for ATP. In such active livers, maintenance ATP-hydrolyzing reactions are unaffected by rates of mitochondrial ATP supply and demand by other processes, but exert control over all other pathways. It is likely that in vivo, when livers are actually performing their physiological functions, control of mitochondrial O2 consumption is shared by ATP-requiring biosynthetic and maintenance reactions with processes involved in ATP synthesis and proton leak(Rolfe et al., 1999).

Mammalian kidneys are estimated to have `basal' rates of O2consumption that are between 3-18% of the normal physiological rates expressed when active ion transport is occurring. Experiments involving manipulation of rates of Na + transport yield a positive, linear relationship between transport and O2 consumption rates, and such results have been used to calculate the ATP cost of Na + pumping by Na + -K + -ATPase(Mandel and Balaban, 1981). Although control analysis has not been conducted on perfused kidneys or kidney tubules in vitro, it is apparent that the metabolic rates of kidneys are controlled by rates of energy expenditure, i.e. ATP hydrolysis, driven primarily by active ion transport.

Arrested hearts consume O2 at only 15% of the rates seen in normal, working hearts. Therefore, about 85% of cardiac metabolic rate represents the energetic cost of performing mechanical work plus the cost of excitation-contraction coupling (Rolfe and Brown, 1997). Cardiac O2 increases linearly with work rate, and intracellular free Ca 2+ may be involved in the concerted regulation of both O2 as well as work rate (Balaban and Heineman,1989 Territo et al.,2001). In recent work involving top-down control analysis of cardiac energy metabolism, Diolez et al.(2000, 2002) designated ATP-synthesizing and hydrolyzing reactions as two separate blocks, linked by their common intermediate, ATP. Using perfused rat hearts, they found that ATP hydrolysis accounts for about 90% of the control of respiration, while the remainder is accounted for by ATP synthesis. Energy metabolism in cardiac tissue is not limited by the supply of O2 or substrates(Mootha et al., 1997 Zhang et al., 1999). These findings, as well as the results of Diolez et al.(2002), provide quantitative support for the widely held view that energy expenditure (i.e. work rate),rather than the rate of material supply, sets the pace for cardiac energy metabolism.


Nutrition (NTR)

Basic scientific principles of food preparation with emphasis upon the science of food, standards of selection, purchasing, preparation, storage, preservation, and sustainability.

NTR 203 Basic Quantitative Principles in Food and Nutrition 1

Basic quantitative principles of food production, food service operation, menu planning, food portioning, and menu costing developed through activities that stress adapting standard recipes, measurement conversions, developing basic culinary costing techniques, and use of nutrition-related calculations.

Prerequisites: Grade of C (2.0) or better in MAT 115. NUTR major or minor Pr. or Coreq.: NTR 103.

NTR 213 Introductory Nutrition 3

Basic principles of human nutrition with emphasis on the nutrients and factors which affect their utilization in the human body.

MAC: MAC Health and Wellness

NTR 282 Introduction to Dietetics 1

An overview of dietetics profession that will cover scope of practice, code of ethics, resources for evidence based practice, professional organizations, career options, professional development, and professional trends.

Prerequisites: Nutrition major.

NTR 300X Experimental Course 1-6

This number reserved for experimental courses. Refer to the Course Schedule for current offerings.

NTR 302 Nutrition Education and Application Processes 3

Study of communication of nutrition science through nutrition education, professional literature, and public media. Evaluation and use of professional and scientific literature in nutrition and food systems.

Prerequisites: Grade of C (2.0) or better in NTR 213 and ENG 101. Written permission required.

NTR 309 Quantity Food Procurement and Production 3

Procurement and production of quantity foods with an emphasis on menu planning, pre-preparation, service, sanitation, delivery systems, selection, use, and care of quantity-food equipment.

Prerequisites: Grade of C (2.0) or better in NTR 203. Written permission required

Corequisites: NTR 309L.

Notes: Professional liability insurance required.

NTR 309L Qty Food Procuremnt / Prod Lab 0

NTR 313 Nutrition Throughout the Life Cycle 3

Principles of nutrition applied to meet the nutrient needs at different stages of the life cycle. Forces governing food availability, acceptability, nutritive quality and safety are stressed in the preparation of nutritional plans for individuals and groups.

Prerequisites: Grade of C (2.0) or better in NTR 213 or permission of instructor .

NTR 400 Supervised Professional Experience 1-4

Supervised professional experience in selected commercial or industrial organizations, public or private agencies in accordance with the major course of study of the student.

NTR 400X Experimental Course 1-6

This number reserved for experimental courses. Refer to the Course Schedule for current offerings.

NTR 401 Special Problems in Nutrition 1-4

Individual study. Conference hours to be arranged.

NTR 403 Food Science and Technology 2

Lecture covering experimental study of factors regulating the preparation of standard food products and review of current developments in food technology.

Prerequisites: Grade of C (2.0) or better in NTR 103, NTR 203, NTR 213, NTR 302. CHE 110 and CHE 101 or CHE 103 or CHE 111 Written permission required

Corequisites: NTR 403L.

NTR 403L Food Science and Technology Laboratory 1

Laboratory covering experimental study of factors regulating the preparation of standard food products and review of current developments in food technology.

Prerequisites: Grade of C (2.0) or better in NTR 103, NTR 203, NTR 213, and NTR 302. CHE 110 and CHE 101, or CHE 103, or CHE 111

Corequisites: NTR 403.

Notes: All types of foods will be prepared and taste tested for sensory evaluation throughout the course and student grades will be based on participation in this course requirement.

NTR 413 Intermediate Nutrition 3

Intermediate approach toward understanding energy metabolism with an emphasis on mechanisms that regulate fuel intake, storage and utilization during normal and altered states of energy demands.

Prerequisites: Grade of C (2.0) or better in NTR 213, BIO 111, BIO 277 or KIN 292, CHE 103, CHE 104.

NTR 421 International Nutrition and Cultural Foods 3

This course examines issues related to food insecurity and malnutrition in developing countries. Diet and food choices are explored in the context of culture, religion, and geographical conditions.

Prerequisites: NUTR major or minor. grade of C (2.0) or better in NTR 213 and NTR 313.

NTR 423 Community Nutrition 3

Current community nutrition trends with emphasis on community services, government projects, and grant proposal writing. Students will engage in community service work to gain experience with important community issues.

Prerequisites: NUTR major or minor. grade of C (2.0) or better in NTR 213, NTR 302, and NTR 313 or permission of instructor .

NTR 426 Management Practices for Dietetics 3

Management practices and administration within foodservice and clinical dietetics settings. Operational assessment, evaluation, and cost control related to foodservice systems in commercial and noncommercial settings.

Prerequisites: Grade of C (2.0) or better in NTR 309 .

NTR 427 Undergraduate Research 2-6

Prerequisites: GPA of 3.0 in nutrition, biology, and chemistry courses, or permission of the instructor.

Notes: May be repeated for credit if topic changes.

NTR 431 Nutrition and Human Metabolism 4

Structure, function, and metabolism of nutrients and related compounds integration of nutrient metabolism at the cellular level with total body function practical application of basic principles of nutrient metabolism.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C in BIO 277 or KIN 292, NTR 413, and CHE 103 (or CHE 111). CHE 104 (or CHE 114) CHE 110 (or CHE 112) CHE 205 (or CHE 351 and CHE 352) CHE 206 (or CHE 354) or their equivalents as determined by the instructor.

NTR 450 Nutrition Assessment 3

Assessment of nutritional status of healthy and ill persons before initiation of medical nutrition therapy.

Prerequisites: Grade of C (2.0) or better in BIO 277 or KIN 292. completion of NTR 213, NTR 313, and NTR 413.

NTR 450L Nutrition Assessement Lab 0

NTR 453 Child and Adolescent Nutrition 3

Nutritional needs of children and adolescents methods of evaluating nutritional status of these groups effects of nutrition on development.

Prerequisites: Grade of C (2.0) or better in NTR 213 or equivalent, and BIO 277 or equivalent.

NTR 460 Advanced Nutrition 4

Biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrient metabolism and utilization. Nutrient metabolism, flux, and requirements during the lifecycle and during fed/fasted states will be discussed, with emphasis on mechanisms that regulate these processes.

Prerequisites: Grade of C or better in NTR 313, NTR 413, NTR 431, and BIO 277 or KIN 292, or equivalents as determined by the instructor.

NTR 473 Medical Nutrition Therapy 4

Clinical aspects of nutrition. Development and use of therapeutic diets to combat nutritional diseases and physiological disorders.

Prerequisites: Grade of C or better in NTR 313, NTR 413, NTR 431, NTR 450, NTR 460, and BIO 277 or KIN 292.

NTR 473L Medical Nutrition Therapy Lab 0

NTR 474 Medical Nutrition Therapy 1 4

Part 1 of 2-semester course sequence. Course focuses on applying Nutrition Care Process to determine weight-inclusive medical nutrition therapy for patients/clients experiencing physiological stress or disease using evidence-based guidelines.

Corequisites: NTR 460.

NTR 475 Medical Nutrition Therapy 2 4

Part 2 of a 2-semester course sequence. Course focuses on applying Nutrition Care Process and evidence-based guidelines to treat clients experiencing physiological stress or disease using weight-inclusive medical nutrition therapy.

NTR 476 Sports Nutrition 3

Application of sports nutrition recommendations among athletes. Principles of diet planning and goal setting for optimizing training and athletic performance. Common and current nutrition-related topics in sports nutrition.

NTR 482 Professionalism in Dietetics 1

Capstone course in dietetics covering professional practice guidelines, public policy, healthcare systems and/or policies, reimbursement, and a review of the five subject areas of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and registration exam.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C in BIO 277 or KIN 292, NTR 282, NTR 313, NTR 413, NTR 431, and NTR 450.

Corequisites: NTR 460.

NTR 493 Honors Work 3-6

Prerequisites: Permission of instructor. 3.30 GPA in the major, 12 s.h. in the major

Notes: May be repeated for credit if the topic of study changes.

NTR 500 Supervised Professional Experience 1-4

Supervised professional experience in selected commercial or industrial organizations, public or private agencies in accordance with the major course of study of the student.

NTR 531 Nutrition and Human Metabolism 4

Structure, function, and metabolism of nutrients and related compounds integration of nutrient metabolism at the cellular level with total body function practical application of basic principles of nutrient metabolism.

Prerequisites: Minimum grade of C in BIO 277 or KIN 292, NTR 413, and CHE 103 (or CHE 111). CHE 104 (or CHE 114) CHE 110 (or CHE 112) CHE 205 (or CHE 351 and CHE 352) CHE 206 (or CHE 354) or their equivalents as determined by the instructor.

NTR 550 Nutrition Assessment 3

Assessment of nutritional status of healthy and ill persons before initiation of medical nutrition therapy.

Prerequisites: Grade of C (2.0) or better in BIO 277 or KIN 292. completion of NTR 213, NTR 313, and NTR 413.

NTR 550L Nutrition Assessment Lab 0

NTR 560 Advanced Nutrition 4

Biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrient metabolism and utilization. Nutrient metabolism, flux, and requirements during the lifecycle and during fed/fasted states will be discussed, with emphasis on mechanisms that regulate these processes.

Prerequisites: Grade of C or better in NTR 313, NTR 413, NTR 531, and BIO 277 or KIN 292, or equivalents as determined by the instructor.

NTR 573 Medical Nutrition Therapy 4

Clinical aspects of nutrition. Development and use of therapeutic diets to combat nutritional diseases and physiological disorders.

Prerequisites: Grade of C or better in NTR 313, NTR 413, NTR 531, NTR 550, NTR 560, and BIO 277 or KIN 292.

NTR 573L Medical Nutrition Therapy Lab 0

NTR 600X Experimental Course 1-6

This number reserved for experimental courses. Refer to the Course Schedule for current offerings.

NTR 601 Directed Study in Nutrition 1-6

Prerequisite: Permission of graduate faculty member

Notes: May be repeated for credit. Grade: Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory (S/U).

NTR 602 Supervised Preparation for Professional and Community Engagement 3

Preparation for clinical supervised practice experiences in dietetics helping relationships skills, human resource management, marketing strategies for revenue generating services in dietetics, appropriate professional conduct in patient care.

Prerequisites: Admission into the DI program or NTR 573 and NTR 560.

NTR 606A Practicum in Clinical Dietetics 3-6

For Dietetic Internship students only. Practical experience in the professional areas of dietetics: management, clinical, and community.

Prerequisites: Grade of B or better in NTR 693.

Notes: Required for Dietetic Internship students. Combination of credit not to exceed 9 credit hours.

NTR 606B Practicum in Clinical Dietetics 3-6

For Dietetic Internship students only. Practical experience in the professional areas of dietetics: management, clinical, and community.

Prerequisites: Grade of B or better in NTR 693.

Notes: Required for Dietetic Internship students. Combination of credit not to exceed 9 credit hours.

NTR 606C Practicum in Clinical Dietetics 3-6

For Dietetic Internship students only. Practical experience in the professional areas of dietetics: management, clinical, and community.

Prerequisites: Grade of B or better in NTR 693.

Notes: Required for Dietetic Internship students. Combination of credit not to exceed 9 credit hours.

NTR 607 Nutrition Education 3

Philosophy, principles, methods, and materials involved in nutrition education. Emphasis on development of nutrition education curriculum and programs in school and community.

Prerequisites: NTR 550 or equivalent or permission of instructor.

NTR 609A Seminar in Nutrition 1

Review, analysis and presentation of recent research findings and issues in food and nutrition.

Notes: May be repeated for credit when topic varies. Enrollment for two credits requires presentation of seminar Grade: NTR 609A, 1 hour credit, graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory (S/U) NTR 609B, 2 hours credit, graded by letter grade.

NTR 609B Seminar in Nutrition 2

Review, analysis and presentation of recent research findings and issues in food and nutrition.

Notes: May be repeated for credit when topic varies. Enrollment for two credits requires presentation of seminar Grade: NTR 609A, 1 hour credit, graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory (S/U) NTR 609B, 2 hours credit, graded by letter grade.

NTR 623 Current Trends in Nutrition 3

Emphasis on current trends in nutrition research/education from a molecular, cellular and/or human perspective.

Prerequisites: Senior or graduate level course in nutrition or permission of instructor.

Notes: May be repeated for credit when topic varies.

NTR 624 Supervised Preparation for Culinary Medicine 3

Practical experience to combine a comprehensive knowledge of nutrition and dietetics, culinary medicine, and the art of food and cooking to prepare satisfying and delicious meals that are consistent with real-world budgets, time constraints and better overall physical and mental health.

Corequisites: Must be enrolled in the Dietetic Internship, Post-Baccalaureate Certificate program.

NTR 625 Gene Expression and Protein Metabolism 2

Integration of cell biology and protein metabolism in relation to gene expression and regulation of enzyme activity in mammalian cells. Critical analysis of recent literature.

Prerequisites: Previous course in general nutrition, biochemistry and mammalian physiology and unconditional admission to the graduate program in Nutrition or other life sciences, or permission of instructor.

NTR 626 Energy, Carbohydrate, Lipid Metabolism 2

Analysis of energy intake and metabolism carbohydrate and lipid absorption, transport, and tissue-specific utilization. Clinical applications. Critical analysis of recent literature.

Prerequisites: NTR 625, previous course in general nutrition, biochemistry and mammalian physiology, and unconditional admission to the graduate program in Nutrition or other life sciences. or permission of instructor.

NTR 627 Antioxidants and Bioactive Food Components 2

Metabolism and function of selected bioactive food components, such as flavonoids, stanols, and sterols, anthocyanins, carotenoids, polyphenolics, indole-3-carbinol. Clinical applications. Critical analysis of recent literature.

Prerequisites: NTR 625, previous course in general nutrition, biochemistry, and mammalian physiology, and unconditional admission to the graduate program in Nutrition or other life sciences. or permission of instructor.

NTR 628 Vitamins and Minerals 2

Metabolism functions of selected vitamins. Regulation of selected trace metals emphasizing nutrient-gene interactions. Clinical applications. Critical analysis of recent literature.

Prerequisites: NTR 625, previous course in general nutrition, biochemistry and mammalian physiology, and unconditional admission to the graduate program in Nutrition or other life sciences. or permission of instructor.

NTR 645 Teaching Practicum in Nutrition 3

Provides a supervised, structured learning experience in teaching for graduate students in the Department of Nutrition. Professors provide guidance for graduate students during the experience.

Prerequisites: Admission to the graduate program in nutrition or permission of instructor.

NTR 653 Problems in Food and Nutrition 2-4

Individual student problems related to food and nutrition.

Prerequisites: Permission of instructor.

Notes: May be repeated for credit. Grade: Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory (S/U).

NTR 670 Research Skill Development 2-6

Notes: May be repeated for credit Grade: Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory (S/U).

NTR 673 Nutrition Research Methodology 3

Diverse research techniques used in cellular, small animal, and human experimental studies in nutritional sciences. Orientation to research methodologies, grant proposal writing, ethical use of human (IRB) and animal (IACUC) models, and policy in nutrition.

Prerequisites: NTR 531 or equivalent as determined by the department.

NTR 674 Medical Nutrition Therapy 1 4

Part 1 of 2-semester course sequence. Course focuses on applying Nutrition Care Process to determine weight-inclusive medical nutrition therapy for patients/clients experiencing physiological stress or disease using evidence-based guidelines.

NTR 675 Medical Nutrition Therapy 2 4

Part 2 of a 2-semester course sequence. Course focuses on applying Nutrition Care Process and evidence-based guidelines to treat clients experiencing physiological stress or disease using weight-inclusive medical nutrition therapy.

Prerequisites: NTR 674.

NTR 676 Nutrition and Physical Performance 3

Effects of nutrition on physical performance, alterations in nutrient metabolism from increased activity, interaction of diet and exercise on aging and disease processes, training and competition diets examined.

Prerequisites: Course work in biochemistry and physiology required, 531, 560, or equivalent courses, BIO 277.

NTR 693 Supervised Preparation for Practicum in Clinical Dietetics 3

Development of nutritional therapies for certain disease conditions. Evaluation of the physiological and biochemical bases for such therapies.

Prerequisites: Admission to DI program or NTR 573 and permission of instructor.

NTR 699 Thesis 1-6

Notes: Required of all candidates for the Master of Science degree Credit may be divided over two or more semesters Grade: Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory (S/U).

NTR 701 Directed Study in Nutrition 1-6

Prerequisite: Permission of graduate faculty member

Notes: May be repeated for credit, grading method is Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory (S/U).

NTR 709A Seminar in Nutrition 1

Review, analysis and presentation of recent research findings and issues in food and nutrition.

Notes: May be repeated for credit when topic varies. Enrollment for two credits requires presentation of seminar. NTR 709A, 1 hour credit, graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory (S/U). NTR 709B, 2 hours credit, graded by letter grade.

NTR 709B Seminar in Nutrition 2

Review, analysis and presentation of recent research findings and issues in food and nutrition.

Notes: May be repeated for credit when topic varies. Enrollment for two credits requires presentation of seminar. NTR 709A, 1 hour credit, graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory (S/U). NTR 709B, 2 hours credit, graded by letter grade.

NTR 723 Current Trends in Nutrition 3

Emphasis on current trends in nutrition research/education from a molecular, cellular and/or human perspective.

Prerequisites: Senior or graduate level course in nutrition or permission of instructor.

Notes: May be repeated for credit when topic varies.

NTR 724 Supervised Preparation for Culinary Medicine 3

Practical experience to combine a comprehensive knowledge of nutrition and dietetics, culinary medicine, and the art of food and cooking to prepare satisfying and delicious meals that are consistent with real-world budgets, time constraints and better overall physical and mental health.

Corequisites: Must be enrolled in the Dietetic Internship, Post-Baccalaureate Certificate program.

NTR 725 Gene Expression and Protein Metabolism 2

Integration of cell biology and protein metabolism in relation to gene expression and regulation of enzyme activity in mammalian cells. Critical analysis of recent literature.

Prerequisites: Previous course in general nutrition, biochemistry and mammalian physiology, and unconditional admission to the graduate program in Nutrition or other life sciences or permission of instructor.

NTR 726 Energy, Carbohydrate, Lipid Metabolism 2

Analysis of energy intake and metabolism carbohydrate and lipid absorption, transport, and tissue-specific utilization. Clinical applications. Critical analysis of recent literature.

Prerequisites: NTR 625, previous course in general nutrition, biochemistry and mammalian physiology, and unconditional admission to the graduate program in Nutrition or other life sciences or permission of instructor.

NTR 727 Antioxidants and Bioactive Food Components 2

Metabolism and function of selected bioactive food components, such as flavonoids, stanols, and sterols, anthocyanins, carotenoids, polyphenolics, indole-3-carbinol. Clinical applications. Critical analysis of recent literature.

Prerequisites: NTR 625, previous course in general nutrition, biochemistry, and mammalian physiology, and unconditional admission to the graduate program in Nutrition or other life sciences or permission of instructor.

NTR 728 Vitamins and Minerals 2

Metabolism functions of selected vitamins. Regulation of selected trace metals emphasizing nutrient-gene interactions. Clinical applications. Critical analysis of recent literature.

Prerequisites: NTR 625, previous course in general nutrition, biochemistry and mammalian physiology, and unconditional admission to the graduate program in Nutrition or other life sciences or permission of instructor.

NTR 745 Teaching Practicum in Nutrition 3

Provides a supervised, structured learning experience in teaching for graduate students in the Department of Nutrition. Professors provide guidance for graduate students during the experience.

Prerequisites: Admission to the graduate program in Nutrition or permission of instructor.

NTR 750X Experimental Course 1-6

This number reserved for experimental courses. Refer to the Course Schedule for current offerings.

NTR 753 Problems in Food and Nutrition 2-4

Individual student problems related to food and nutrition.

Prerequisites: Permission of instructor.

Notes: May be repeated for credit, grading method is Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory (S/U).

NTR 767 Nutrition and Physical Performance 3

Effects of nutrition on physical performance, alterations in nutrient metabolism from increased activity, interaction of diet and exercise on aging and disease processes, training and competition diets examined.

Prerequisites: Course work in biochemistry and physiology required, 531, 560, or equivalent courses, BIO 277.

NTR 770 Research Skill Development 2-6

Notes: May be repeated for credit, grading method is Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory (S/U).

NTR 773 Nutrition Research Methodology 3

Diverse research techniques used in cellular, small animal, and human experimental studies in nutritional sciences. Orientation to research methodologies, grant proposal writing, ethical use of human (IRB) and animal (IACUC) models, and policy in nutrition.

Prerequisites: NTR 531 or equivalent as determined by the department.

NTR 774 Medical Nutrition Therapy 1 4

Part 1 of 2-semester course sequence. Course focuses on applying Nutrition Care Process to determine weight-inclusive medical nutrition therapy for patients/clients experiencing physiological stress or disease using evidence-based guidelines.

NTR 775 Medical Nutrition Therapy 2 4

Part 2 of a 2-semester course sequence. Course focuses on applying Nutrition Care Process and evidence-based guidelines to treat clients experiencing physiological stress or disease using weight-inclusive medical nutrition therapy.

Prerequisites: NTR 774.

NTR 776 Nutrition and Physical Performance 3

Effects of nutrition on physical performance, alterations in nutrient metabolism from increased activity, interaction of diet and exercise on aging and disease processes, training and competition diets examined.

Prerequisites: Course work in biochemistry and physiology required, 531, 560, or equivalent courses, BIO 277.

NTR 790 Doctoral Research 1-6

Individual work on problems related to student's primary area(s) of specialization. Empirical research or critical reviews and integrations of literature.

Prerequisites: Approval of graduate faculty member.

Notes: May be repeated for credit. Grade: Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory (S/U).

NTR 799 Dissertation Problem 1-12

Prerequisite: Completion of oral and written comprehensive examinations

Notes: Required of all candidates for the Doctor of Philosophy degree. May be repeated for credit Grade: Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory (S/U).


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Bonde, J. P. & Storgaard, L. How work place conditions, environmental toxicants and lifestyle affect male reproductive function. Int. J. Androl. 25, 262–268 (2002).

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Wong, C. H. & Cheng, C. Y. The blood-testis barrier: its biology, regulation, and physiological role in spermatogenesis. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 71, 263–296 (2005).

Boussouar, F. & Benahmed, M. Lactate and energy metabolism in male germ cells. Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 15, 345–350 (2004).

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Robinson, R. & Fritz, I. Metabolism of glucose by Sertoli cells in culture. Biol. Reprod. 24, 1032–1041 (1981).

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O NE -C ARBON M ETABOLISM IN H IGHER P LANTS

AbstractThe metabolism of one-carbon (C1) units is essential to plants, and plant C1 metabolism has novel features not found in other organisms—plus some enigmas. Despite its centrality, uniqueness, and mystery, plant C1 biochemistry has historically been quite poorly explored, in part because its enzymes and intermediates tend to be labile and low in abundance. Fortunately, the integration of molecular and genetic approaches with biochemical ones is now driving rapid advances in knowledge of plant C1 enzymes and genes. An overview of these advances is presented. There has also been progress in measuring C1 metabolite fluxes and pool sizes, although this remains challenging and there are relatively few data. In the future, combining reverse genetics with flux and pool size determinations should lead to quantitative understanding of how plant C1 pathways function. This is a prerequisite for their rational engineering.


IV. Conclusion

The parallel advances in our ability to access information on the steady-state levels of the various molecules of the cell and the development of network biology combine to make it an exciting time to study the circuits that underpin metabolism. Although it is clear that additional experimental data sets are required if we are to undertake a comprehensive systems analysis of the plant metabolic network, particularly given how extensive compartmentation (and for that matter microcompartmentation) is in plant cells, the (re-)emergence of network thinking in metabolism clearly has great potential. Because metabolism is coordinated at many levels, the analysis of all regulatory levels is a prerequiste for comprehensive network analysis. To date in plants, this has only been attempted for a handful of metabolic pathways or subnetworks. In the short term, it seems likely that the extension of such modular approaches will allow the identification of common regulatory motifs and as such enhance our understanding of metabolic regulation. Given that our ability to rationally manipulate plant metabolism remains relatively rudimentary, the need to understand metabolic network regulation in plants is likely to be of increasing importance for metabolic engineering. The fact remains, however, that network analysis is inherently difficult and it is likely that many hurdles will need to be overcome before the study of metabolic networks reveals the true complexity of metabolic regulation within plant cells.


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